Cabal of Naples
The Cabal of Naples was a notorious triumvirate of painters in the city of Naples that operated during the early Baroque period from the late 1610s to the early 1640s. It was led by the Spaniard Jusepe de Ribera, who had established himself in Naples after fleeing creditors in Rome in 1616, consisted of the Neapolitan Battistello Caracciolo and Greek Belisario Corenzio, its primary goal was to prevent competition from artists from other parts of Italy the masters. Its activities targeted the followers of Annibale Carracci, but any artist not native to Naples, it involved the triumvirate in leading the painters of the city to harass, expel, or poison any non-native painter, only ended with the death of Caracciolo in 1641. According to the art historian Bernardo de Dominici, no major commission for art in Naples could be executed without the consent of the three painters. Artists who did so would be persecuted or threatened with violence, their in-progress works would be destroyed or sabotaged.
Many artists were invited to Naples for a commission to decorate the Cappella del Tesoro, the chapel of the Naples Cathedral. The chapel is considered the holiest shrine in Naples, it is known for The Blood Miracle, the reputed liquefaction of the saint's blood, stored in a phial and had purportedly been obtained by a woman named Eusebia just after the saint's death. Artists including Annibale Carracci, the Cavalier d'Arpino, Guido Reni all accepted an invitation to work on the chapel. All of them found Naples inhospitable. In 1621, Reni's assistant was so badly wounded. Corenzio was arrested as a suspect in the crime, but released because of insufficient evidence against him. Carracci was so maligned; the artists commissioned for this work were driven away as a result of the cabal's jealousy and resentment at the intrusion of outsiders to work on such an important project. A group from Naples known as the Santafede was hired by the commissioners, but that group's work did not impress the commissioners, who hired Corenzio.
His work was found to be unacceptable by the commissioners, was removed. The commissioners sent a letter to Domenichino in Rome requesting his services. On 23 March 1630, Domenichino sent a reply letter to accept a commission to decorate the Cappella del Tesoro, though he had reservations about accepting the commission, his wife had attempted to dissuade him from accepting it. Domenichino completed several frescoes in San Carlo ai Catinari by June 1630, moved to Naples in November. Not long after he arrived, he received a death threat warning him to abandon the commission, he requested protection from the Viceroy of Naples, despite assurances that he would be safe left his home except to work at the chapel or at the school he had opened. He would arrive at the chapel for work to find the previous night's work had been rubbed out, he was so tormented by the cabal that in 1634 he fled to Frascati, not yet having completed the commission, became a guest at Villa Aldobrandini, the villa of the Aldobrandini family.
The representatives of the Naples Cathedral who had hired him did their utmost to convince Domenichino to return. Upon learning of Domenichino's flight from the city, the viceroy arrested his wife and daughter, who had remained in Naples, sequestered his property. Domenichino returned to Naples in 1635 to continue his work on the cathedral, but by no longer had the favour or protection of the viceroy, his wife and daughter were released upon his return. In 1637, he accepted a commission for nine frescoes for the chapel, in 1640 he received payment for a work about the martyrdom of Saint Januarius. According to journal entries by Giovanni Battista Passeri, Domenichino feared that his meals would be poisoned, or that he would be stabbed. On 3 April 1641, he wrote a will, his widow was convinced he had been poisoned, it was suspected that the cabal was responsible. Baroque! From St Peter's to St Paul's Painting in Naples, 1606-1705: From Caravaggio to Giordano. Royal Academy of Arts. 1982
Xàtiva is a town in eastern Spain, in the province of Valencia, on the right bank of the river Albaida and at the junction of the Valencia–Murcia and Valencia Albacete railways. It is located 25 km west of the Mediterranean Sea. During the Al-Andalus Islamic era, Arabs brought the technology to manufacture paper to Xàtiva. In the 12th century, Xàtiva was known for its schools and learning circles. Islamic scholar Abu Ishaq al-Shatibi's last name refers to Xàtiva where he died. Xàtiva was famous in Roman times for its linen fabrics, mentioned by the Latin poets Ovid and Catullus. Xàtiva is known as an early European centre of paper manufacture. In the 12th century, Arabs brought the technology to manufacture paper to Xàtiva, it is the birthplace of two popes, Callixtus III and Alexander VI, the painter José Ribera. It suffered a dark moment in its history at the hands of Philip V of Spain, after his victory at the Battle of Almansa during the War of the Spanish Succession, had the city besieged ordered it to be burned and renamed San Felipe.
