A scientific control is an experiment or observation designed to minimize the effects of variables other than the independent variable. This increases the reliability of the results through a comparison between control measurements and the other measurements. Scientific controls are a part of the scientific method. Controls eliminate alternate explanations of experimental results experimental errors and experimenter bias. Many controls are specific to the type of experiment being performed, as in the molecular markers used in SDS-PAGE experiments, may have the purpose of ensuring that the equipment is working properly; the selection and use of proper controls to ensure that experimental results are valid can be difficult. Control measurements may be used for other purposes: for example, a measurement of a microphone's background noise in the absence of a signal allows the noise to be subtracted from measurements of the signal, thus producing a processed signal of higher quality. For example, if a researcher feeds an experimental artificial sweetener to sixty laboratory rats and observes that ten of them subsequently become sick, the underlying cause could be the sweetener itself or something unrelated.
Other variables, which may not be obvious, may interfere with the experimental design. For instance, the artificial sweetener might be mixed with a dilutant and it might be the dilutant which causes the effect. To control for the effect of the dilutant, the same test is run twice. Now the experiment is controlled for the dilutant and the experimenter can distinguish between sweetener and non-treatment. Controls are most necessary where a confounding factor cannot be separated from the primary treatments. For example, it may be necessary to use a tractor to spread fertilizer where there is no other practicable way to spread fertilizer; the simplest solution is to have a treatment where a tractor is driven over plots without spreading fertilizer and in that way the effects of tractor traffic are controlled. The simplest types of control are negative and positive controls, both are found in many different types of experiments; these two controls, when both are successful, are sufficient to eliminate most potential confounding variables: it means that the experiment produces a negative result when a negative result is expected, a positive result when a positive result is expected.
Where there are only two possible outcomes, e.g. positive or negative, if the treatment group and the negative control both produce a negative result, it can be inferred that the treatment had no effect. If the treatment group and the negative control both produce a positive result, it can be inferred that a confounding variable is involved in the phenomenon under study, the positive results are not due to the treatment. In other examples, outcomes might be measured as lengths, percentages, so forth. In the drug testing example, we could measure the percentage of patients cured. In this case, the treatment is inferred to have no effect when the treatment group and the negative control produce the same results; some improvement is expected in the placebo group due to the placebo effect, this result sets the baseline which the treatment must improve upon. If the treatment group shows improvement, it needs to be compared to the placebo group. If the groups show the same effect the treatment was not responsible for the improvement.
The treatment is only effective if the treatment group shows more improvement than the placebo group. Positive controls are used to assess test validity. For example, to assess a new test's ability to detect a disease we can compare it against a different test, known to work; the well-established test is the positive control, since we know that the answer to the question is yes. In an enzyme assay to measure the amount of an enzyme in a set of extracts, a positive control would be an assay containing a known quantity of the purified enzyme; the positive control should give a large amount of enzyme activity, while the negative control should give low to no activity. If the positive control does not produce the expected result, there may be something wrong with the experimental procedure, the experiment is repeated. For difficult or complicated experiments, the result from the positive control can help in comparison to previous experimental results. For example, if the well-established disease test was determined to have the same effectiveness as found by previous experimenters, this indicates that the experiment is being performed in the same way that the previous experimenters did.
When possible, multiple positive controls may be used — if there is more than one disease test, known to be effective, more than one might be tested. Multiple positive controls allow finer comparisons of the results if the expected results from the positive controls have different sizes. For example, in the enzyme assay discussed above, a standard curve may be produced by making many different samples with different quantities of the enzyme. In randomization, the groups that receive different experimental treatments are determined randomly. While this does not ensure that there are no differences between the groups, it ensures that the differences are distributed thus correcting for systematic errors. For example, in experiments wher
Incarceration in the United States
Incarceration in the United States is one of the main forms of punishment and rehabilitation for the commission of felony and other offenses. The United States has the largest prison population in the world, the highest per-capita incarceration rate. In 2016 in the US, there were 655 people incarcerated per 100,000 population; this is the US incarceration rate for people tried as adults. In 2016, 2.2 million Americans have been incarcerated, which means for every 100,000 there are 655 that are inmates. This costs the United States government $80 billion dollars a year. Additionally, 4,751,400 adults in 2013 were on parole. In total, 6,899,000 adults were under correctional supervision in 2013 – about 2.8% of adults in the U. S. resident population. In 2014, the total number of persons in the adult correctional systems had fallen to 6,851,000 persons 52,200 fewer offenders than at the year end of 2013 as reported by the BJS. About 1 in 36 adults were under some form of correctional supervision – the lowest rate since 1996.
