Julianne Moore is an American actress and children's author. Prolific in film since the early 1990s, she is known for her portrayals of troubled women in both independent and Hollywood films, has received many accolades, including the Academy Award for Best Actress. After studying theatre at Boston University, Moore began her career with a series of television roles. From 1985 to 1988, she was a regular in the soap opera As the World Turns, earning a Daytime Emmy Award for her performance, her film debut was in Tales from the Darkside: The Movie, she continued to play small roles for the next four years, including in the thriller The Hand That Rocks the Cradle. Moore first received critical attention with Robert Altman's Short Cuts, successive performances in Vanya on 42nd Street and Safe continued this acclaim. Starring roles in the blockbusters Nine Months and The Lost World: Jurassic Park established her as a leading lady in Hollywood. Moore received considerable recognition in the late 1990s and early 2000s, earning Oscar nominations for Boogie Nights, The End of the Affair, Far from Heaven and The Hours.
In the first of these, she played a 1970s pornographic actress, while the other three featured her as an unhappy, mid-20th century housewife. She had success with the films The Big Lebowski, Hannibal, Children of Men, A Single Man, The Kids Are All Right, Crazy, Stupid and won several awards for her portrayal of Sarah Palin in the television film Game Change. Moore went on to give an Academy Award-winning performance as an Alzheimer's patient in Still Alice and was named Best Actress at the Cannes Film Festival for Maps to the Stars, she appeared in the final two films of The Hunger Games series and starred in the spy film Kingsman: The Golden Circle. In addition to acting, Moore has written a series of children's books about a character named "Freckleface Strawberry", she is married to director Bart Freundlich. Moore was born Julie Anne Smith on December 3, 1960, at the Fort Bragg army installation in North Carolina, the oldest of 3 siblings, her father, Peter Moore Smith, a paratrooper in the United States Army during the Vietnam War, attained the rank of colonel and became a military judge.
Her Scottish mother, was a psychologist and social worker from Greenock, who emigrated to the United States in 1951 with her family. Moore has a younger sister, Valerie Smith, a younger brother, the novelist Peter Moore Smith; as Moore is half-Scottish, she claimed British citizenship in 2011 to honor her deceased mother. Moore moved around the United States as a child, due to her father's occupation, she was close to her family as a result, but has said she never had the feeling of coming from one particular place. The family lived in multiple locations, including Alabama, Texas, Nebraska, New York, Virginia, Moore attended nine different schools; the constant relocating made her an insecure child, she struggled to establish friendships. Despite these difficulties, Moore remarked that an itinerant lifestyle was beneficial to her future career: "When you move around a lot, you learn that behavior is mutable. I would change, depending on where I was... It teaches you to watch, to reinvent, that character can change."When Moore was 16, the family moved from Falls Church, where Moore had been attending J.
E. B. Stuart High School, to Frankfurt, where she attended Frankfurt American High School, she was clever and studious, a self-proclaimed "good girl", she planned to become a doctor. She had never considered performing, or attended the theatre, but she was an avid reader and it was this hobby that led her to begin acting at the school, she appeared in several plays, including Tartuffe and Medea, with the encouragement of her English teacher, she chose to pursue a theatrical career. Moore's parents supported her decision, but asked that she train at university to provide the added security of a college degree, she was accepted to Boston University and graduated with a BFA in Theatre in 1983. Moore moved to New York City after graduating, worked as a waitress. After registering her stage name with Actors' Equity, she began her career in 1985 with off-Broadway theatre, her first screen role came in an episode of the soap opera The Edge of Night. Her break came the following year. Playing the dual roles of half-sisters Frannie and Sabrina Hughes, she found this intensive work to be an important learning experience, she said of it fondly: "I gained confidence and learned to take responsibility."
