Provo is the third-largest city in Utah, United States. It is 43 miles south of Salt Lake City along the Wasatch Front. Provo is the largest county seat of Utah County. Provo lies between the cities of Orem to Springville to the south. With a population at the 2010 census of 115,264, Provo is the principal city in the Provo-Orem metropolitan area, which had a population of 526,810 at the 2010 census, it is Utah's second-largest metropolitan area after Salt Lake City. Provo is the home of Brigham Young University, a private higher education institution operated by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Provo has the LDS Church's largest Missionary Training Center; the city is a focus area for technology development in Utah, with several billion-dollar startups. The city's Peaks Ice Arena was a venue for the Salt Lake City Winter Olympics in 2002. Sundance Resort is 13 miles northeast, at Provo Canyon. In 2015, Forbes cited Provo among the "Best Small And Medium-Size Cities For Jobs," and the Bureau of Labor Statistics found that Utah County had the year's highest job growth.
In 2013, Forbes ranked Provo the No. 2 city on its list of Best Places for Careers. Provo was ranked first for first in health/well-being; the Provo area was called Timpanogas, a Numic word meaning "rock river". The area was inhabited by the Timpanogos, it was the largest and most settled area in modern-day Utah. The ample food from the Provo River made the Timpanogos a peaceful people; the area served as the traditional meeting place for the Ute and Shoshone tribes and as a spot to worship their creator. Father Silvestre Velez de Escalante, a Spanish Franciscan missionary-explorer, is considered the first European explorer to have visited the area, in 1776, he was guided by two Timpanogos Utes, whom he called Joaquin. Escalante chronicled this first European exploration across the Great Basin Desert; the Europeans did not build a permanent settlement, but traded with the Timpanogos whom they called Lagunas or Come Pescado. In 1847, the Mormon Pioneers arrived in the Salt Lake Valley, just north of Timpanogos Mountain.
At first, they were friendly with the Mormons. But, as relations deteriorated with the Shoshoni and Utes because of disputes over land and cattle, tensions rose; because of the reported stolen goods of settlers by the Utes, Brigham Young gave a small militia orders "to take such measures as would put a final end to their depredations in future." This ended in modern-day Pleasant Grove, Utah. The Mormons continued pushing into Timpanog lands. In 1849, 33 Mormon families from Salt Lake City established Fort Utah. In 1850, Brigham Young sent an army from Salt Lake to drive out the Timpanogos in what is called the Provo War; the ruthlessness of the Mormon invaders angered the Timpanog. Fort Utah was renamed Provo in 1850 for Étienne Provost, an early French-Canadian trapper who arrived in the region in 1825. 1850 saw the construction of the first school house in Provo, built within Utah Fort. As more Latter-day Saints moved in Provo grew as a city, it soon came to be nicknamed The Garden City with the large number of fruit orchards and gardens there.1872 saw the railroad reach Provo.
It was this year that the Provo Woolen Mills opened. They were the first large factory in Provo and employed about 150 people mainly skilled textile laborers who had immigrated from Britain. Provo lies in the Utah Valley at an elevation of 4,549 feet. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 44.2 square miles, of which 41.7 square miles is land and 2.5 square miles, or 5.66%, is water. The Wasatch Range contains many peaks within Utah County along the east side of the Wasatch Front. One of these peaks, known as Y Mountain, towers over the city. There is a large hillside letter Y made of whitewashed concrete halfway up the steep mountain, built in the early part of the 20th century to commemorate Brigham Young University. Wild deer still roam the mountains; the geography allows for hiking, skiing and other outdoor activities. Provo has a humid continental climate bordering on a humid subtropical climate or hot-summer Mediterranean climate, with four distinct seasons.