On average, the correctional population has declined by 1.0% since 2007. In 2016, the total number of persons in U. S. adult correctional systems was an estimated 6,613,500. From 2007 to 2016, the correctional population decreased by an average of 1.2% annually. By the end of 2016 1 in 38 persons in the United States were under correctional supervision. In addition, there were 54,148 juveniles in juvenile detention in 2013. Although debtor's prisons no longer exist in the United States, residents of some U. S. states can still be incarcerated for debt as of 2016. The Vera Institute of Justice reported in 2015 that majority of those incarcerated in local and county jails are there for minor violations, have been jailed for longer periods of time over the past 30 years because they are unable to pay court-imposed costs. According to a 2014 Human Rights Watch report, "tough-on-crime" laws adopted since the 1980s, have filled U. S. prisons with nonviolent offenders. However, the Bureau of Justice Statistics reported that, as of the end of 2015, 54% of state prisoners sentenced to more than 1 year were serving time for a violent offense.
Fifteen percent of state prisoners at year-end 2015 had been convicted of a drug offense as their most serious. In comparison, 47% of federal prisoners serving time in September 2016 were convicted of a drug offense; this policy failed to rehabilitate prisoners and many were worse on release than before incarceration. Rehabilitation programs for offenders can be more cost effective than prison. According to a 2015 study by the Brennan Center for Justice, falling crime rates cannot be ascribed to mass incarceration. Conversely, Steven Levitt showed in a 2004 paper that at least 58% of the violent crime drop in the 1990s was due to incarceration. According to a 2016 analysis of federal data by the U. S. Education Department and local spending on incarceration has grown three times as much as spending on public education since 1980. Throughout the 1500s, the people of England considered idleness to be the cause of many crimes, therefore found the solution to be creating workhouses as a system to rehabilitate criminals.
Though many of the first people in the foundation of these "houses of correction" were vagrants without homes. In the 1700s, English philanthropists began to focus on the reform of convicted criminals in prisons, which they believed needed a chance to become morally pure in order to stop or slow crime. Since at least 1740, some of these philosophers began thinking of solitary confinement as a way to create and maintain spiritually clean people in prisons; as English people immigrated to North America, so did these theories of penology. Spanish colonizers brought ideas on confinement. Spanish soldiers in St. Augustine, Florida built the first substantial prison; some of the first structures built in English-settled America were jails, by the 18th century, every English North American county had a jail. These jails served a variety of functions such as a holding place for debtors, prisoners-of-war, political prisoners, those bound in the penal transportation and slavery systems, of those accused-of but not tried for crimes.
Sentences for those convicted of crimes were longer than three months, lasted only a day. Poor citizens were imprisoned for longer than their richer neighbors, as bail was not accepted. In 1841, Dorothea Dix discovered. Prisoners were chained naked. Others, criminally insane, were placed in cellars, or closets, she insisted on changes throughout the rest of her life. While focusing on the insane, her comments resulted in changes for other inmates. In the United States criminal law is a concurrent power. Individuals who violate state laws and/or territorial laws are placed in state or territorial prisons, while those who violate United States federal law are placed in federal prisons operated by the Federal Bureau of Prisons, an agency of the United States Department of Justice; the BOP houses adult felons convicted of violating District of Columbia laws due to the National Capital Revitalization and Self-Government Improvement Act of 1997. As of 2004, state prisons proportionately house more violent felons, so state prisons in general gained a more negative reputation compared to federal prisons.
In 2016 90% of prisoners were in state prisons. At senten
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine known as ecstasy, is a psychoactive drug used as a recreational drug. The desired effects include altered sensations and increased energy and pleasure; when taken by mouth, effects begin after 30 -- last 3 -- 6 hours. Adverse effects include addiction, memory problems, difficulty sleeping, teeth grinding, blurred vision, a rapid heartbeat. Deaths have been reported due to dehydration. Following use people feel depressed and tired. MDMA acts by increasing the activity of the neurotransmitters serotonin and noradrenaline in parts of the brain, it belongs to the substituted amphetamine classes of drugs and has stimulant and hallucinogenic effects. MDMA is illegal in most countries and, has no approved medical uses. Limited exceptions are sometimes made for research. Researchers are investigating whether MDMA may assist in treating severe, treatment-resistant posttraumatic stress disorder with phase 3 clinical trials to look at effectiveness and safety expected to begin in 2018.
