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Jupiter-C

The Jupiter-C was an American research and development vehicle developed from the Jupiter-A. Jupiter-C was used for three sub-orbital spaceflights in 1956 and 1957 to test re-entry nosecones that were to be deployed on the more advanced PGM-19 Jupiter mobile missile. A member of the Redstone rocket family, Jupiter-C was designed by the U. S. Army Ballistic Missile Agency, under the direction of Wernher von Braun. Three Jupiter-C flights were made followed by three satellite launches. All were launched from Florida; each vehicle consisted of a modified Redstone ballistic missile with two solid-propellant upper stages. The tanks of the Redstone were lengthened by 8 ft to provide additional propellant; the instrument compartment was smaller and lighter than the Redstone's. The second and third stages were clustered in a "tub" atop the vehicle; the second stage was an outer ring of eleven scaled-down Sergeant rocket engines. These were surrounded by a cylindrical outer shell; the webbed base plate of the shell rested on a ball bearing shaft mounted on the first-stage instrument section.

Two electric motors spun in the tub at a rate varying from 450 to 750 rpm to compensate for thrust imbalance when the clustered motors fired. The rate of spin was varied by a programmer so that it did not couple with the changing resonance frequency of the first stage during flight; the upper-stage tub was visibly spun-up before launch. During first-stage flight, the vehicle was guided by a gyro-controlled autopilot controlling both air-vanes and jet vanes on the first stage by means of servos. Following a vertical launch from a simple steel table, the vehicle was programmed so that it was traveling at an angle of 40 degrees from the horizontal at burnout of the first stage, which occurred 157 seconds after launch. At first-stage burnout, explosive bolts fired and springs separated the instrument section from the first-stage tankage; the instrument section and the spinning tub were tipped to a horizontal position by means of four air jets located at the base of the instrument section. When the apex of the vertical flight occurred after a coasting flight of about 247 seconds, a radio signal from the ground ignited the eleven-rocket cluster of the second stage, separating the tub from the instrument section.

The third stage fired to raise the apogee. Through this system, designed by Wernher von Braun in 1956 for his proposed Project Orbiter, the Jupiter-C obviated the need for a guidance system in the upper stages; the Juno I was a satellite launch vehicle based on the Jupiter-C, but with the addition of a fourth stage, atop the "tub" of the third stage. The Juno name derived from Von Braun wishing to make the satellite launch appear as peaceable as the Vanguard rocket, not a weapon, but was developed from a weather study rocket, the Viking. Since the Juno I was the same height as the Jupiter-C, with the added fourth stage being hidden inside the shell, this vehicle which launched the first orbital satellite of the United States is incorrectly referred to as a Jupiter-C; the Jupiter-C was part of the IRBM project, the sequence of manufacture of the rockets was considered a military secret. So the designation painted on the sides of the rocket was not a serial number in clear text, but employed a simple transformation cypher that the staff would be sure not to forget.

The key was taken from the name of the design and test base: Huntsville, giving HUNTSVILE, with duplicated letters dropped: H was used for 1, U for 2... E for 9 and X for 0. For example, the Jupiter-C modified to launch Explorer 1 had "UE" painted on the side, indicating it was S/N 29. Weight as configured for Explorer 1 launch, loaded/empty Overall, takeoff: 64,000 lb /10,230 lb Stage 1 62,700 lb /9,600 lb Stage 2 1,020 lb /490 lb Stage 3 280 lb /140 lb Propulsion Stage 1: Rocketdyne A-7 engine Thrust, 83,000 lbf burning time, 155 s specific impulse, 235 s propellants, liquid oxygen, as oxidizer, "Hydyne", as fuel propellant feed, turbopump type turbopump drive, 90% hydrogen peroxide decomposed by catalyst bed to produce steam Stage 2: Eleven JPL scaled-down Sergeant rockets Thrust, 16,500 lbf burning time, 6.5 s specific impulse, 220 s propellant, polysulfide-aluminum and ammonium perchlorate Stage 3: Three JPL scaled-down Sergeant rockets Thrust, 4,500 lbf burning time, 6.5 s specific impulse, 235 s propellant, same as for Stage 2 September 20, 1956: lifted an 86.5-lb payload to an altitude of 680 mi, a speed of 16,000 mph, a range of 3,300 mi from Cape Canaveral, Florida May 15, 1957: lifted a 300 lb scale Jupiter ablative nose cone to an altitude of 350 mi and a range of 710 mi August 8, 1957: lifted a 1/3-scale Jupiter nose cone to an altitude of 285 mi and a range of 1,330 mi.

