Shelton Jackson "Spike" Lee is an American film director, producer and actor. His production company, 40 Acres and a Mule Filmworks, has produced over 35 films since 1983, he made his directorial debut with She's Gotta Have It, has since directed such films as Do the Right Thing, Jungle Fever, Malcolm X, He Got Game, The Original Kings of Comedy, 25th Hour, Inside Man, Chi-Raq, BlacKkKlansman. Lee had starring roles in ten of his own films. Lee's films have examined race relations, colorism in the black community, the role of media in contemporary life, urban crime and poverty, other political issues, he has won numerous accolades for his work, including an Academy Award for Best Adapted Screenplay, a Student Academy Award, a BAFTA Award for Best Adapted Screenplay, two Emmy Awards, two Peabody Awards, the Cannes Grand Prix. He has received an Academy Honorary Award, an Honorary BAFTA Award, an Honorary César, the Dorothy and Lillian Gish Prize. Lee was born in Atlanta, the son of Jacqueline Carroll, a teacher of arts and black literature, William James Edward Lee III, a jazz musician and composer.
Lee has three younger siblings, Joie and Cinqué, who all worked in many different positions in Lee's films. Director Malcolm D. Lee is his cousin; when he was a child, the family moved to New York. His mother nicknamed him "Spike" during his childhood, he attended John Dewey High School in Brooklyn's Gravesend neighborhood. Lee enrolled in Morehouse College, a black college, where he made his first student film, Last Hustle in Brooklyn, he took film courses at Clark Atlanta University and graduated with a B. A. in mass communication from Morehouse. He did graduate work at New York University's Tisch School of the Arts, where he earned a Master of Fine Arts in film & television. Lee's independent film, Joe's Bed-Stuy Barbershop: We Cut Heads, was the first student film to be showcased in Lincoln Center's New Directors/New Films Festival. In 1985, Lee began work on his first feature film, She's Gotta Have It. With a budget of $175,000, he shot the film in two weeks; when the film was released in 1986, it grossed over $7,000,000 at the U.
S. box office. Lee's 1989 film Do the Right Thing was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Original Screenplay in 1989. Many people, including Hollywood's Kim Basinger, believed that Do the Right Thing deserved a Best Picture nomination. Driving Miss Daisy won Best Picture that year. Lee said in an April 7, 2006, interview with New York magazine that the other film's success, which he thought was based on safe stereotypes, hurt him more than if his film had not been nominated for an award. After the 1990 release of Mo' Better Blues, Lee was accused of antisemitism by the Anti-Defamation League and several film critics, they criticized the characters of the club owners Josh and Moe Flatbush, described as "Shylocks". Lee denied the charge, explaining that he wrote those characters in order to depict how black artists struggled against exploitation. Lee said that Lew Wasserman, Sidney Sheinberg, or Tom Pollock, the Jewish heads of MCA and Universal Studios, were unlikely to allow antisemitic content in a film they produced.
He said he could not make an antisemitic film because Jews run Hollywood, "that's a fact". His 1997 documentary 4 Little Girls, about the children killed in the 16th Street Baptist Church bombing in Birmingham, Alabama, in 1963, was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Feature Documentary. On May 2, 2007, the 50th San Francisco International Film Festival honored Spike Lee with the San Francisco Film Society's Directing Award. In 2008, he received the Wexner Prize. In 2013, he won The Dorothy and Lillian Gish Prize, one of the richest prizes in the American arts worth $300,000. In 2015, Lee received an Academy Honorary Award from the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences for his contributions to film. Lee directed and produced the MyCareer story mode in the video game NBA 2K16. Lee's film BlacKkKlansman, a drama thriller set in the 1970s, won the Grand Prix at the 2018 Cannes Film Festival, opened the following August, it received nominations for the Academy Award for Best Picture and Best Director, with Lee winning his first competitive Academy Award in the category Best Adapted Screenplay.
In 1991, Lee taught a course at Harvard about filmmaking, in 1993, he began to teach at New York University’s Tisch School of the Arts in the Graduate Film Program. It was there that he received his master of fine arts and was appointed artistic director in 2002, he is now a tenured professor at NYU. In mid-1990, Levi's began producing a series of TV commercials directed by Lee for their 501 button-fly jeans. Marketing executives from Nike offered Lee a job directing commercials for the company, they wanted to pair Lee's character, the Michael Jordan–loving Mars Blackmon, Jordan in a marketing campaign for the Air Jordan line. Lee was called on to comment on the controversy surrounding the inner-city rash of violence involving youths trying to steal Air Jordans from other kids, he said that, rather than blaming manufacturers of apparel that gained popularity, "deal with the conditions that make a kid put so much importance on a pair of sneakers, a jacket and gold". Through the marketing wing of 40 Acres and a Mule, Lee has directed commercials for Converse, Taco Bell, Ben & Jerry's.