Overall, annual rainfall at the location of Brigham Young University is around 19.75 inches or 500 millimetres. The wettest calendar year in Provo has been 1983 with 37.54 inches and the driest 2002 with 10.65 inches. Winters are cold with substantial snowfall averaging 57.2 inches or 1.45 metres and a record monthly total of 66.0 inches in January 1918, during which the record snow cover of 34 inches or 0.86 metres was record on the 17th. Seasonal snowfall has ranged from 127.5 inches in 1983–84 to a mere 10.1 inches in 2014–15. Cold weather may occur when cold air from over the Continental Divide invades the region: although only four mornings fall to or below 0 °F or −17.8 °C during an average winter and this temperature was not reached at all between 1999 and 2006, during the cold January 1917, seventeen mornings fell this cold. By contrast, in several recent winters like 1994–95, 1995–96, 19
Mudstone, a type of mudrock, is a fine-grained sedimentary rock whose original constituents were clays or muds. Grain size is up to 0.063 millimetres with individual grains too small to be distinguished without a microscope. With increased pressure over time, the platy clay minerals may become aligned, with the appearance of fissility or parallel layering; this finely bedded material that splits into thin layers is called shale, as distinct from mudstone. The lack of fissility or layering in mudstone may be due to either original texture or the disruption of layering by burrowing organisms in the sediment prior to lithification. Mud rocks such as mudstone and shale account for some 65% of all sedimentary rocks. Mudstone looks like hardened clay and, depending upon the circumstances under which it was formed, it may show cracks or fissures, like a sun-baked clay deposit. Mudstone can be separated into these categories: Siltstone — more than half of the composition is silt-sized particles. Claystone — more than half of the composition is clay-sized particles.
Mudstone — hardened mud. Mudstone can include: Shale -- exhibits fissility. Argillite — has undergone low-grade metamorphism. In the Dunham classification system of limestones, a mudstone is defined as a mud-supported carbonate rock that contains less than 10% grains. Most this definition has been clarified as a matrix-supported carbonate-dominated rock composed of more than 90% carbonate mud component. A recent study by Lokier and Al Junaibi has highlighted that the most common problems encountered when describing a mudstone is to incorrectly estimate the volume of'grains' in the sample - in consequence, misidentifying mudstone as wackestone and vice versa; the original Dunham classification defined the matrix as clay and fine-silt size sediment <20 μm in diameter. This definition was redefined by Embry & Klovan to a grain size of less than or equal to 30 μm. Wright proposed a further increase to the upper limit for the matrix size in order to bring it into line with the upper limit for silt.
On December 13, 2016, NASA reported further evidence supporting habitability on the planet Mars as the Curiosity rover climbed higher, studying younger layers, on Mount Sharp. Reported, the soluble element boron was detected for the first time on Mars. In June 2018, NASA reported that Curiosity had detected kerogen and other complex organic compounds from mudstone rocks 3.5 billion years old. Mudstone on planet Mars Aeolis quadrangle Composition of Mars Timeline of Mars Science Laboratory Tonstein – A hard, compact sedimentary rock, composed of kaolinite or, less other clay minerals
Brigham Young University
Brigham Young University is a private, non-profit research university in Provo, United States owned by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and run under the auspices of its Church Educational System. 99 percent of the students are members of the LDS Church and one-third of its U. S. students are from Utah. The university's primary focus is on undergraduate education, but it has 68 master's and 25 doctoral degree programs. Students attending BYU agree to follow an honor code, which mandates behavior in line with LDS teachings such as academic honesty, adherence to dress and grooming standards, abstinence from extramarital sex and from the consumption of drugs and alcohol; the university curriculum includes religious education, with required courses in, the Bible, LDS scripture and history, the university sponsors weekly devotional assemblies with most speakers addressing religious topics. Many students either delay enrollment or take a hiatus from their studies to serve as LDS missionaries.
An education at BYU is less expensive than at similar private universities, since "a significant portion" of the cost of operating the university is subsidized by the church's tithing funds. BYU offers a variety of academic programs, including liberal arts, agriculture, management and mathematical sciences and law; the university is broadly organized into 11 colleges or schools at its main Provo campus, with certain colleges and divisions defining their own admission standards. The university administers two satellite campuses, one in Jerusalem and one in Salt Lake City, while its parent organization, the Church Educational System, sponsors sister schools in Hawaii and Idaho. BYU's athletic teams compete in Division I of the NCAA and are collectively known as the BYU Cougars, their college football team is an NCAA Division I Independent, while their other sports teams compete in either the West Coast Conference or Mountain Pacific Sports Federation. BYU's sports teams have won a total of fourteen national championships.