Moore performed on the show until 1988, when she won a Daytime Emmy Award for Outstanding Ingenue in a Drama Series. Before leaving As the World Turns, she had a role in the 1987 CBS miniseries I'll Take Manhattan. Once she had finished the soap opera, she turned to the stage to play Ophelia in a Guthrie Theater production of Hamlet opposite Željko Ivanek; the actress returned intermittently to television over the next three years, appearing in the TV movies Money, Murder, The Last to Go, Cast a Deadly Spell. In 1990, Moore began working with stage director Andre Gregory on a workshop theatre production of Chekhov's Uncle Vanya. Described by Moore as "one of the most fundamentally important acting experiences I had", the group spent four years exploring the text and giving intimate performances to friends. In 1990, Moore made her cinematic debut as a mummy's victim in Tales from the Darksid
Falls Church High School
Falls Church High School is a high school located in West Falls Church, Virginia, in unincorporated Fairfax County. While the school has a Falls Church mailing address, the school does not serve the City of Falls Church, served by George Mason High School. Falls Church High School's current Principal is Ben Nowak; the school serves grades 9 through 12. It was relocated from its former site in downtown Falls Church to the current address, 7521 Jaguar Trail, Falls Church, Virginia 22042 in 1967 Falls Church High's school motto is "Building on Our Success." The mascot for the school is a Jaguar. The school colors are white. There are 1,960 students enrolled in Falls Church High School 2016–2017 school year. Falls Church's student body in the 2016–2017 school year is 364 White. Regarding the sexes of the student's population, there are 918 females in the 2016–2017 school year, while male population in the student body is 1,042, 53.16%. The majority of Falls Church High School's students are enrolled in general education, which are 1,748 students, taking up 89.18% of the student body.
309 students of student education are enrolled in special service education. The graduation rate is 85% The school was in the city of Falls Church on Cherry Street. Moved to current location on 7521 Jaguar Trail, Falls Church, Virginia 22042 Whittier Intermediate School, it is located off Arlington Boulevard, near Kingsley Commons Jefferson Village Apartments, Graham Road Shopping Center. Dr. Ben Nowak is the current Principal of Falls Church High School, he came into the position after former Principal Mike Yohe, who served two years as assistant principal for FCHS before being promoted to the position of Principal during the summer of 2013 upon the departure of former principal Cathy Benner. Falls Church High School is accredited based on its Virginia Standards of Learning test performance; the school was listed as the 603rd best high school in America by U. S. News & World Report in 2013. On December 5, 2006, Falls Church High School was named a National Demonstration Site for the elective class Advancement Via Individual Determination.
Falls Church is one of only two schools in Fairfax county. Lynne Cheney, scholar, former talk-show host, former Vice President Dick Cheney was the guest commencement speaker for the class of 2004 at the inaugural graduation ceremony held at the George Mason University Patriot Center. On June 1, 2007, at the Jaguars' graduation at the Patriot Center, on the campus of George Mason University, Ben Affleck made a special appearance as the guest speaker thanks to the Make-A-Wish Foundation. With the start of the 2010–2011 school year, Falls Church gained some of Annandale High School's population as the result of the Annandale Border Control Force and their actions. In the winter of 2010, two students qualified for the state Intel science fair: Junior Amanda Harbison and sophomore Maggie Cullather; the FCHS Marching Jags were named honor band in 2006. They won a superior rating in 2008, with their show "Music of the Police" and another superior rating in 2009 concert festival with their playing of selections titled "True Blue March" "Chant and Jubilo" and closing with "Dominion in the Sky".
Having won a superior rating at states in both marching and concert they earned the title of Honor Band for the first time in 55 years. During the 2009 football season, The Jaguars maintained a 5-5 record, led by varsity quarterback Ajay Kashyap, during the regular season; the high note of the season was during week seven when the Jaguars upset the AAA National District powerhouse Thomas A. Edison High School Eagles 16-14; this was the Jaguars' first win over the Eagles since 1998 and the Eagles' first AAA National District loss since 2005. The Jaguars won their homecoming against the Mount Vernon High School Majors 42-32 and the Bell Game against rival J. E. B. Stuart High School 42-20. During the season, Senior Running back Marcus Hughes rushed for a region high 1741 yards on 245 carries averaging 7.2 Yards per carry and 19 touchdowns. During the 2013 season, the Jaguars are off to a 6-2 start, guaranteeing a spot in the play offs; the Jaguars have not made it to the playoffs in the last century, nor have they had a winning record in many years.