Lee's films have examined race relations, colorism in the black community, the role of media in contemporary life, urban crime and poverty, other political issues. His films are noted for their unique stylistic elements, including the use of dolly shots to portray the characters "f
William Paxton was an American actor and director. He appeared in films such as The Terminator, Weird Science, Near Dark, Predator 2, True Lies, Apollo 13, Titanic, Mighty Joe Young, U-571, Vertical Limit, Edge of Tomorrow, Nightcrawler, he starred in the HBO drama series Big Love, earning three Golden Globe Award nominations during the show's run. He was nominated for a Primetime Emmy Award and a Screen Actors Guild Award for portraying Randall McCoy in the History channel miniseries Hatfields & McCoys. Paxton's final film appearance was in The Circle, released two months after his death. Paxton was born and raised in Fort Worth, the son of Mary Lou and John Lane Paxton, his father was a businessman, lumber wholesaler, museum executive and during his son's career, an occasional actor, most notably appearing in Sam Raimi's Spider-Man films. Paxton's great-great-grandfather was Elisha Franklin Paxton, a brigadier general in the Confederate States Army during the Civil War, killed commanding the legendary Stonewall Brigade at the Battle of Chancellorsville.
Bill's mother was Roman Catholic and he and his siblings were raised in her faith. Paxton was in the crowd when President John F. Kennedy emerged from the Hotel Texas in Fort Worth, Texas on the morning of his assassination on November 22, 1963. Photographs of an eight-year-old Paxton being lifted above the crowd are on display at the Sixth Floor Museum at Dealey Plaza in Dallas, he co-produced the film Parkland, about the assassination. Paxton is distantly related to actress Sara Paxton. On the Marc Maron podcast, Paxton revealed that at the age of 13 he contracted rheumatic fever, which had damaged his heart. During his teens, Paxton worked as a paper delivery boy with Mike Muir. Among Paxton's earliest roles were a minor role as a punk in The Terminator, a supporting role as the lead protagonist's bullying older brother Chet Donnelly in John Hughes' Weird Science and Private Hudson in Aliens, he directed several short films, including the music video for Barnes & Barnes' novelty song "Fish Heads," which aired during Saturday Night Live's low-rated 1980–81 season.
He was cast in a music video for the 1982 Pat Benatar song "Shadows of the Night" in which he appeared as a Nazi radio officer. In 1982, Paxton and his friend, Andrew Todd Rosenthal, formed a new wave musical band called Martini Ranch; the band released Holy Cow, in 1988 on Sire Records. The album was produced by Devo member Bob Casale, featured guest appearances by two other members of that band; the music video for the band's single "Reach" was directed by James Cameron. Paxton worked with Cameron on The Terminator and reunited with him on Aliens, his performance in the latter film as Private Hudson earned him the Saturn Award for Best Supporting Actor. He and Cameron collaborated again on True Lies and Titanic, the latter of, the highest-grossing film of all time at its release. In his other roles, Paxton played Morgan Earp in Tombstone, Fred Haise in Apollo 13, the male lead in Twister, lead roles in dark dramas such as One False Move and A Simple Plan. In 1990, he co-starred with Michael Biehn in Navy Seals.
Paxton directed the feature films Frailty, in which he starred, The Greatest Game Ever Played. Four years after appearing in Titanic, he joined Cameron on an expedition to the actual Titanic. A film about this trip, Ghosts of the Abyss was released in 2003, he appeared in the music video for Limp Bizkit's 2003 song "Eat You Alive" as a sheriff. His highest profile television performances received much positive attention, including his lead role in HBO's Big Love, for which Paxton received three Golden Globe Award nominations. Paxton received good reviews for his performance in the History Channel's miniseries Hatfields & McCoys, for which he was nominated for an Emmy Award alongside co-star, Kevin Costner. In 2014, he played the role of the villainous John Garrett in Agents of S. H. I. E. L. D. and a supporting role in Edge of Tomorrow. He starred alongside Jon Bernthal, Rose McGowan and John Malkovich as a playable character in the 2014 video game Call of Duty: Advanced Warfare. In February 2016, Paxton was cast as Detective Frank Rourke for Training Day, a crime-thriller television series set 15 years after the events of the eponymous 2001 movie.
