The Jurchen were a tribal confederation of Tungusic and affiliated peoples who traditionally inhabited the region of Manchuria, subdivided into three major groups: Jianzhou Jurchens Yeren Jurchens, translated as'Wild Jurchens' Haixi Jurchens The Jurchen established the Jin dynasty, whose empire conquered the Northern Song in 1127, gaining control of most of North China. Jin rule lasted until the Mongols conquered them in 1234; the most widely-known of these peoples are the Jianzhou, who are commonly referred to as the Jurchen. In about 1630, the Jianzhou combined with their neighbors as the Manchu; the Manchus would conquer the Ming and establish the Qing dynasty, which ruled China until the Xinhai Revolution. The Yeren included the Nanai, Negidals and Nivkh. Although the Nivkh language is a language isolate, the Nivkh themselves share many cultural similarities with their neighbors; because the Haixi had poor relations with the Jianzhou, the Haixi were conquered and absorbed into the Manchu ethnicity.
The name Jurchen is derived from a long line of other variations of the same name. The initial Khitan form of the name was said to be Lüzhen; the variant Nrjo-tsyin appeared in the 10th century under the Liao dynasty. The Jurchens were interchangeably known as the Nrjo-drik; this is traditionally explained as an effect of the Chinese naming taboo, with the character 真 being removed after the 1031 enthronement of Zhigu, Emperor Xingzong of Liao, because it appeared in the sinified form of his personal name. Aisin-Gioro Ulhicun, argues that this was a folk etymology and the original reason was uncertainty among dialects regarding the name's final -n. Jurchen is an anglicization of Jurčen, an attempted reconstruction of this unattested original form of the native name, transcribed into Middle Chinese as Trjuwk-li-tsyin and into Khitan small script as Julisen; the ethnonyms Sushen and Jizhen recorded in geographical works like the Classic of Mountains and Seas and the Book of Wei are cognates. It was the source of Fra Mauro's Zorça and Marco Polo's Ciorcia, reflecting the Persian form of their name.
Vajda considers that the Jurchens' name derives from the Tungusic words for "reindeer people" and is cognate with the names of the Orochs of Khabarovsk Province and the Oroks of Sakhalin. Janhunen argues that these records reflect the Classical Mongolian plural form of the name, recorded in the Secret History as J̌ürčät, further reconstructed as *Jörcid, The modern Mongolian form is Jürčid whose medial -r- does not appear in the Jurchen Jucen or Jušen or Manchu Jushen. In Manchu, this word was more used to describe the serfs—though not slaves—of the free Manchu people, who were themselves the former Jurchens. To describe the historical people who founded the Jin dynasty, they reborrowed the Mongolian name as Jurcit. According to William of Rubruck, the Jurchens were "swarthy like Spaniards."Sin Chung-il notes that during his visit to Fe Ala in the late 16th century that all those who served Nurhaci were uniform in their dress and hairstyle. They kept the remaining hair in a long plaited braid.
All men wore leather boots and tunics. When the Jurchens first entered Chinese records in 748, they inhabited the forests and river valleys of the land, now divided between China's Heilongjiang Province and Russia's Primorsky Krai province. In earlier records, this area was known as the home of the Sushen, the Yilou, the Wuji, the Mohe. Scholarship since the Qing period traces the origin of the Jurchens to the "Wanyen tribe of the Mohos" around Mt Xiaobai, or to the Heishui or Blackwater Mohe. and some sources stress the continuity between these earlier peoples with the Jurchen but this remains conjectural. The tentative ancestors of the Jurchens, the Tungusic Mohe tribes, were subjects of the multi-ethnic kingdom of Balhae; the Mohe enjoyed eating pork, practiced pig farming extensively, were sedentary. They used both dog skins for coats, they were predominantly farmers and grew soybean, wheat and rice in addition to hunting. Like all Tungus people, the Mohe practiced slavery. Horses were rare in the region they inhabited until the 10th century under the domination of the Khitans.