The Jaguars defeated Annandale at Annandale 43-27. This year the Jaguars won; the Jaguars have been receiving a lot of attention in the news and by newspapers and reporters Also, many online polls have been won with the help of the FCHS Hype Squad, "The Jungle". In 2013, the Jags won the Bell Game vs Stuart 35-13. In the playoffs the Jaguars played Ablemarle High School from Charlotteville at home; the Jags won 24-23 by a missed field goal from Ablemarle within the last few minutes of the game. The Jags advanced to the second round of playoffs away at Massaponax down in Fredericksburg. Head football coach Said Aziz was voted the Northern Virginia coach of the year in 2013. In 2014 the Jaguars went 7-3, lost in the first round of the playoffs. 2016, the Jaguars went 7-3, again winning the conference, again losing the Albemerle in the first round of the playoffs. During the 2010 cheer season, the Jaguars won district championship and
Fairfax County Public Schools
The Fairfax County Public Schools system is a school division in the U. S. commonwealth of Virginia. It is a branch of the Fairfax County government which administers public schools in Fairfax County and the City of Fairfax. FCPS's headquarters is located in the Gatehouse Administration Center in Merrifield, an unincorporated section of the county near the city of Falls Church. With over 180,000 students enrolled, FCPS is the largest public school system in Virginia, as well as the largest in the Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area; the school division is led by Division Superintendent Dr. Scott S. Brabrand. Dr. Brabrand was appointed Superintendent in June 2017; the school division is the 10th largest school system in the nation and as of 2017 maintains the seventh-largest school bus fleet of any school system in the United States. The public school system in Fairfax County was created after the Civil War with the adoption by Virginia of the Reconstruction-era state constitution in 1870, which provided for the first time that a free public education was a constitutional right.
The first superintendent of Schools for Fairfax County was Thomas M. Moore, sworn in on September 26, 1870. At the time of its creation, the Fairfax County Public Schools system consisted of 41 schools, 28 white and 13 colored schools. In 1886, Milton D. Hall was appointed superintendent, he would serve for 44 years until his retirement in 1929. Fairfax County Schools, like most school systems in the south, schools practiced de jure segregation. There were local elementary schools for black students but not high schools. Although Fairfax was a densely populated area, there were proportionately few black high school students. Fairfax, Prince William, Loudoun and Fauquier Counties shared the high school for black students; the school was centrally located between the counties in Manassas. Others attended high schools in Washington, D. C. where many had relatives. Those schools were Armstrong High School, Cardozo High School, Dunbar High School, Phelps Vocational Center in Washington, D. C. In 1951 Fairfax County, at the request of residents for a black high school, began construction of the Luther Jackson School.
The opening coincided with the Brown decision passed in 1954. In 1954, FCPS had 6 high schools; that year, the Luther Jackson High School, the first high school for black students, opened in Falls Church. The Supreme Court ruling in Brown v. Board of Education ordered an end to racial segregation. In response, the Commonwealth of Virginia enacted legislation to stop the process of desegregation, took control of all the schools in Virginia, resorted to closing school systems attempting to desegregate; when Arlington County announced an early attempt at a desegregation plan, its school board was fired by the State Board of Education. In 1955 the Fairfax School Board, renamed the "Committee on Desegregation" to the "Committee on Segregation" after a petition and thread of litigation from a civic group called "Virginia Citizens’ Committee for Better Schools". After the Brown v. Board of Education decision, Daniel Duke, author of Education Empire, wrote: "Whether local school systems such as Fairfax County, left to their own, would have moved forward to implement desegregation in the late fifties will never be known.
Richmond removed any possibility of local option..." It was recognized in court cases that it was the state, running the show, not the county. The ruling from the court stated, "Prior to the Brown decision Fairfax County maintained a dual school system: one for Negro students. Shortly thereafter the placement of all children in the Fairfax County schools was taken from the local School Board and vested in the state Pupil Placement Board; the assignment of students remained with the state Board until the 1961–62 school year, at which time placement responsibilities were reinvested in the local School Board. Fairfax County began their desegregation efforts shortly thereafter; as early as 1955 it was noted that in the Virginia General Assembly: Delegates from Northern Virginia opposed the Stanley plans as well as calls for more radical legislation. Virginia's 10th district was the only congressional district to vote against the Gray Plan. Delegate Boatwright introduced another bill aimed at correcting the unorthodox views of the northern Virginians.