Brigham Young University's origin can be traced back to 1862 when a man named Warren Dusenberry started a Provo school in Cluff Hall, a prominent adobe building in the northeast corner of 200 East and 200 North. After some financial difficulties the school was recreated in the Kinsey and Lewis buildings on Center street in Provo, after gaining some recognition for its quality, was adopted to become the Timpanogos branch of the University of Deseret; when financial difficulty forced another closure, on October 16, 1875, Brigham Young president of the LDS Church, deeded the property to trustees to create Brigham Young Academy after earlier hinting a school would be built in Draper, Utah, in 1867. Hence, October 16, 1875, is held as BYU's founding date. Brigham Young had been envisioning for several years the concept of a church university. Said Young about his vision: "I hope to see an Academy established in Provo... at which the children of the Latter-day Saints can receive a good education unmixed with the pernicious atheistic influences that are found in so many of the higher schools of the country."
Brigham Young Academy classes commenced on January 3, 1876. Warren Dusenberry served as interim principal for several months until April 1876 when Brigham Young's choice for principal arrived—a German immigrant named Karl Maeser. Under Maeser's direction, the school educated many luminaries including future U. S. Supreme Court Justice George Sutherland and future U. S. Senator Reed Smoot; the school, did not become a university until the end of Benjamin Cluff's term at the helm of the institution. At that time, the school was still supported by members of the community and was not absorbed and sponsored by the LDS Church until July 18, 1896. A series of odd managerial decisions by Cluff led to his demotion; the suggestion received a large amount of opposition, with many members of the Board saying the school wasn't large enough to be a university, but the decision passed. One opponent to the decision, Anthon H. Lund said, "I hope their head will grow big enough for their hat."In 1903 Brigham Young Academy was dissolved, was replaced by two institutions: Brigham Young High School, Brigham Young University.
The BY High School class of 1907 was responsible for the famous giant "Y", to this day embedded on a mountain near campus. The Board elected George H. Brimhall as the new President of BYU, he had not received a high school education. He was an excellent orator and organizer. Under his tenure in 1904 the new Brigham Young University bought 17 acres of land from Provo called "Temple Hill". After some controversy among locals over BYU's purchase of this property, construction began in 1909 on the first building on the current campus, the Karl G. Maeser Memorial. Brimhall presided over the University during a brief crisis involving the theory of evolution; the religious nature of the school seemed at the time to collide with this scientific theory. Joseph F. Smith, LDS Church president, settled the question for a time by asking that evolution not be taught at the school. A few have described the school at this time as nothing more than a "religious seminary". However, many of its graduates at this time would go on to great success and become well renowned in their fields.
Franklin S. Harris was appointed the university's president in 1921, he was the first BYU president to have a doctoral degree. Harris made several
National Natural Landmark
The National Natural Landmarks Program recognizes and encourages the conservation of outstanding examples of the natural history of the United States. It is the only national natural areas program that identifies and recognizes the best examples of biological and geological features in both public and private ownership; the program was established on May 18, 1962, by United States Secretary of the Interior Stewart Udall. The program aims to encourage and support voluntary preservation of sites that illustrate the geological and ecological history of the United States, it hopes to strengthen the public's appreciation of the country's natural heritage. As of November 2016, 599 sites have been added to the National Registry of National Landmarks; the registry includes nationally significant geological and ecological features in 48 states, American Samoa, Puerto Rico, the U. S. Virgin Islands; the National Park Service administers the NNL Program and if requested, assists NNL owners and managers with the conservation of these important sites.
Land acquisition by the federal government is not a goal of this program. National Natural Landmarks are nationally significant sites owned by a variety of land stewards, their participation in this federal program is voluntary; the legislative authority for the National Natural Landmarks Program stems from the Historic Sites Act of August 21, 1935. The NNL Program does not have the protection features of Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966. Thus, designation of a National Natural Landmark presently constitutes only an agreement with the owner to preserve, insofar as possible, the significant natural values of the site or area. Administration and preservation of National Natural Landmarks is the owner's responsibility. Either party may terminate the agreement; the NNL designation is made by the Secretary of the Interior after in-depth scientific study of a potential site. All new designations must have owner concurrence; the selection process is rigorous: to be considered for NNL status, a site must be one of the best examples of a natural region's characteristic biotic or geologic features.