In memory of the insult, the portrait of the monarch hangs upside down in the local museum of l'Almodí. Xàtiva was a provincial capital under the short-lived 1822 territorial division of Spain, during the Trienio Liberal; the Province of Xàtiva was revoked with the return to absolutism in 1823. Xàtiva is built on the margin of a fertile plain, on the southern slopes of the Monte Vernissa, a hill with two peaks crowned by Xativa Castle; the Collegiate Basilica, dating from 1414, but rebuilt about a century in the Renaissance style, was a cathedral, is the chief among many churches and convents. The town-hall and a church on the castle hill are constructed of inscribed Roman masonry, several houses date from the Moorish period. Other sights include: Royal Monastery of the Assumption and Baroque style, built during the 14th century and renovated in the 16th–18th centuries. Natal house of the Pope Alexander VI. Sant Feliu – 13th century church. Sant Pere -14th century church; the interior has a Coffered ceiling decorated in Gothic-Mudéjar style.
Hermitage of Santa Anna, in Gothic style Almodí, a 14th-century Gothic edifice now housing a Museum Casa de la Enseñanza, Xàtiva Sant Francesc The Republic of Sorió, where you could find the famous valencian version of the Olsen sisters, known for having sung in Maqueta Jove TV Show. In the summer, the village is blessed with the visit of an old friend of the sisters': the well-known Hanna Gorbana. Pope Calixtus III Pope Alexander VI Tomás Cerdán de Tallada Diego Ramírez de Arellano Jusepe de Ribera Jaime Villanueva Raimon Joan Ramos Toni Cucarella Feliu Ventura Route of the Borgias Official website Media related to Xàtiva at Wikimedia Commons Xàtiva travel guide from WikivoyageThere is plenty of information available about Xativa and the surrounding area on the English language website. "Játiva". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press
Tenebrism, from Italian tenebroso occasionally called dramatic illumination, is a style of painting using profoundly pronounced chiaroscuro, where there are violent contrasts of light and dark, where darkness becomes a dominating feature of the image. The technique was developed to add drama to an image through a spotlight effect, was popular in Baroque painting. Tenebrism is used only to obtain a dramatic impact while chiaroscuro is a broader term covering the use of less extreme contrasts of light to enhance the illusion of three-dimensionality; the term is somewhat vague, tends to be avoided by modern art historians. The artist Caravaggio is credited with the invention of the style, although this technique was used much earlier by various artists, such as Albrecht Dürer, El Greco; the term is applied to artists from the seventeenth century onward. Artemisia Gentileschi, one of the few women artists of the Baroque and a follower of Caravaggio, was an outstanding exponent of tenebrism. El Greco painted three versions of a composition with a boy, a man, a monkey grouped in darkness around a single flame.
Among the most well-known tenebrist artists are: Italian and Dutch followers of Caravaggio, Francisco Ribalta, Jusepe de Ribera, their Spanish followers. Tenebrism is most applied to seventeenth-century Spanish painters, it is sometimes applied to other seventeenth-century painters in what has been called the "candlelight tradition". These include Georges de La Tour, who painted many images lit by a single candle, Trophime Bigot, Gerrit van Honthorst, Rembrandt. In Flanders Adam de Coster was recognized as a leading tenebrist who excelled in scenes in which a single candle has its light blocked by an object; the Dutch artist Godfried Schalcken painted many candle-lit scenes. The northern painters achieved a mood of stillness and tranquility through their extreme lighting, rather the reverse of the impression that Spanish painters intended, they are as interested in the dimly-lit areas of the painting as the spot-lit ones, their light diffuses across much of the picture area. The term is not used of Adam Elsheimer, although he was an important innovator in painting night-scenes with a few lighted areas.