In 2017 the FDA granted MDMA a breakthrough therapy designation for PTSD, meaning if studies show promise, a review for potential medical use could occur more quickly. MDMA was first made in 1912, it was used to improve psychotherapy beginning in the 1970s and became popular as a street drug in the 1980s. MDMA is associated with dance parties and electronic dance music, it is sold mixed with other substances such as ephedrine and methamphetamine. In 2016, about 21 million people between the ages of 15 and 64 used ecstasy; this was broadly similar to the percentage of people who use cocaine or amphetamines, but fewer than for cannabis or opioids. In the United States, as of 2017, about 7% of people have used MDMA at some point in their life and 0.9% have used in the last year. In general, MDMA users report feeling the onset of subjective effects within 30–60 minutes of MDMA consumption and reaching the peak effect at 75–120 minutes, which plateaus for about 3.5 hours. The desired short-term psychoactive effects of MDMA have been reported to include: Euphoria – a sense of general well-being and happiness Increased self-confidence and feelings of communication being easy or simple Entactogenic effects – increased empathy or feelings of closeness with others and oneself Relaxation and reduced anxiety Increased emotionality A sense of inner peace Mild hallucination Enhanced sensation, perception, or sexuality Altered sense of timeThe experience elicited by MDMA depends on the dose and user.
The variability of the induced altered state by MDMA is lower compared to other psychedelics. For example, MDMA used at parties is associated with high motor activity, reduced sense of self-identity as well as poor awareness of the background surroundings. Use of MDMA individually or in a small groups in a quiet environment and when concentrating, is associated with increased lucidity, capability of concentration, sensitivity of aesthetic aspects of the background and emotions, as well as greater capability of communication with others. In psychotherapeutic settings MDMA effects have been described by infantile ideas, alternating phases of mood, sometimes memories and moods connected with childhood experiences. Sometimes MDMA is labelled as an "empathogenic" drug, because of its empathy-producing effects. Results of different studies show its effects of powerful empathy with others; when testing the MDMA for medium and high dosage ranges it showed increase on hedonic as well as arousal continuum.
The effect of MDMA increasing sociability is consistent, however effects on empathy have been more mixed. MDMA is considered the drug of choice within the rave culture and is used at clubs and house parties. In the rave environment, the sensory effects from the music and lighting are highly synergistic with the drug; the psychedelic amphetamine quality of MDMA offers multiple reasons for its appeal to users in the rave setting. Some users enjoy the feeling of mass communion from the inhibition-reducing effects of the drug, while others use it as party fuel because of the drug's stimulatory effects. MDMA is used less than other stimulants less than once per week. MDMA is sometimes taken in conjunction with other psychoactive drugs such as LSD, psilocybin mushrooms, ketamine, an act called "candy-flipping"; as of 2017, MDMA has no accepted medical indications. Before it was banned, it saw limited use in therapy. A small number of therapists continue to use MDMA in therapy despite its illegal status.
Small doses of MDMA are used as an entheogen to enhance prayer or meditation by some religious practitioners. MDMA has been used as an adjunct to New Age spiritual practices. MDMA has become known as ecstasy referring to its tablet form, although this term may include the presence of possible adulterants or dilutants; the UK term "mandy" and the US term "molly" colloquially refer to MDMA in a crystalline powder form, thought to be free of adulterants. MDMA is sold in the form of the hydrochloride salt, either as loose crystals or in gelcaps. In part due to the global supply shortage of sassafras oil, substances that are sold as molly contain no MDMA and instead contain methylone, ethylone, MDPV, mephedrone, or any other of the group of compounds known as bath salts. Powdered MDMA ranges from pure MDMA to crushed tablets with 30–40% purity. MDMA tablets have low purity due to bulking agents that are added to dilute the drug and increase profits and binding agents. Tablets sold as ecstasy sometimes contain 3,4-m
New York (state)
New York is a state in the Northeastern United States. New York was one of the original thirteen colonies. With an estimated 19.54 million residents in 2018, it is the fourth most populous state. To distinguish the state from the city with the same name, it is sometimes called New York State; the state's most populous city, New York City, makes up over 40% of the state's population. Two-thirds of the state's population lives in the New York metropolitan area, nearly 40% lives on Long Island; the state and city were both named for the 17th century Duke of York, the future King James II of England. With an estimated population of 8.62 million in 2017, New York City is the most populous city in the United States and the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. The New York metropolitan area is one of the most populous in the world. New York City is a global city, home to the United Nations Headquarters and has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, as well as the world's most economically powerful city.