Since establishment of the NNL program, a multi-step process has been used to designate a site for NNL status. Since 1970, the following steps have constituted the process. A natural area inventory of a natural region is completed to identify the most promising sites. After landowners are notified that the site is being considered for NNL status, a detailed onsite evaluation is conducted by scientists other than those who conducted the inventory; the evaluation report is peer reviewed by other experts to assure its soundness. The report is reviewed further by National Park Service staff; the site is reviewed by the Secretary of the Interior's National Park Advisory Board to determine that the site qualifies as an NNL. The findings are provided to the Secretary of the Interior who declines. Landowners are notified a third time informing them that the site has been designated an NNL. Prospective sites for NNL designation are aquatic ecosystems; each major natural history "theme" can be further subdivided into various sub-themes.
For example, sub-themes suggested in 1972 for the overall theme "Lakes and ponds" included large deep lakes, large shallow lakes, lakes of complex shape, crater lakes, kettle lake and potholes, oxbow lakes, dune lakes, sphagnum-bog lakes, lakes fed by thermal streams, tundra lakes and ponds and marshy areas, sinkhole lakes, unusually productive lakes, lakes of high productivity and high clarity. The NNL program does not require designated properties to be owned by public entities. Lands under all forms of ownership or administration have been designated—federal, local and private. Federal lands with NNLs include those administered by the National Park Service, National Forest Service, Bureau of Land Management, Bureau of Reclamation and Wildlife Service, Air Force, Marine Corps, Army Corps of Engineers and others; some NNL have been designated on lands held by Native tribes. NNLs have been designated on state lands that cover a variety of types and management, as forest, game refuge, recreation area, preserve.
Private lands with NNLs include those owned by universities, scientific societies, conservation organizations, land trusts, commercial interests, private individuals. 52% of NNLs are administered by public agencies, more than 30% are privately owned, the remaining 18% are owned or administered by a mixture of public agencies and private owners. Participation in the NNL Program carries no requirements regarding public access; the NNL registry includes many sites of national significance that are open for public tours, but others are not. Since many NNLs are located on federal and state property, permission to visit is unnecessary; some private property may be open to public visitation or just require permission from the site manager. On the other hand, some NNL private landowners desire no visitors whatever and might prosecute trespassers; the reasons for this viewpoint vary: potential property damage or liability, fragile or dangerous resources, desire for solitude or no publicity. NNL designation is an agreement between the federal government.
NNL designation does not change ownership of the property nor induce any encumbrances on the property. NNL status does not transfer with changes in ownership. Participation in the NNL Program involve
Plants are multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae. Plants were treated as one of two kingdoms including all living things that were not animals, all algae and fungi were treated as plants. However, all current definitions of Plantae exclude the fungi and some algae, as well as the prokaryotes. By one definition, plants form the clade Viridiplantae, a group that includes the flowering plants and other gymnosperms and their allies, liverworts and the green algae, but excludes the red and brown algae. Green plants obtain most of their energy from sunlight via photosynthesis by primary chloroplasts that are derived from endosymbiosis with cyanobacteria, their chloroplasts contain b, which gives them their green color. Some plants are parasitic or mycotrophic and have lost the ability to produce normal amounts of chlorophyll or to photosynthesize. Plants are characterized by sexual reproduction and alternation of generations, although asexual reproduction is common.