Paxton was married to Kelly Rowan from 1979 to 1980. In 1987 he married Louise Newbury and they had two children: James and Lydia. In February 2017, a few weeks prior to having cardiac surgery, Paxton stated in an interview with Marc Maron that he had a damaged heart valve, the result of suffering from rheumatic fever in his youth. On February 25, 2017, Paxton died at the age of 61. A representative for the family released the following statement to the press on February 26: It is with heavy hearts we share the news that Bill Paxton has passed away due to complications from surgery. A loving husband and father, Bill began his career in Hollywood working on films in the art department and went on to have an illustrious career spanning four decades as a beloved and prolific actor and filmmaker. Bill's passion for the arts was felt by all who knew him, his warmth and tireless energy were undeniable. We ask to please respect the family's wish for privacy as they mourn the loss of their adored husband and father.
Paxton's official cause of death was a stroke, precipitated by complications after a heart valve and aorta su
Watch Dogs is an action-adventure video game developed by Ubisoft Montreal and published by Ubisoft. It was released worldwide on May 27, 2014 for Microsoft Windows, PlayStation 3, PlayStation 4, Xbox 360, Xbox One. A Wii U version was released in November 2014. Set in a fictionalized, free-roam, open world version of Chicago, the single-player story follows hacker Aiden Pearce's search for revenge after the killing of his niece; the game is played from a third-person perspective, the world is navigated on foot or by vehicle. An online multiplayer mode allows up to eight players to engage in cooperative and competitive gameplay. Development of the game began in 2009, continued for over five years. Duties were shared by many of Ubisoft's studios worldwide, with more than a thousand people involved; the developers visited Chicago to conduct field research on the setting, used regional language for authenticity. Hacking features were created in consultation with the cyber-security company Kaspersky Lab, the in-game control system was based on SCADA.
The score was composed by Brian Reitzell. Following its announcement in June 2012, Watch Dogs was anticipated. Upon release, it received a mixed reception. Watch Dogs was a commercial success, breaking the record for the biggest first-day sales of a Ubisoft game and becoming the biggest launch of a new intellectual property in the United Kingdom at the time; the game has shipped over 10 million copies. Watch Dogs is an action-adventure game, played from a third-person view; the player controls hacker Aiden Pearce, who uses his smartphone to control trains and traffic lights, infiltrate security systems, jam cellphones, access pedestrians' private information, empty their bank accounts. System hacking involves the solving of puzzles; the game is set in a fictionalized version of Chicago, an open world environment which permits free-roaming. It has a day-night cycle and dynamic weather system, which changes the behavior of non-player characters. For melee combat, Pearce has an extensible truncheon.
There is a slow motion option for gunplay, the player can use proximity IEDs, electronic lures. Lethal and non-lethal mission approaches can be enacted. Pearce can scale vertical surfaces, hack forklifts and aerial work platforms to reach places otherwise unreachable, can crouch behind walls to hide from enemies; the player has an array of vehicles with which to navigate the setting, including motorcycles, muscle cars, off-road vehicles, SUVs, luxury vehicles, sports cars, speedboats. The car radio is customizable, with about fifty songs. If the player steals a car, its driver can summon the police. A good reputation may be gained by detecting crimes, a bad reputation results from committing crimes; the skill tree is upgraded with points earned from hacking, combat and crafted items. Money can be used to purchase guns and vehicles. There are several minigames, ranging from killing aliens to controlling a robotic spider. QR codes and audio logs are included as collectibles. Multiplayer mode can host up to seven other free-roaming players, with whom the player may complete hacking contracts and engage in races.
The player can be hacked by others, who will perceive the target as an NPC. In-game invasions can be disabled. Free-roaming with multiple players and decryption mode, where two teams of four are tasked with acquiring and holding data, were excluded from the Xbox 360 and PlayStation 3 versions. In October 2012, hacker Aiden Pearce and his mentor and partner, Damien Brenks, conduct an electronic bank heist at the high-end Merlaut Hotel in Chicago and trigger a silent alarm set by another hacker. Brenks tries giving himself and Pearce away. Fearing for his family, Pearce drives them to safety in the guise of a surprise trip to the country. On the way, hitman Maurice Vega fires a gunshot. 11 months Pearce tracks down Vega at a baseball stadium in the Parker Square district of Chicago. After a fruitless interrogation about Vega's contractor, he leaves Vega in the hands of his partner, Jordi Chin. While investigating, Brenks approaches Pearce with a request to find the other hacker from the Merlaut job.