Boatwright's legislation would have prohibited certain federal employees from serving on school boards or holding other local offices. The point of this bill, called the "Boatwright Bill" was without a doubt aimed at Northern Virginia and the School Boards. Boatwright himself said his bill affected all of Virginia communities but admitted Northern Virginia was most affected; the reason for the bill was because they felt that Federal Employees were in support of the Federal government's position on integration. The seven-member Fairfax County School Board included four Federal employees. In Blackwell v. Fairfax County School Board, black plaintiffs charged that the Fairfax grade-a-year plan was discriminatory and dilatory. Fifteen black children had been refused admission to white schools because they did not fall within the prescribed grades of the School Board's assignment plan; the plaintiffs contended that the speed of desegregation was too slow under the school board's plan. In accepting the plaintiff's argument, District Judge Albert V. Bryan did not categorically rule out such plans.
Instead, he emphasized. Since the black school population of Fairfax County was less than four percent, Bryan considered the fear of racial friction an unacceptable
Thurgood Marshall was an American lawyer, serving as Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from October 1967 until October 1991. Marshall was its first African-American justice. Prior to his judicial service, he argued several cases before the Supreme Court, including Brown v. Board of Education. Born in Baltimore, Marshall graduated from the Howard University School of Law in 1933, he established a private legal practice in Baltimore before founding the NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund, where he served as executive director. In that position, he argued several cases before the Supreme Court, including Smith v. Allwright, Shelley v. Kraemer, Brown v. Board of Education, which held that racial segregation in public education is a violation of the Equal Protection Clause. In 1961, President John F. Kennedy appointed Marshall to the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit. Four years President Lyndon B. Johnson appointed Marshall as the United States Solicitor General.
In 1967, Johnson nominated Marshall to succeed retiring Associate Justice Tom C. Clark. Marshall retired during the administration of President George H. W. Bush, was succeeded by Clarence Thomas. Marshall was born in Baltimore, Maryland, on July 2, 1908, he was descended from enslaved peoples on both sides of his family. His original name was Thoroughgood, his father, William Canfield Marshall, worked as a railroad porter, his mother Norma Arica, as a teacher. Marshall first learned how to debate from his father, who took Marshall and his brother to watch court cases; the family debated current events after dinner. Marshall said, he did it by teaching me to argue, by challenging my logic on every point, by making me prove every statement I made."Marshall attended Frederick Douglass High School in Baltimore and was placed in the class with the best students. He graduated a year early in 1925 with a B-grade average, placed in the top third of the class, he went to Lincoln University, a black university in Pennsylvania.
It is reported that he intended to study medicine and become a dentist. But according to his application to Lincoln University, Marshall said his goal was to become a lawyer. Among his classmates were poet Langston Hughes and musician Cab Calloway, he did not take his studies and was suspended twice for hazing and pranks against fellow students. He was not politically active at first. In his first year Marshall opposed the integration of African-American professors at the university. Hughes described Marshall as "rough and ready and wrong". In his second year Marshall participated in a sit-in protest against segregation at a local movie theater; that year he was initiated as a member of Alpha Phi Alpha, the first fraternity founded by and for blacks. In September 1929 he married Vivien Buster Burey and began to take his studies graduating from Lincoln with honors Bachelor of Arts in Humanities, with a major in American literature and philosophy. Marshall wanted to study in his hometown law school, the University of Maryland School of Law, but did not apply because of the school's segregation policy.