There are about 320 thousand species of plants, of which the great majority, some 260–290 thousand, are seed plants. Green plants provide a substantial proportion of the world's molecular oxygen and are the basis of most of Earth's ecosystems on land. Plants that produce grain and vegetables form humankind's basic foods, have been domesticated for millennia. Plants have many cultural and other uses, as ornaments, building materials, writing material and, in great variety, they have been the source of medicines and psychoactive drugs; the scientific study of plants is known as a branch of biology. All living things were traditionally placed into one of two groups and animals; this classification may date from Aristotle, who made the distincton between plants, which do not move, animals, which are mobile to catch their food. Much when Linnaeus created the basis of the modern system of scientific classification, these two groups became the kingdoms Vegetabilia and Animalia. Since it has become clear that the plant kingdom as defined included several unrelated groups, the fungi and several groups of algae were removed to new kingdoms.
However, these organisms are still considered plants in popular contexts. The term "plant" implies the possession of the following traits multicellularity, possession of cell walls containing cellulose and the ability to carry out photosynthesis with primary chloroplasts; when the name Plantae or plant is applied to a specific group of organisms or taxon, it refers to one of four concepts. From least to most inclusive, these four groupings are: Another way of looking at the relationships between the different groups that have been called "plants" is through a cladogram, which shows their evolutionary relationships; these are not yet settled, but one accepted relationship between the three groups described above is shown below. Those which have been called "plants" are in bold; the way in which the groups of green algae are combined and named varies between authors. Algae comprise several different groups of organisms which produce food by photosynthesis and thus have traditionally been included in the plant kingdom.
The seaweeds range from large multicellular algae to single-celled organisms and are classified into three groups, the green algae, red algae and brown algae. There is good evidence that the brown algae evolved independently from the others, from non-photosynthetic ancestors that formed endosymbiotic relationships with red algae rather than from cyanobacteria, they are no longer classified as plants as defined here; the Viridiplantae, the green plants – green algae and land plants – form a clade, a group consisting of all the descendants of a common ancestor. With a few exceptions, the green plants have the following features in common, they undergo closed mitosis without centrioles, have mitochondria with flat cristae. The chloroplasts of green plants are surrounded by two membranes, suggesting they originated directly from endosymbiotic cyanobacteria. Two additional groups, the Rhodophyta and Glaucophyta have primary chloroplasts that appear to be derived directly from endosymbiotic cyanobacteria, although they differ from Viridiplantae in the pigments which are used in photosynthesis and so are different in colour.
These groups differ from green plants in that the storage polysaccharide is floridean starch and is stored in the cytoplasm rather than in the plastids. They appear to have had a common origin with Viridiplantae and the three groups form the clade Archaeplastida, whose name implies that their chloroplasts were derived from a single ancient endosymbiotic event; this is the broadest modern definition of the term'plant'. In contrast, most other algae not only have different pigments but have chloroplasts with three or four surrounding membranes, they are not close relatives of the Archaeplastida having acquired chloroplasts separately from ingested or symbiotic green and red algae. They are thus not included in the broadest modern definition of the plant kingdom, although they were in the past; the green plants or Viridiplantae were traditionally divided into the green algae (including
Torvosaurus is a genus of carnivorous megalosaurid theropod dinosaurs that lived 153 to 148 million years ago during the Late Jurassic Period in what is now Colorado and Portugal. It contains two recognized species, Torvosaurus tanneri and Torvosaurus gurneyi. In 1979 the type species Torvosaurus tanneri was named: it was a large built, bipedal carnivore, that could grow to a length of about 10 m. T. tanneri was among the largest carnivores of its time, together with Epanterias and Saurophaganax. Specimens referred to Torvosaurus gurneyi were claimed to be up to twelve metres long, but shown to be smaller. Based on bone morphology Torvosaurus is thought to have had short but powerful arms. Torvosaurus was a large predator, with an estimated maximum body length of 10 m and mass of 3.6–4.5 tonnes for both T. tanneri and T. gurneyi, making Torvosaurus among the largest land carnivores of the Jurassic. Claims have been made indicating larger sizes; the synonymous Edmarka rex was named thus because it was assumed to rival Tyrannosaurus rex in length.