Ringo Starr discography

This article presents the discography of Ringo Starr, former drummer and occasional singer and songwriter of British rock band the Beatles. When the band broke up in the spring of 1970, Ringo Starr embarked on a solo career. Along with the other Beatles, he spent the first half of the seventies on Apple Records, the label created by the band for themselves. Starr moved to Atlantic Records after his contract with EMI expired and his career diminished in commercial impact though he continued to record and tour with his All-Starr Band in 1989 and continues to do so today. VH1 Storytellers - 1998 Most Famous Hits - 2003 Tour 2003 - 2003 Live at the Greek Theatre 2008 - 2010 Ringo at the Ryman - 2013 The Beatles discography List of songs recorded by Ringo Starr Footnotes Citations

John Radcliffe (1738–1783)

John Radcliffe was a British politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1768 to 1783. Radcliffe was the third son of John Radcliffe, a merchant trading with Turkey and his wife Anne Alcock, daughter of Lawrence Alcock of Trotton Place, Sussex, he was educated at Eton College from 1754 to 1755. He married Lady Frances Howard, daughter of Henry Howard, 4th Earl of Carlisle on 14 April1768; when they became engaged, George Selwyn wrote about Radcliffe to Lord Carlisle on 12 January 1768 “He is well spoke of, et le nom est assez beau”. Carlisle wrote to Selwyn, from Rome on 18 June 1768 “Everybody gives Mr. R. such a good character.” The Radcliffes were an old gentry family who were seated at Hitchin Priory from the sixteenth century. Radcliffe inherited Hitchin Priory from his Uncle Arthur Radcliffe in 1769, he rebuilt the house in 1770-71 of plastered brick, standing about the four sides of a courtyard, which represents the old, cloister garth. Radcliffe was put forward at the 1768 general election for St Albans by Lord Grimston who on 21 September 1767 asked the Duke of Newcastle to give “an intimation... to Mr. West in favour of Mr. Radcliffe my candidate”.

Lord Spencer considered running two candidates for the borough but in the event Radcliffe was returned as Member of Parliament unopposed. His elections in 1774 and 1780 were uncontested. During his first 11 years his attendance was irregular and before 8 March 1779 his name appeared in only eight out of 18 division lists.. However his name appears in 12 out of 13 division lists during the period which led to the fall of Lord North’s Administration on 15 March 1782. All known votes by Radcliffe were given on the Opposition side but no speech by him is reported Radcliffe died on 21 December 1783, aged 45 without issue. Hitchin Priory passed to his sister Penelope who had married Sir Charles Farnaby, 3rd Baronet on 12 August 1762. Farnaby adopted the name Radcliffe

Potomac School (McLean, Virginia)

The Potomac School is an independent K–12 preparatory school in McLean, United States, located on one 90-acre campus, three miles from Washington, D. C. Founded in 1904, the school emphasizes academic and artistic excellence together with character development and service; the Potomac School has four divisions: Lower School, Middle School, Intermediate School and Upper School. Founded in 1904 at Dupont Circle in Washington, D. C. the Potomac School was located for many years on California St, N. W. Since 1951, it has been situated on a campus in Virginia. In October 2004, the school celebrated its centennial; the newly expanded and renovated Upper School was completed in September 2006. This was part of Potomac's Master Plan. Potomac's new Lower School was completed in August 2009; the Potomac School tuition varies, depending in. Tuition for the 2016-2017 school year is as follows: Grades K-3: $33,450 Grades 4-6: $35,925 Grades 7-8: $38,350 Grades 9-12: $38,550In 2011, a former Potomac student accused a former Intermediate School teacher and administrator of abusing her when she had been a student in the late 1960s.