Marshall attended Howard University School of Law. His views on discrimination were influenced by the dean, Charles Hamilton Houston. In 1933, Marshall graduated first in his law class at Howard. After graduating from law school, Marshall started a private law practice in Baltimore, he began his 25-year affiliation with the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People in 1934 by representing the organization in the law school discrimination suit Murray v. Pearson. In 1936, Marshall became part of the national staff of the NAACP. In Murray v. Pearson, Marshall represented Donald Gaines Murray, a black Amherst College graduate with excellent credentials, denied admission to the University of Maryland Law School because of its segregation policy. Black students in Maryland wanting to study law had to attend segregated establishments, Morgan College, the Princess Anne Academy, or out-of-state black institutions. Using the strategy developed by Nathan Margold, Marshall argued that Maryland's segregation policy violated the "separate but equal" doctrine of Plessy v. Ferguson because the state did not provide a comparable educational opportunity at a state-run black institution.
The Maryland Court of Appeals ruled against the state of Maryland and its Attorney General, who represented the University of Maryland, stating, "Compliance with the Constitution cannot be deferred at the will of the state. Whatever system is adopted for legal education must furnish equality of treatment now." At the age of 32, Marshall won U. S. Supreme Court case Chambers v. Florida, 309 U. S. 227. That same year, he founded and became the executive director of the NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund; as the head of the Legal Defense Fund, he argued many other civil rights cases before the Supreme Court, most of them including Smith v. Allwright, 321 U. S. 649. S. 1. S. 629. S. 637. His most famous case as a lawyer was Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 347 U. S. 483, the case in which the Supreme Court ruled that "separate but equal" public education, as established b
Bruce L. Cohen is a film and theater producer. Cohen was raised in Falls Church, Virginia. In 1983, he graduated from Yale University with a Bachelor of Arts in Film Studies. After school, he moved to Los Angeles where he accepted a clerical job as a Directors Guild of America trainee on Steven Spielberg's The Color Purple, went on to serve as associate producer and first assistant director on Spielberg's Hook. Cohen won the Academy Award for Best Picture for producing American Beauty, he earned additional Best Picture nominations for Silver Linings Playbook. American Beauty, directed by Sam Mendes, won a total of five Oscars, as well as the Golden Globe, British Academy of Film and Television, Producers Guild of America awards. Milk, directed by Gus Van Sant, was nominated for eight Academy Awards and won Oscars for Best Actor and Best Original Screenplay, as well as the PGA's Stanley Kramer Award. Silver Linings Playbook and directed by David O. Russell, was nominated for eight Oscars, it was the first film in 31 years to be nominated in all four acting categories, Jennifer Lawrence won the Oscar in the Best Actress category.
Among the other films Cohen has produced is Big Fish, directed by Tim Burton, both a Golden Globe and BAFTA nominee for Best Picture. He is a lead producer of the stage musical version of Big Fish, now on Broadway at the Neil Simon Theatre, with direction and choreography by five-time Tony winner Susan Stroman. In television, Cohen was executive producer of the ABC series Pushing Daisies, which won a total of seven Emmys and was nominated for a Golden Globe as Best Comedy, he was executive producer of the CBS special Movies Rock, was nominated for an Emmy in 2011 for producing the 83rd Annual Academy Awards. Cohen is on the Board of Governors of the Producer's Guild, having served two terms as vice president of motion pictures, is on the Executive Committee of the Producer's Branch of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, he is president of the board of directors of the American Foundation for Equal Rights, the group behind the successful Supreme Court case to have California's Proposition 8 declared unconstitutional.
He is married to Gabriel Catone and they have a daughter. Bruce Cohen on IMDb
Oakton High School
Oakton High School is a public secondary school in unincorporated Fairfax County, Virginia, in proximity to the town of Vienna, in the United States. Oakton High School is not located in the town of Oakton, it is part of Fairfax County Public Schools. Oakton operates on a block schedule five days a week, alternating between "Burgundy" and "Gold" days, it is led by Principal Jamie Lane and several assistant principals. Oakton High School was founded in 1967 in Virginia; the original Oakton High School was located in the facility, now used by Oakton Elementary School. When it opened, Oakton was the host facility for an IBM 1401, Fairfax County's first computer. A computer curriculum, one of the first offered at the high school level, was available to full-time Oakton students and to students from several other county high schools on a part-time basis; this system was retired in the early seventies when Fairfax County installed an IBM 360 mainframe at the Annandale campus of Northern Virginia Community College.
