A junk is a type of Chinese sailing ship. They were developed during the Song dynasty based on Austronesian ship designs which have been trading with the Eastern Han dynasty since the 2nd century AD, they continued to evolve in the dynasties, were predominantly used by Chinese traders throughout Southeast Asia. They were found, in lesser numbers are still found, throughout Southeast Asia and India, but in China. Found more broadly today is a growing number of modern recreational junk-rigged sailboats. Chinese junks referred to many types of coastal or river ships, they were cargo ships, pleasure boats, or houseboats. They vary in size and there are significant regional variations in the type of rig, however they all employ battened sails; the term "junk" was used in the colonial period to refer to any large to medium-sized ships of the Austronesian cultures in Island Southeast Asia, with or without the junk rig. Examples include the Indonesian and Malaysian jong, the Philippine lanong, the Maluku kora kora.
Views diverge on whether the origin of the word is from a dialect of Chinese, or from a Javanese word. The term may stem from the Chinese chuán based on and pronounced as in the Minnan variant of Chinese, or zhōu, the old word for a sailing vessel; the modern Standard Chinese word for an ocean-going wooden cargo vessel is cáo. Pierre-Yves Manguin and Zoetmulder, amongst others, points to an Old Javanese origin, in the form of "jong"; the word can be traced from an old Javanese inscription in the 9th century. It entered Malay and Chinese language by 15th century, when a Chinese word list identify it as Malay word for ship; the Malay Maritime Code, first drawn up in the late 15th century, uses jong as the word for freight ships. European writings from 1345 through 1601 use a variety of related terms, including jonque, joanga or juanga and jonk; these terms were applied to all large ships in Southeast Asia, not only to Chinese ships. The origin of the word "junk" in English language, can be traced to Potuguese word junco, rendered from Arabic word j-n-k.
This word comes from the fact that Arabic script cannot represent the digraph "ng". The word used to denote both Javanese/Malay ship and Chinese ship though the two were markedly different vessels. After the disappearance of jong in the 17th century, the meaning of "junk", which until was used as a transcription of the word "jong" in Malay and Javanese, changed its meaning to Chinese ship only; the historian Herbert Warington Smyth considered the junk as one of the most efficient ship designs, stating that "As an engine for carrying man and his commerce upon the high and stormy seas as well as on the vast inland waterways, it is doubtful if any class of vessel… is more suited or better adapted to its purpose than the Chinese or Indian junk, it is certain that for flatness of sail and handiness, the Chinese rig is unsurpassed." The sail of Chinese junks is an adoption of Malay junk sail, which used vegetal matting attached to bamboo battens, a practice originated from South East Asia. The full-length battens keep the sail flatter than ideal in all wind conditions.
Their ability to sail close to the wind is poorer than other fore-and-aft rigs. Classic junks were built of softwoods with the outside shape built first. Multiple internal compartment/bulkheads accessed by separate hatches and ladders, reminiscent of the interior structure of bamboo, were built in. Traditionally, the hull has a horseshoe-shaped stern supporting a high poop deck; the bottom is flat in a river junk with no keel, so that the boat relies on a daggerboard, leeboard or large rudder to prevent the boat from slipping sideways in the water. Ocean-going junks have a curved hull in section with a large amount of tumblehome in the topsides; the planking is edge nailed on a diagonal. Iron nails or spikes have been recovered from a Canton dig dated to circa 221 BC. For caulking the Chinese used a mix of ground lime with Tung oil together with chopped hemp from old fishing nets which set hard in 18 hours, but usefully remained flexible. Junks have narrow waterlines which accounts for their potential speed in moderate conditions, although such voyage data as we have indicates that average speeds on voyage for junks were little different from average voyage speeds of all traditional sail, i.e. around 4–6 knots.
The largest junks, the treasure ships commanded by Ming dynasty Admiral Zheng He, were built for world exploration in the 15th century, according to some interpretations may have been over 120 metres in length, or larger. This conjecture was based on the size of a rudder post, found and misinterpreted, using formulae applicable to modern engine powered ships. More careful analysis shows that the rudder post, found is smaller than the rudder post shown for a 70' long Pechili Trader in Worcester's "Junks and Sampans of the Yangtze". Another characteristic of junks, interior compartments or bulkheads, strengthened the ship and slowed flooding in case of holing. Ships built in this manner were written of in Zhu Yu's book Pingzhou Table Talks, published by 1119 during the Song dynasty. Again, this type of construction for Chinese ship hulls was attested to by the Moroccan Muslim Berber traveler Ibn Battuta, who described it in great detail. Although some historians have questioned whether the compartments were wa
The Shelby Tigers was a professional American football team, based in Shelby, from 1910 until 1911. The team played in the Ohio League, the direct predecessor to the modern National Football League; the team was established and managed by Frank Schiffer, a former executive of the Shelby Athletic Club when the team first started paying players, including the first African-American professional football player, Charles Follis. The coach and quarterback of the 1910 Tigers team was Homer Davidson, a star player for the cross-town, Shelby Blues. Meanwhile Bullet Riley, who caught the first legal forward pass from Peggy Parratt while playing for the Massillon Tigers in 1906, signed with the team in 1910; the Tigers marched to an undefeated season in 1910. The team signed a contract to play the Akron Indians on Thanksgiving Day; however Akron needed to play the Shelby Blues again after losing to the team the week before. The rematch was needed to decide the championship of the Ohio League. Indians were forfeited their $100 guarantee.
The Blues would claim the title. The Blue and Tigers both laid claim to the 1910 Ohio League title; the Blues had those two big victories over the Akron Indians. Meanwhile the Tigers were unbeaten and unscored upon; the Blues played a harder schedule. Frank Schiffer challenged the Blues to winner-take-all game for the title and suggested that the entire gate and $500 go to the winner; however having a championship game between the Tigers and Blues was impossible since too many players had seen action for both teams in 1910. Any game between the Blues and Tigers would force several players to choose sides, while the outcome of the game would depend on how their loyalties divvied up, it was determined that since both teams were from Shelby, they should share the championship. The players for the Blues and Tigers were so intertwined that it was hard to determine, a Tiger and, a Blues player. Both teams combined for a 13-0-1 record. In 1911, the Shelby Blues and Shelby Tigers merged. A second "Shelby Tigers" team began play that season and continued as a semi-professional team into 1912
Patrick Sean Wey is an American former professional ice hockey defenseman. Before retiring in 2015 he played with the Washington Capitals of the National Hockey League. Wey was selected by the Capitals in the 4th round of the 2009 NHL Entry Draft. Prior to turning professional, Wey played four seasons of NCAA Division I hockey with the Boston College Eagles men's ice hockey team, helping Boston College to win the NCAA national championship in both 2010 and 2012. On April 5, 2013, the Washington Capitals signed Wey to a two-year, entry-level contract, he began the 2013–14 season in the ECHL with the Reading Royals where he scored three points in eight games. On November 14, 2013. Wey made his AHL debut with the Hershey Bears, scoring his first AHL goal on November 24, 2013. On December 5, 2013, the Washington Capitals recalled Wey from Hershey, replacing defenseman Tyson Strachan on the NHL roster. On December 10, 2013, after appearing in one game with the Capitals, Wey was reassigned to the Hershey Bears.
On June 29, 2015, Wey announced he was retiring from professional hockey to pursue educational interests. He stated that the reason for his early retirement are multiple concussions that he suffered within the span of several months, one while playing for the Washington Capitals on March 30, 2014, the second one while playing for the Hershey Bears on October 24, 2014. Biographical information and career statistics from NHL.com, or Eliteprospects.com, or Hockey-Reference.com, or The Internet Hockey Database