The teacher was arrested by Fairfax County police in November 2012. He was convicted in October 2013 of molesting five girls, was sentenced to 43 years in prison; the Potomac School initiated an independent investigation into the matter, completed in June 2014. The investigation determined that evidence existed to suggest that the teacher had molested as many as 26 girls, uncovered allegations that three other teachers had engaged in inappropriate sexual encounters with students; the report further determined that school officials were aware of the abuse and failed to notify the authorities, nor did they inform the teacher's future employers of his history after he was terminated in 1994 for performance failings. The school announced that it would turn its investigative results over to Fairfax County police and would institute comprehensive training in abuse prevention, universal background checks on all employees and volunteers, standardized practices for handling abuse complaints. Highlights of SAT scores, National Merit Awards and AP scores: Median SAT scores 2000–2200, average 1480 Years 2003–2012, an average of 40% of juniors recognized as semifinalists or commended scholars in the National Merit Scholarship Program Years 2003–2012, 90% of total AP tests taken received scores of 4 and 5 Lower School: 3 sections per grade, dress code Middle School: 4 sections per grade, uniform Intermediate School: average class size 16 students, uniform Upper School: average class size 14 students, dress code The 90-acre campus includes nature trails, two ponds, multiple outdoor classrooms, athletic fields, tennis courts, two gyms, a wrestling room, four squash courts, eight tennis courts, a fitness center, two playgrounds, the Engelhard Performing Arts Center and the Langstaff Auditorium, a black box theater, eight music rooms, five art studios, a photography lab, a lecture hall, three libraries, eleven science labs, six dedicated computer labs.

Potomac has an extensive school bus system. In addition to the standard morning and afternoon buses, the school operates "late bus" routes and a local shuttle system, designed to reduce traffic through the neighborhood and support the school's environmental initiatives. Students are required to participate in visual arts from K through 8. Upon reaching high school, students have the choice of several disciplines, including drawing, photography and sculpture. In Lower School, students participate in class performances and productions for weekly assemblies, each class in the Middle School performs a play. In Grades 7–12, theatrical and musical productions are anticipated events in Potomac's yearly schedule. 7th and 8th graders have the possibility of performing in the winter musical. Upper School students can participate in any of the three annual productions - the fall and spring plays, the winter musical. General music classes are a part of the K-6 schedule; the third- and sixth-grade choruses sing at major assemblies such as May Day.

Intermediate School students participate in band, handbells or strings while going off campus for clinics and concerts. Many Upper School musicians remain with their chosen ensemble or audition for Chamber Players, Jazz Band or Madrigal Singers; the band participates in competitions. String ensemble members play for an annual solo and ensemble festival and perform in outside auditioned youth orchestras; the handbell ensemble massed pieces in an independent school handbell festival. And the Madrigal Singers perform annually at Washington National Cathedral and undertake yearly performing tours in the United States and Europe. Beyond the music curriculum, Upper School students may audition for one of six student-formed and student-led a cappella groups. Upper School students additionally have the option of enrolling in an arts-intensive track. Potomac fields 63 teams in 21 sports beginning in 7th grade. Between 1990 and 2013, the Panthers won 53 champion titles in the Mid-Atlantic Conference and 36 champion titles in the Independent School League, as well as 7 boys squash regional championships, 3 girls squash championships and 9 state championships.

More than 140 Potomac

2009 Mediterranean Games medal table

The 2009 Mediterranean Games known as the XVI Mediterranean Games, was a multi-sport event held in Pescara, from 26 June to 5 July 2009. A record total of 3,368 athletes—2,183 men and 1,185 women—representing 23 National Olympic Committees participated in the Games; the number of competing NOCs was the highest in Mediterranean Games history, alongside Tunis 2001. Athletes from every participating NOC, except Lebanon, won medals. Among the medalling NOCs, 18 won at least one gold medal. Tunisian swimmer Oussama Mellouli won five gold medals, making him the most successful athlete of the Pescara 2009 Games. French gymnast Youna Dufournet won four golds and one silver, becoming the most decorated female athlete at these Games. In the 400 metres freestyle event, Athens Olympics silver medallist Federica Pellegrini of Italy won gold and broke the world record, she won a second gold medal as part of the relay team in the 4×100 metres freestyle event. Spanish swimmer Aschwin Wildeboer Faber set a new world record in the 100 metres backstroke and won four gold medals.