In 1973, after a tornado struck W. T. Woodson High School, their students attended the remainder of the school year in a split shift at Oakton High School; the school achieved international notoriety in 2009 when it suspended, threatened to expel, a student for taking a birth control pill while on school premises. The incident was referenced during the August 3, 2009 episode of The Colbert Report, with the show satirically portraying the student as a "druggie". Like most Fairfax County schools, the building is of considerable size, consisting of two stories in order to accommodate its large population of students; the school is divided into separate hallways for individual subjects, with English and History predominantly on the second floor, Science residing on the first. Since the renovations have begun, all Math classes are now being taught in trailers where the tennis courts used to be. Oakton High School is a accredited high school based on the Standards of Learning tests in Virginia; the average SAT score in 2006 for Oakton High School was 1,703.
Crossfield Elementary School, Fox Mill Elementary School, Mosby Woods Elementary School, Navy Elementary School, Oakton Elementary School, Waples Mill Elementary School, Franklin Middle School,Luther Jackson, Rachel Carson Middle School are all in the Oakton School Pyramid. The school offers a wide variety of elective courses and allows students to participate in academy courses. Elective courses include psychology, various engineering courses, video production, multivariable calculus with linear algebra and six foreign languages. Oakton offers an Advanced Placement program and a large variety of AP classes in major subject areas, including English, Social Studies, Foreign Languages, Performing Arts and Fine Arts. Post-AP courses, such as multivariable calculus and linear algebra are available to sufficiently advanced students. In 2018, Oakton High School was ranked by US News & World Report #247 nationally in its report ranking the best high schools across the USA. In the same report, Oakton was ranked as the #6 high school in Virginia.
Oakton's Performing Arts Department, which includes band, choral and theatre arts departments earns distinction as one of the premier performing arts programs in the area. In 2008, the performing arts department won the prestigious Blue Ribbon Award, a result of Superior ratings for all Band and Orchestra groups in state festivals; the Oakton Band program is in its 8th year and has been under the direction of Dr. James "Jamie" VanValkenburg since 2012; the program consists of a marching band, three concert bands, two jazz bands, a winter color guard, drumline program, several guitar classes and ensembles. Oakton has been recognized as a Virginia Honor Band twenty three times, including eleven consecutive years from 1995 to 2005; this award is given to bands that receive superior marks for marching and concert performances of the top band. The marching band has won countless other awards at competitions throughout the country, in addition, has been featured in parades and professional football games.
The concert bands have made many appearances at Fiesta-val competitions, including locales such as Orlando, Myrtle Beach, Chicago. The Oakton Band program is deep-seated in tradition, with the exception of the saxophone section, who's just kind of there; every August, the marching band will spend time in Orkney Springs, Virginia to focus on the drill and isolated friend groups for the year's program and suffer in the summer weather of the Shenandoah Valley. Furthermore, Oakton hosts a large fundraiser; the Classic has been held annually every year since 1984, with a gap year in 2012. Oakton High School has four regular in-school choruses; the department includes two eighth period specialty groups: Jazz choir and Show choir. The department is under the direction of Tiffany Powell, has competed in such locations as Atlanta, New York, Orlando. In the spring of 2010, the department traveled to New York and competed in Festivals of Music: New York. At the event and the combined women's choir, comprising members of both Chamber and Select Women's, were awarded the best mixed and women's choirs awards.
Madrigals has had the opportunity to sing at the Kennedy Center in Washington DC along with the Washington Chorus. Oakton High School's drama program puts on a few plays i
George Catlett Marshall Jr. was an American statesman and soldier. He rose through the United States Army to become Chief of Staff under presidents Franklin D. Roosevelt and Harry S. Truman served as Secretary of State and Secretary of Defense under Truman. Winston Churchill lauded Marshall as the "organizer of victory" for his leadership of the Allied victory in World War II, although Marshall declined a final field leadership position that went to his protege U. S. President, Dwight D. Eisenhower. After the war, as Secretary of State, Marshall advocated a significant U. S. economic and political commitment to post-war European recovery, including the Marshall Plan that bore his name. In recognition of this work, he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1953. Born in Uniontown, Marshall graduated from the Virginia Military Institute in 1901. After serving as commandant of students at the Danville Military Academy in Danville, Marshall received his commission as a second lieutenant of Infantry in February, 1902.