His dark areas are always full of interest. Similar compositions were painted by Joseph Wright of Derby and other artists of the Romantic Movement, but the term is used to characterize their work in general. Effets de soir More details Art Lexicon Jusepe de Ribera, 1591-1652, a full text exhibition catalog from The Metropolitan Museum of Art, which includes material on Ribera and Tenebrism
Giovanni Bernardino Azzolini
Giovanni Bernardino Azzolini was an Italian painter and sculptor who continued painting in a late-Mannerist style active in Naples and Genoa. He is known by Azzolino or Mazzolini or Asoleni. Born in the town of Cefalù in Sicily, where he received his initial training, he had moved to Naples by 1594. He settled in Genoa, where he was elected to local Accademia di San Luca in 1618. In Naples, he painted a Presentation at the Temple for the church of Santa Maria La Nova, he painted a Pentecost for the church of San Francesco at Caiazzo. Among his paintings in Genoa, is an Annunciation painted for the church of Monache Turchine, he painted a Martyrdom of St. Apollonia for the church of San Giuseppe, he painted a canvas of St. Francis Xavier's vision of the Virgin for the saint's chapel in the church of Gesù Nuovo in Naples, his daughter married the painter Jusepe de Ribera and his son-in-law worked together with him on some commissions. Giuseppe Avanzi - contemporary painter Farquhar, Maria. Ralph Nicholson Wornum, ed. Biographical catalogue of the principal Italian painters.
Woodfall & Kinder, Angel Court, Skinner Street, London. P. 12. Grove Art Encyclopedia entry
Via Margutta is a narrow street in the centre of Rome, near Piazza del Popolo, accessible from Via del Babuino in the ancient Campo Marzio neighborhood known as "the foreigner's quarter". Mount Pincio is nearby. Via Margutta was home to modest craftsmen and stables, but now hosts many art galleries and fashionable restaurants. After the film Roman Holiday became popular, Via Margutta developed into an exclusive neighborhood, where various famous people lived, such as film director Federico Fellini. From the north the area can be reached from Via Cassia or Flaminia, passing through Piazzale Flaminio, through the city door in the wall that leads to Piazza del Popolo. From this point one walks several metres to the left of Flaminio Obelisk towards Via del Babuino, on the left there is an alley that leads to Via Margutta. From Piazza di Spagna, one can take via del Babbuino, turn right on via Albert, via Margutta will be on the left; the name originates from the word "Marisgutta", meaning "Sea Drop", a gentle euphemism for a dirty stream that came down from the hill of the villa of the Pincii, used like a natural Roman Cloaca.
Via Margutta was behind the palaces of Via del Babuino, where stables were found. At the base of Pincio hill, there were homes and shops of masons, marble cutters, coachmen, who conducted their business in the areas. In the Middle Ages an unknown artist opened the first workshop where the finest Roman craftsmen painted portraits, cut marble for fountains and forged metal plates, giving birth to a flourishing industry that attracted foreign artists, as well as Italians from other regions; these immigrants replaced the shacks and stables with houses and gardens. During the reign of Pope Pius IX, a Belgian monsignor, Saverio de Merode, seeing the potential of the area, purchased land, built drains, incorporated the narrow street into the public city plan. Via Margutta today is a quiet lane. Although it is in the city centre, it still maintains its garden atmosphere, perfumed by trees and vineyards, which has made it a perfect choice for artists, painters and antiquarians though many of former artists' studios have been converted into flats and apartments.
"One hundred painters of Via Margutta", is a traditional arts festival warmly celebrated by citizens. The expo is sponsored by the Mayor and the Province of Rome, for many years has been a burgeoning field for the discovery of new artists; the celebration makes Via Margutta a true public art gallery, presenting more than 1,000 works of art, including oil paintings and watercolors in every expressive style. Some of the works on exhibit are of unknown or less-famous artists, chosen by a multi-national jury of art critics. Admission is free, the exposition is open to everybody, the viewing of the works is casual and an easygoing attitude is the norm. Among the historical inhabitants of the street were Giulietta Masina, Federico Fellini, Renato Guttuso, Marina Punturieri. In the same area can be found the "Fontana delle Arti", which has a triangular base, crowned by a bucket of paint-brushes. According to the project architect, Pietro Lombardi, who designed other small "fontanelle" throughout Rome (usually inspired by the coats of arms of the ancient Roman quarter, the marble fountain was carved in 1927.