The next four most populous cities in the state are Buffalo, Rochester and Syracuse, while the state capital is Albany. The 27th largest U. S. state in land area, New York has a diverse geography. The state is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south and Connecticut and Vermont to the east; the state has a maritime border with Rhode Island, east of Long Island, as well as an international border with the Canadian provinces of Quebec to the north and Ontario to the northwest. The southern part of the state is in the Atlantic coastal plain and includes Long Island and several smaller associated islands, as well as New York City and the lower Hudson River Valley; the large Upstate New York region comprises several ranges of the wider Appalachian Mountains, the Adirondack Mountains in the Northeastern lobe of the state. Two major river valleys – the north-south Hudson River Valley and the east-west Mohawk River Valley – bisect these more mountainous regions. Western New York is considered part of the Great Lakes region and borders Lake Ontario, Lake Erie, Niagara Falls.
The central part of the state is dominated by the Finger Lakes, a popular vacation and tourist destination. New York had been inhabited by tribes of Algonquian and Iroquoian-speaking Native Americans for several hundred years by the time the earliest Europeans came to New York. French colonists and Jesuit missionaries arrived southward from Montreal for trade and proselytizing. In 1609, the region was visited by Henry Hudson sailing for the Dutch East India Company; the Dutch built Fort Nassau in 1614 at the confluence of the Hudson and Mohawk rivers, where the present-day capital of Albany developed. The Dutch soon settled New Amsterdam and parts of the Hudson Valley, establishing the multicultural colony of New Netherland, a center of trade and immigration. England seized the colony from the Dutch in 1664. During the American Revolutionary War, a group of colonists of the Province of New York attempted to take control of the British colony and succeeded in establishing independence. In the 19th century, New York's development of access to the interior beginning with the Erie Canal, gave it incomparable advantages over other regions of the U.
S. built its political and cultural ascendancy. Many landmarks in New York are well known, including four of the world's ten most-visited tourist attractions in 2013: Times Square, Central Park, Niagara Falls, Grand Central Terminal. New York is home to the Statue of Liberty, a symbol of the United States and its ideals of freedom and opportunity. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability. New York's higher education network comprises 200 colleges and universities, including Columbia University, Cornell University, New York University, the United States Military Academy, the United States Merchant Marine Academy, University of Rochester, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top 40 in the nation and world; the tribes in what is now New York were predominantly Algonquian. Long Island was divided in half between the Wampanoag and Lenape; the Lenape controlled most of the region surrounding New York Harbor.
North of the Lenape was the Mohicans. Starting north of them, from east to west, were three Iroquoian nations: the Mohawk, the original Iroquois and the Petun. South of them, divided along Appalachia, were the Susquehannock and the Erie. Many of the Wampanoag and Mohican peoples were caught up in King Philip's War, a joint effort of many New England tribes to push Europeans off their land. After the death of their leader, Chief Philip Metacomet, most of those peoples fled inland, splitting into the Abenaki and the Schaghticoke. Many of the Mohicans remained in the region until the 1800s, however, a small group known as the Ouabano migrated southwest into West Virginia at an earlier time, they may have merged with the Shawnee. The Mohawk and Susquehannock were the most militaristic. Trying to corner trade with the Europeans, they targeted other tribes; the Mohawk were known for refusing white settlement on their land and banishing any of their people who converted to Christianity. They posed a major threat to the Abenaki and Mohicans, while the Susquehannock conquered the Lenape in the 1600s.