Maltese shooter William Chetcuti won a silver in the men's double trap. Yann Siccardi won the only medal for Monaco at the 2009 Mediterranean Games, a silver in the men's 60 kg event of judo. A total of 782 medals were awarded. Athletics, swimming and wrestling accounted for half of the total medals awarded. Five NOCs—Greece, Morocco and San Marino—improved their position in the medal table compared to the 2005 Mediterranean Games; the host nation, topped the medal table for a record eleventh time in the history of the Games, having collected 64 gold medals. The Italian delegation obtained the most medals in athletics, boxing, fencing, road cycling, shooting and volleyball, tied for the most in football, rhythmic gymnastics and water polo. France led the silver medal count with 53, with 48 golds, 39 bronzes and a total of 140 medals, finished second on the medal table. Spanish athletes claimed 83 medals in total; the ranking in this table is consistent with Comité international des Jeux méditerranéens convention in its published medal tables.

By default, the table is ordered by the number of gold medals. The number of silver medals is taken into consideration next, followed by the number of bronze medals. If nations are still tied, equal ranking is given; the total number of bronze medals is greater than the total number of gold or silver medals because two bronze medals were awarded per event in four sports: boxing, judo and wrestling. In the women's 50 m freestyle event of swimming, a tie for the second position between two swimmers from Italy meant that two silver medals were awarded. Key * Host nation Official website of the 2009 Mediterranean Games

Tunnel broker

In the context of computer networking, a tunnel broker is a service which provides a network tunnel. These tunnels can provide encapsulated connectivity over existing infrastructure to another infrastructure. There are a variety of tunnel brokers, including IPv4 tunnel brokers, though most the term is used to refer to an IPv6 tunnel broker as defined in RFC:3053. IPv6 tunnel brokers provide IPv6 to sites or end users over IPv4. In general, IPv6 tunnel brokers offer so called'protocol 41' or proto-41 tunnels; these are tunnels where IPv6 is tunneled directly inside IPv4 packets by having the protocol field set to'41' in the IPv4 packet. In the case of IPv4 tunnel brokers IPv4 tunnels are provided to users by encapsulating IPv4 inside IPv6 as defined in RFC:2473. Configuration of IPv6 tunnels is done using the Tunnel Setup Protocol, or using Tunnel Information Control protocol. A client capable of this is AICCU. In addition to IPv6 tunnels TSP can be used to set up IPv4 tunnels. Proto-41 tunnels may not operate well situated behind NATs.

One way around this is to configure the actual endpoint of the tunnel to be the DMZ on the NAT-utilizing equipment. Another method is to either use AYIYA or TSP, both of which send IPv6 inside UDP packets, able to cross most NAT setups and firewalls. A problem that still might occur is that of the timing-out of the state in the NAT machine; as a NAT remembers that a packet went outside to the Internet it allows another packet to come back in from the Internet, related to the initial proto-41 packet. When this state expires, no other packets from the Internet will be accepted; this therefore breaks the connectivity of the tunnel until the user's host again sends out a packet to the tunnel broker. When the endpoint isn't a static IP address, the user, or a program, has to instruct the tunnel broker to update the endpoint address; this can be done using the tunnel broker's web site or using an automated protocol like TSP or Heartbeat, as used by AICCU. In the case of a tunnel broker using TSP, the client automatically restarting the tunnel will cause the endpoint address and port to be updated.

The first implementation of an IPv6 Tunnel Broker was at the Italian CSELT S.p. A. by Ivano Guardini, the author of RFC3053There are a variety of tunnel brokers that provide their own custom implementations based on different goals. Listed here are the common implementations as used by the listed IPv6 tunnel brokers. GogoSERVER is used by the Freenet6 service, the second IPv6 tunnel broker service, going into production in 1999, it was started as a project of Viagenie and Hexago was spun off as a commercial company selling Gateway6, which powered Freenet6, as their flagship product. In June 2009, Hexago became gogo6 through a management buyout and the Freenet6 service became part of gogoNET, a social network for IPv6 professionals. On 23 March 2016 all services of Freenet6/Gogo6 were halted. SixXS's sixxsd is, it is custom built software for the purpose of tunneling at high performance with low latency. Development of sixxsd has evolved into the current v4 version of the software; the software is made available for ISPs who run SixXS PoPs.

In 2000, SixXS used shell bash scripts. Due to scalability issues and other problems sixxsd was developed. After 17 years, the SixXS tunnel sunset on 2017-06-06. CITC Tunnel Broker, run by the Saudi Arabia IPv6 Task Force, uses their own implementation of the TSP RFC named'ddtb'. List of IPv6 tunnel brokers 6in4