The Mohe rode reindeer. By the 11th century, the Jurchens had become vassals of the Khitan rulers of the Liao dynasty; the Jurchens in the Yalu River region had been tributaries of Goryeo since the reign of Wang Geon, who called upon them during the wars of the Later Three Kingdoms period, but the Jurchens switched allegiance between Liao and Goryeo multiple times out of expedience. They offered tribute to both courts out of political necessity and the attraction of material benefits. Before the Jurchens overthrew the Khitan, married Jurchen women and Jurchen girls were raped by Liao Khitan envoys as a custom which caused resentment by the Jurchens against the Khitan. Wanyan Aguda, chief of the Wanyan tribe, unified the various Jurchen tribes in 1115 and declared himself emperor. In 1120 he seized Shangjing known as Linhuang Prefecture, the northern capital of the Liao dynasty. During the Jin–Song Wars, the Jurchens invaded the Northern Song dynasty and overran most of northern China; the Jurchens created the puppet regimes of Da Qi and Da Chu but adopted a dynastic name and bec
Loyola Institute of Business Administration is a private business school in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, was founded by the Society of Jesus in 1979. It is situated on the Loyola College, Chennai and run by the Loyola College Society. Loyola Institute of Business Administration when established in 1979 had a three-year, part-time PGDBM program catering to the needs of business executives in and around Chennai; this program was approved by the All India Council for Technical Education. Since 1995 LIBA has offered a two-year, full-time PGDM program, approved by the AICTE and recognized as equivalent to an MBA degree by the Association of Indian Universities. LIBA offers a full-time MBA program, part-time MBA program, various executive diploma courses, certificate programs in various management subjects, it is a resource center for doctoral programs offered in affiliation with the University of Madras. Loyola Institute of Business Administration was ranked 32 by the National Institutional Ranking Framework management ranking in 2018.
The Stolen Kiss is a painting by French painter Jean Honoré Fragonard from the end of the 1780s, depicting a secretive romance. The painting is hosted in St. Petersburg; the style of the painting was characteristic of the French Rococo period and was favoured by the wealthy art patrons of his time. The work was purchased in the 1790s by the last king of Poland; the painting is mentioned for the first time in the catalogue of the Royal Picture Gallery at the Lazienki Palace in Warsaw in 1795. It was bought at one of the auctions, which sold goods of the French aristocracy after 1792; this would explain the silence of the sources about the acquisition of the work and its certain formal and thematic incompatibility with the other works of the collection. The painting remained in the Lazienki Palace in Warsaw until 1895, when during the Partitions of Poland it was taken by the Russians to the Hermitage in St. Petersburg together with four other paintings from the royal collection of Stanisław August.
After regaining independence in 1918 first, after the end of World War II in 1945, the Polish government made diplomatic efforts to recover the painting. In the light of international law and arrangements with the authorities of the USSR, the painting as work of art of national importance taken by Russians from Poland in the 19th century, or during World War II, was a subject to legal restitution. However, the USSR authorities refused to release the painting, retaining it in the Hermitage collection, arbitrarily compensated it with several works of lesser value. In 1922, "The Stolen Kiss" was compensated with the smaller "La femme polonaise" by Antoine Watteau, from the Hermitage collection; the painting depicts a kiss between two lovers, showing a young lady in cream-coloured silk gown who appears to have left her company for a secret meeting with a young man. The composition is diagonal, made up by an axis composed through her leaning figure, the shawl and the balcony door opening from the outside, ending with the table the shawl is draped over.
The painting offers an array of compositional contrasts between colours and shadows: the spatial intersections are complex. Jean-Honoré Fragonard's works display the kind of eroticism and voluptuousness and the liking for romantic folly, popular before the French Revolution among French aristocrats. Fragonard includes scenes of voyeurism in his paintings; this scene is depicting the stolen kiss in lavish surroundings, containing luxurious details of textures and lace, like the rug with flower pattern, silk draperies, her shawl on the chair, the elegantly clad ladies that are visible through the open door. The dominant French culture influenced how Fragonard chose his themes, that were erotic or love scenes, painted for Louis XV's pleasure-loving court's enjoyment