Two masks are on opposite sides, mounted over marble supports. The images are of the now familiar sad and happy faces, symbolizing the fluctuating moods typical of artists; the two carved faces pour. Roman Holiday, 1953. Film by William Wyler with Audrey Hepburn and Gregory Peck. My first forty years, 1987. Film by Carlo Vanzina with Carol Alt and Elliott Gould. Quelle Belle Ragazze di Via Margutta. 2004. Book by Giampiero Mughini Via Margutta is mentioned in the song "Arrivederci Roma." Piazza del Popolo Via del Babuino Via del Corso Via di Ripetta Via Margutta in "Roma segreta" "Artist's fountain" in Via Margutta
Valencia València, on the east coast of Spain, is the capital of the autonomous community of Valencia and the third-largest city in Spain after Madrid and Barcelona, with around 800,000 inhabitants in the administrative centre. Its urban area extends beyond the administrative city limits with a population of around 1.6 million people. Valencia is Spain's third largest metropolitan area, with a population ranging from 1.7 to 2.5 million depending on how the metropolitan area is defined. The Port of Valencia is the 5th busiest container port in Europe and the busiest container port on the Mediterranean Sea; the city is ranked at Beta-global city in World Cities Research Network. Valencia is integrated into an industrial area on the Costa del Azahar. Valencia was founded as a Roman colony by the consul Decimus Junius Brutus Callaicus in 138 BC, called Valentia Edetanorum. In 714 Moroccan and Arab Moors occupied the city, introducing their language and customs. Valencia was the capital of the Taifa of Valencia.
In 1238 the Christian king James I of Aragon conquered the city and divided the land among the nobles who helped him conquer it, as witnessed in the Llibre del Repartiment. He created a new law for the city, the Furs of Valencia, which were extended to the rest of the Kingdom of Valencia. In the 18th century Philip V of Spain abolished the privileges as punishment to the kingdom of Valencia for aligning with the Habsburg side in the War of the Spanish Succession. Valencia was the capital of Spain when Joseph Bonaparte moved the Court there in the summer of 1812, it served as capital between 1936 and 1937, during the Second Spanish Republic. The city is situated on the banks of the Turia, on the east coast of the Iberian Peninsula, fronting the Gulf of Valencia on the Mediterranean Sea, its historic centre is one of the largest in Spain, with 169 ha. Due to its long history, this is a city with numerous popular celebrations and traditions, such as the Fallas, which were declared as Fiestas of National Tourist Interest of Spain in 1965 and Intangible cultural heritage by UNESCO in November 2016.
From 1991 to 2015, Rita Barberá Nolla was the mayor of the city, yet in 2015, Joan Ribó from Coalició Compromís, became mayor. The original Latin name of the city was Valentia, meaning "strength", or "valour", the city being named according to the Roman practice of recognising the valour of former Roman soldiers after a war; the Roman historian Livy explains that the founding of Valentia in the 2nd century BC was due to the settling of the Roman soldiers who fought against an Iberian rebel, Viriatus. During the rule of the Muslim kingdoms in Spain, it had the nickname Medina at-Tarab according to one transliteration, or Medina at-Turab according to another, since it was located on the banks of the River Turia, it is not clear if the term Balansiyya was reserved for the entire Taifa of Valencia or designated the city. By gradual sound changes, Valentia has in Castilian and València in Valencian. In Valencian, the grave accent ⟨è⟩ /ɛ/ contrasts with the acute accent ⟨é⟩ /e/—but the word València is an exception to this rule.
It is spelled according to Catalan etymology. Valencia stands on the banks of the Turia River, located on the eastern coast of the Iberian Peninsula and the western part of the Mediterranean Sea, fronting the Gulf of Valencia. At its founding by the Romans, it stood on a river island in 6.4 kilometres from the sea. The Albufera, a freshwater lagoon and estuary about 11 km south of the city, is one of the largest lakes in Spain; the City Council bought the lake from the Crown of Spain for 1,072,980 pesetas in 1911, today it forms the main portion of the Parc Natural de l'Albufera, with a surface area of 21,120 hectares. In 1976, because of its cultural and ecological value, the Generalitat Valenciana declared it a natural park. Valencia has a subtropical Mediterranean climate with short mild winters and long and dry summers, its average annual temperature is 18.4 °C. In the coldest month, the maximum temperature during the day ranges from 14 to 21 °C, the minimum temperature at night ranges from 5 to 11 °C.