In the years after the Spanish–American War, he served in the United States and overseas in positions of increasing rank and responsibility, including platoon leader and company commander in the Philippines during the Philippine–American War. He was the Honor Graduate of his Infantry-Cavalry School Course in 1907, graduated first in his 1908 Army Staff College class. In 1916 Marshall was assigned as aide-de-camp to J. Franklin Bell, the commander of the Western Department. After the United States entered World War I, Marshall served with Bell while Bell commanded the Department of the East, he was assigned to the staff of the 1st Division, assisted with the organization's mobilization and training in the United States, as well as planning of its combat operations in France. Subsequently, assigned to the staff of the American Expeditionary Forces headquarters, he was a key planner of American operations including the Meuse-Argonne Offensive. After the war, Marshall became an aide-de-camp to John J. Pershing, the Army's Chief of Staff.
Marshall served on the Army staff, commanded the 15th Infantry Regiment in China, was an instructor at the Army War College. In 1927, he became assistant commandant of the Army's Infantry School, where he modernized command and staff processes, which proved to be of major benefit during World War II. In 1932 and 1933 he commanded Georgia. Marshall commanded 5th Brigade, 3rd Infantry Division and Vancouver Barracks from 1936 to 1938, received promotion to brigadier general. During this command, Marshall was responsible for 35 Civilian Conservation Corps camps in Oregon and southern Washington. In July 1938, Marshall was assigned to the War Plans Division on the War Department staff, became the Army's Deputy Chief of Staff; when Chief of Staff Malin Craig retired in 1939, Marshall became acting Chief of Staff, Chief of Staff, a position he held until the war's end in 1945. As Chief of Staff, Marshall organized the largest military expansion in U. S. history, received promotion to five-star rank as General of the Army.
Marshall coordinated Allied operations in the Pacific until the end of the war. In addition to accolades from Churchill and other Allied leaders, Time magazine named Marshall its Man of the Year for 1943. Marshall retired from active service in 1945, but remained on active duty, as required for holders of five-star rank. From December 15, 1945 to January 1947 Marshall served as a special envoy to China in an unsuccessful effort to negotiate a coalition government between the Nationalists of Chiang Kai-shek and Communists under Mao Zedong; as Secretary of State from 1947 to 1949, Marshall advocated rebuilding Europe, a program that became known as the Marshall Plan, which led to his being awarded the 1953 Nobel Peace Prize. After resigning as Secretary of State, Marshall served as chairman of American Battle Monuments Commission and president of the American National Red Cross; as Secretary of Defense at the start of the Korean War, Marshall worked to restore the military's confidence and morale at the end of its post-World War II demobilization and its initial buildup for combat in Korea and operations during the Cold War.
After resigning as Defense Secretary, Marshall retired to his home in Virginia. He was buried with honors at Arlington National Cemetery. George Catlett Marshall Jr. was born into a middle-class family in Uniontown, the son of George Catlett Marshall Sr. and Laura Emily Marshall. Marshall was a scion of an old Virginia family, as well as a distant relative of former Chief Justice John Marshall; when asked about his political allegiances, Marshall joked that his father had been a Democrat and his mother a Republican, whereas he was an Episcopalian. Following his graduation from VMI, Marshall sat for a competitive examination for a commission in the United States Army. While awaiting the results, Marshall had accepted the position of Commandant of Students at the Danville Military Institute in Danville, Virginia. Marshall passed the exam and was commissioned a second lieutenant in February, 1902. Prior to World War I, Marshall received various postings in the United States and the Philippines, including serving as an infantry platoon leader and company commander during the Philippine–American War and other guerrilla uprisings.
He was schooled in modern warfare, including a tour at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas from 1906 to 1910 as both a student and an instructor. He was the Honor Graduate of his Infantry-Cavalry School Course in 1907, graduated first in his 1908 Army Staff College class. After another tour of duty in the Philippines, Marshall returned to