"Brontoraptor" was supposed to be a torvosaur of gigantic size. The T. gurneyi specimens from Portugal prompted larger size estimates to be made. In 2006 a lower end of a thighbone, specimen ML 632, was referred to Torvosaurus sp. and to T. gurneyi. This specimen was stated to indicate a length of 11 m. Applying the extrapolation method of J. F. Anderson, correlating mammal weights to their femur circumference, resulted in a weight of 1930 kilogrammes. However, revised estimates performed in 2014 suggested a smaller total body size for this specimen, of about 10 m. Among the differentiating features between T. gurneyi and T. tanneri are the number of teeth and size and shape of mouth. While the upper jaw of T. tanneri has more than 11 teeth, that of T. gurneyi has less. Torvosaurus had an elongated, narrow snout, with a kink in its profile just above the large nostrils; the frontmost snout bone, the praemaxilla, bore three rather flat teeth oriented somewhat outwards with the front edge of the teeth crown overlapping the outer side of the rear edge of the preceding crown.
The maxilla bore at least eleven rather long teeth. The antorbital fenestra was short; the lacrimal bone had a distinctive lacrimal horn on top. The eye socket was tall with a pointed lower end; the jugal was transversely thin. The lower front side of the quadrate bone was hollowed out by a tear-shaped depression, the contact surface with the quadratojugal. Both the neck vertebrae and the front dorsal vertebrae had flexible ball-in-socket joints; the balls, on the front side of the vertebral centra, had a wide rim, a condition by Britt likened to a Derby hat. The tail base was stiffened in the vertical plane in side view wide neural spines; the upper arm was robust. Whether the thumb claw was enlarged, is uncertain. In the pelvis, the ilium resembled that of Megalosaurus and had a tall, front blade and a longer pointed rear blade; the pelvis as a whole was massively built, with the bone skirts between the pubic bones and the ischia contacting each other and forming a vaulted closed underside. Fossilized remains of Torvosaurus have been found in North Portugal.
In 1971, Vivian Jones, of Delta, Colorado, in the Calico Gulch Quarry in Moffat County, discovered a single gigantic thumb claw of a theropod. This was shown to a collector working for Brigham Young University. In an effort to discover comparable fossils, Vivian's husband Daniel Eddie Jones directed Jensen to the Dry Mesa Quarry, where abundant gigantic theropod bones, together with Supersaurus remains, proved present in rocks of the Morrison Formation. From 1972 onwards the site was excavated by Kenneth Stadtman; the type species Torvosaurus tanneri was named and described in 1979 by Peter Malcolm Galton and Jensen. The genus name Torvosaurus derives from the Latin word torvus, meaning "savage", the Greek word sauros, meaning "lizard"; the specific name tanneri, is named after first counselor in the First Presidency of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints Nathan Eldon Tanner. In 1985, Jensen could report a considerable amount of additional material, among it the first skull elements.
The fossils from Colorado were further described by Brooks Britt in 1991. The holotype BYU 2002 consisted of upper arm bones and lower arm bones; the paratypes included some back bones, hip bones, hand bones. When the material described in 1985 is added, the main missing elements are the shoulder girdle and the thighbone; the original thumb claw, specimen BYUVP 2020, was only provisionally referred as it had been found in a site 195 kilometres away from the Dry Mesa Quarry. The holotype and paratypes represented at least three individuals: a juvenile. In 1991 Britt concluded that there was no proof that the front limbs of the holotype were associated and chose the left humerus as the lectotype. Several single bones and teeth found in other American sites have been referred to Torvosaurus. In 1992, fossils of a large theropod found at Como Bluff in Wyoming, containing skull, shoulder girdle and rib elements, were named by Robert T. Bakker et al. as the species Edmarka rex. Bakker et al were impressed with the size of Edmarka, noting that it "would rival T. rex in total length," and viewing this approximate size as "a natural ceiling for dinosaurian meat-eaters."