In the warmest month – August, the maximum temperature during the day ranges from 28–34 °C, about 22 to 23 °C at night. Similar temperatures to those experienced in the northern part of Europe in summer last about 8 months, from April to November. March is transitional, the temperature exceeds 20 °C, with an average temperature of 19.3 °C during the day and 10.0 °C at night. December and February are the coldest months, with average temperatures around 17 °C during the day and 8 °C at night. Valencia has one of the mildest winters in Europe, owing to its southern location on the Mediterranean Sea and the Foehn phenomenon; the January average is comparable to temperatures expected for May and September in the major cities of northern Europe. Sunshine duration hours are 2,696 per year, from 15
Hendrick de Somer
Hendrick de Somer erroneously referred to as Hendrick van Someren or Hendrick van Somer, known in Italy as Enrico Fiammingo and Henrico il Fiamingo was a Flemish painter who spent most of his life and career in Italy where he was active in Naples. He was known for occasional genre painting, his style was influenced by the Spanish painter Jusepe de Ribera who worked in Naples and was a follower of Caravaggio. The painter became influenced by the neo-Venetian and Bolognese schools, he is considered one of the leading Netherlandish painters working in Naples in the first half of the 17th century. Hendrick de Somer is identified with the'Enrico Fiammingo' mentioned as a pupil of Jusepe de Ribera by the Italian art historian and painter Bernardo de' Dominici in the Vite dei Pittori, Scultori, ed Architetti Napolitani; until quite the artist was confused with a Dutch painter from Amsterdam with an identical name called Hendrick van Someren or Hendrick van Somer. The credit for discovering the true identity of Hendrick de Somer is due to Ulisse Prota-Giurleo who discovered a record of an'Enrico de Somer' acting as a witness in a legal procedure relating to the marriage of the painter Viviano Codazzi in Naples.
In the document the painter stated that he was at the time 29 years old and had lived in Naples for 12 years. This statement makes it possible to identify the year of his birth as 1607 and to fix the year of his arrival in Naples as 1624; the statement further names the artist's father as'Gil'. Further research by art historians revealed that Hendrick de Somer had left Flanders for Italy where he settled in Naples in 1624, he may have travelled with his family or have been received by a family member resident in Naples. He remained active in that city until 1655. Not long after arriving in Naples, de Somer was admitted to the workshop of Jusepe de Ribera, the leading Spanish painter in Naples at the time, he married a local woman with. He had close links with artists in Naples such as Viviano Codazzi and Domenico Gargiulo with whom he collaborated, he was familiar with the Dutch artist Matthias Stom who worked in Naples in the 1630s. He was a Kirchmeister of the German-Flemish brotherhood in Naples.
During Somer's residence the Flemish community in Naples had become smaller than in the early 16th century when artists such as Louis Finson were active in the city. This explains why de Somer became so integrated in Naples' social and artistic communities and became more a Neapolitan than a Flemish painter. There are no records about Hendrick de Somer after 1656, indicating that he may have been one of the victims of the 1656 plague in Naples; the catalogue of works of Hendrick de Somer compiled in 2014 contained 87 works. His works deal principally with biblical and mythological subject matter; the attributions of work to Hendrick de Somer are based principally on the only three signed and dated works by de Somer: the Caritas Romana of 1635 in a private Roman collection and two versions of St. Jerome in the desert, one in the Trafalgar Galleries in London from 1651, the other in the Galleria Nazionale di Palazzo Barberini in Rome from 1652; the latter carried a fake de Ribera signature, painted over the signature'Enrico So f. and the date'1652'.
Another key work for identifying the artist's work is the altarpiece of the Baptism of Christ of 1641, which can be attributed with certainty to de Somer since the documentation relating to its commission has been preserved. This early work shows the artist's close connection with de Ribera. In particular it shows similarities with the Martyrdom of Saint Sebastian of Ribera. Another influence in this work is the Flagellation of Christ of Caravaggio. Like many of his Neapolitan colleagues, de Somer moved away from de Ribera's tenebrism in response to the growing taste for Roman-Bolognese art in Naples, his work shows no trace of his Northern origins. De Somer is believed to have been in contact with Matthias Stom during the latter's stay in Naples in the 1630s. Hendrick's works such as Caritas Romana and Tobias curing his father's blindness can be seen as de Somer's reaction to the northern realism of Matthias Stom. In compositions de Somer reflects influences deriving from the example of other Neapolitan masters who asserted themselves in those years, such as Massimo Stanzione and Bernardo Cavallino.
Hendrick's palette moved away from the tenebrism of Ribera and opened up to the neo-Venetian color, which in that period came to replace the chiaroscuro of the Caravaggisti. Works like his multiple versions of Lot and his daughters and his Samson and Delilah are examples of this evolution. A work with a certain date is the Saint Jerome reading of 1652. De Somer created many paintings of the saint, as did his master de Ribera who had popularised this theme. Media related to Hendrick de Somer at Wikimedia Commons