The most devastating event of the century, was the Beaver Wars. From 1640–1680, Iroquoian peoples waged campaigns which extended from modern-day Michigan to Virginia against Algonquian and Siouan tribes, as well as each other; the ai
Nancy Davis Reagan was an American film actress and the wife of Ronald Reagan, the 40th President of the United States. She was the First Lady of the United States from 1981 to 1989, she was born in New York City. After her parents separated, she lived in Maryland with an uncle for several years; when her mother remarried in 1929, she moved to Chicago and took the name Davis from her stepfather. As Nancy Davis, she was a Hollywood actress in the 1940s and 1950s, starring in films such as The Next Voice You Hear... Night into Morning, Donovan's Brain. In 1952, she married Ronald Reagan, president of the Screen Actors Guild, they had two children together. Reagan was the First Lady of California when her husband was Governor from 1967 to 1975, she began to work with the Foster Grandparents Program. Reagan became First Lady of the United States in January 1981, following her husband's victory in the 1980 presidential election. Early in his first term, she was criticized due to her decision to replace the White House china, paid for by private donations.
Following years of lax formality, she decided to restore a Kennedyesque glamour to the White House, her interest in high-end fashion garnered much attention as well as criticism. She championed recreational drug prevention causes when she founded the "Just Say No" drug awareness campaign, considered her major initiative as First Lady. More discussion of her role ensued following a 1988 revelation that she had consulted an astrologer to assist in planning the president's schedule after the attempted assassination of her husband in 1981, she had a strong influence on her husband and played a role in a few of his personnel and diplomatic decisions. After Ronald Reagan's term as president ended, the couple returned to their home in Bel Air, Los Angeles, California. Nancy devoted most of her time to caring for her husband, diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease in 1994, until his death at the age of 93 on June 5, 2004. Reagan remained active within the Reagan Library and in politics in support of embryonic stem cell research, until her death from congestive heart failure at age 94 on March 6, 2016.
Anne Frances Robbins was born on July 1921, at Sloane Hospital for Women in Midtown Manhattan. She was the only child of Kenneth Seymour Robbins, a farmer turned car salesman, born into a once-prosperous family, his actress wife, Edith Prescott Luckett, her godmother was silent-film-star Alla Nazimova. From birth, she was called Nancy, she lived her first two years in Flushing, Queens, a borough of New York City, in a two-story house on Roosevelt Avenue between 149th and 150th Streets. Her parents separated soon after her birth and were divorced in 1928. After their separation, her mother traveled the country to pursue acting jobs and Robbins was raised in Bethesda, for six years by her aunt, Virginia Luckett, uncle, Audley Gailbraith, where she attended The Sidwell Friends School,K-2 grades. Nancy described longing for her mother during those years: "My favorite times were when Mother had a job in New York, Aunt Virgie would take me by train to stay with her."In 1929, her mother married Loyal Edward Davis, a prominent conservative neurosurgeon who moved the family to Chicago.
Nancy and her stepfather got along well. He formally adopted her in 1938, she would always refer to him as her father. At the time of the adoption, her name was changed to Nancy Davis, she attended the Girls' Latin School of Chicago, she graduated in 1939, attended Smith College in Massachusetts, where she majored in English and drama, graduated in 1943. In 1940, a young Davis had appeared as a National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis volunteer in a memorable short subject film shown in movie theaters to raise donations for the crusade against polio; the Crippler featured a sinister figure spreading over playgrounds and farms, laughing over its victims, until dispelled by the volunteer. It was effective in raising contributions. Following her graduation from college, Davis held jobs in Chicago as a sales clerk in Marshall Field's department store and as a nurse's aide. With the help of her mother's colleagues in theatre, including ZaSu Pitts, Walter Huston, Spencer Tracy, she pursued a professional career as an actress.
She first gained a part in Pitts' 1945 road tour of Ramshackle Inn. She landed the role of Si-Tchun, a lady-in-waiting, in the 1946 Broadway musical about the Orient, Lute Song, starring Mary Martin and a pre-fame Yul Brynner; the show's producer told her, "You look like you could be Chinese."After passing a screen test, she moved to California and signed a seven-year contract with Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Studios Inc. in 1949. Her combination of attractive appearance—centered on her large eyes—and somewhat distant and understated manner made her hard at first for MGM to cast and publicize. Davis appeared in eleven feature films typecast as a "loyal housewife", "responsible young mother", or "the steady woman". Jane Powell, Debbie Reynolds, Leslie Caron, Janet Leigh were among the actresses with whom she competed for roles at MGM. Davis' film career began with small supporting roles in two films that were released in 1949, The Doctor and the Girl with Glenn Ford and East Side, West Side starring Barbara Stanwyck.
She played a child psychiatrist in the film noir Shadow on the Wall with Ann Sothern and Zachary Scott.