This was considered a junior synonym of Torvosaurus. The same site has r
Ornitholestes is a small theropod dinosaur of the late Jurassic of Western Laurasia. To date, Ornitholestes is known only from a single partial skeleton with a badly crushed skull found at the Bone Cabin Quarry near Medicine Bow, Wyoming, in 1900, it was described by Henry Fairfield Osborn in 1903. An incomplete hand was attributed to Ornitholestes, although it now appears to belong to Tanycolagreus; the type species is O. hermanni. The specific name honors the American Museum of Natural History preparator Adam Hermann. Ornitholestes was a bipedal carnivore, its head was proportionally smaller than that of most other predatory dinosaurs, but the skull was built, with a short snout and robust lower jaw. The orbits were quite large. There is no indication of a bony eye ring; the front teeth of Ornitholestes were somewhat conical, with reduced serrations. Henry Fairfield Osborn counted four teeth in the premaxilla, of which the front tooth was the largest in the upper jaw. In contrast, Gregory S. Paul depicted the skull with only three premaxillary teeth remaining, much smaller than those illustrated by Osborn.
Each maxilla contained ten teeth, each dentary contained twelve teeth. The tooth rows of Ornitholestes were short, with the dentary row being shorter than the maxillary row though the dentary bone itself was exceptionally long at the back, reaching a point below the middle of the eye socket. Teeth did not extend as far back as the orbits, neither tooth row spanned much more than one-third of the skull. An area of broken bone near the external naris appears to bulge upward, which led Gregory S. Paul to suggest in Predatory Dinosaurs of the World that Ornitholestes had a nasal horn "rather like a chicken's comb in looks." Both Oliver W. M. Rauhut and Kenneth Carpenter et al. rejected that interpretation, indicated that the upward flare of bone was due to post-mortem crushing of the skull. Paul's updated illustration of Ornitholestes in his 2010 Princeton Field Guide to Dinosaurs no longer contains the nasal horn. Ornitholestes had a short neck with a slight sigmoidal curve; the tail was whiplike, comprising over half of the body's length.
Not all of the vertebrae were preserved, but Osborn estimated that Ornitholestes had nine or ten cervical vertebrae, thirteen dorsal vertebrae, four sacral vertebrae, 39 to 44 caudal vertebrae. Carpenter et al. recorded. Ornitholestes was a short-bodied theropod, this was reflected in the short front-to-back dimensions of the cervical and dorsal vertebrae; the forelimbs of Ornitholestes were long under two-thirds the length of the hind legs. The humerus was built, somewhat longer than the radius and ulna. Both the humerus and radius were straight-shafted; the claws on digits I and II of the hand were about the same size. Although the hand's third ungual was not preserved, extrapolation from the closest relatives of Ornitholestes indicates that it was shorter than the first two. Ornitholestes is portrayed as a fast, long-legged theropod, but its lower limb bones were short. Osborn calculated that the, tibia was only about 70.6% as long as the femur. The metatarsals were spaced but not fused together.
As is typical of theropods, the feet were tridactyl. John H. Ostrom noted that the claw of digit II was larger than those of digits III and IV, suggested that this digit may have borne a modified sickle claw similar to that of Deinonychus. However, as both Ostrom and Paul noted, the poor preservation of digit II makes this hypothesis difficult to confirm. In his 1903 description, Osborn wrote that the length of Ornitholestes along "the skull and vertebral column as restored" was 2.22 m. However, this reconstruction was inaccurate, being based in part on Othniel Charles Marsh's restoration of the basal sauropodomorph Anchisaurus, the neck and trunk were both too elongated. David Norman and John Foster both estimated. Gregory S. Paul's 1988 Predatory Dinosaurs of the World listed the length of Ornitholestes as 2.08 m. Paul and Foster both estimated. John A. Long and Peter Schouten suggested a higher figure, 15 kg. Ornitholestes was the first theropod to be discovered in the 1900s; the holotype skeleton was excavated in July 1900 in the Bone Cabin Quarry in Wyoming by an American Museum of Natural History expedition by Peter C.
Kaisen, Paul Miller and Frederic Brewster Loomis. It represents a partial skeleton with skull, including numerous elements of the vertebral column, the forelimbs and hindlimbs. Henry Fairfield Osborn named and scientifically described the specimen in 1903; the genus name Ornitholestes suggested by Theodore Gill, means "bird robber" and is derived from the Greek ὄρνις/ornis, ornithos and λῃστήσ/lestes. The species name honors Adam Hermann, the head preparator at the Museum, who directed the restoration and m