Pearce refuses, Brenks retaliates by kidnapping his younger sister, which forces Pearce to comply with Brenks' demands. With the help of Clara Lille, a member of the hacking syndicate DedSec, Pearce tracks down the second hacker—gang leader and former soldier Delford'Iraq' Wade—and obtains a data sample from Wade's servers, he and Lille discover that Wade has information on every citizen of Chicago, protecting his gang from the authorities. When they come across encrypted data beyond Lille's ability she tells Pearce to find Raymond Kenney, whose hacking caused the Northeast blackout of 2003 which led to the implementation of the ctOS operating system. After meeting Pearce and completing several tasks for him, Kenney agrees to help decrypt the data. Pearce assaults Wade's compound, downloads its server data. Wade confronts him. Another hacker, JB "Defalt" Markowicz
Sharon is a city in Mercer County, Pennsylvania, in the United States, 75 miles northwest of Pittsburgh. It is part of the OH-PA Metropolitan Statistical Area, it is the home of the Vocal Group Hall of Fame. The Sharon area was first settled in 1795, it was incorporated as a borough on October 6, 1841, incorporated as a city on December 17, 1918. The city operated under the Pennsylvania third-class city code until 2008, at which point it adopted a home rule charter under which the elected position of mayor was replaced with a hired city manager and financial officer; the founding families of Sharon first settled on a flat plain bordering the Shenango River, between two hills on the southwestern edge of what is today Sharon's downtown business district. According to local legend, the community received its name from a Bible-reading settler who likened the location to the Plain of Sharon in Israel. A center of coal mining, Sharon's economy transitioned to iron and steelmaking and other heavy industry after the arrival of the Erie Extension Canal in the 1840s.
Following the extensive national deindustrialization of the 1970s and'80s, the city's economy diversified and is now based on light industry, health care, social services. The Frank H. Buhl Mansion was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1977. Sharon is The Vocal Group Hall of Fame. Other local attractions are The Winner off-price fashion store, Reyer's shoes, Daffin's Candy. Sharon is located at 41°13′48″N 80°29′56″W in southwest Mercer County; the city borders the city of Hermitage to the north and east, the city of Farrell to the south, on the west the census-designated places of Masury and West Hill, Ohio. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 3.8 square miles, all land. However, the Shenango River runs through the city and provides drinking water to Sharon and several surrounding communities; as of the census of 2000, there were 16,328 people, 6,791 households, 4,189 families residing in the city. The population density was 4,342.6 people per square mile.
There were 7,388 housing units at an average density of 1,964.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 86.44% White, 10.85% African American, 0.21% Asian, 0.18% Native American, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.23% from other races, 2.08% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.88% of the population. From the Census Ancestry Question, Sharon has the following ethnic make-up: German 21%, Irish 14%, Italian 11%, Black or African American 11%, English 8%, Polish 5%, Slovak 5%, Welsh 3%, Scots-Irish 2%, Hungarian 2%, Dutch 2%, French 2%, Croatian 1%, Scottish 1%, Russian 1%, Swedish 1%, Arab 1%, Slavic 1%, American Indian tribes, specified 1%. Sharon's Jewish community is served by the Reform Jewish Temple Beth Israel. There were 6,791 households, out of which 28.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.7% were married couples living together, 16.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 38.3% were non-families. 33.7% of all households were made up of individuals, 15.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.33 and the average family size was 2.97. In the city, the population was distributed with 24.4% under the age of 18, 8.0% from 18 to 24, 27.2% from 25 to 44, 22.0% from 45 to 64, 18.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 88.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 83.7 males. The median income for a household in the city was $26,945, the median income for a family was $34,581. Males had a median income of $30,072 versus $20,988 for females; the per capita income for the city was $15,913. About 14.0% of families and 17.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 25.8% of those under age 18 and 8.8% of those age 65 or over. The Sharon City School District maintains three K-6 elementary schools: Case Avenue, C. M. Musser, West Hill, it has the 7-12 Sharon Middle/High School. Sharon is home to the Shenango campus of Pennsylvania State University, which offers several two-year and four-year degrees.
It hosts Laurel Technical Institute, a for-profit trade school, the Sharon Regional Health System School of Nursing. Because of Sharon's location on the Pennsylvania/Ohio border, it is served by WKBN-TV, WFMJ-TV, WYTV, WYFX-LD and WBCB, all broadcast from nearby Youngstown, OH. Sharon is served by AM radio stations such as WLOA, WPIC, WKBN, by FM radio stations such as WYFM/"Y-103", WLLF/"The River", WYLE/"Willie 95.1", WMXY/"Mix 98.9" and WWIZ/"Z-104". City website Sharon, PA/city-data Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Sharon". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press
Muhammad Ali Center
The Muhammad Ali Center is a non-profit museum and cultural center in Louisville, Kentucky. Dedicated to boxer Muhammad Ali, a native of Louisville, it is located in the city's West Main District; the six-story, 96,750 sq ft. museum opened on November 2005 at a cost of $80 million. It includes a 40,000 sq ft two-level amphitheater and a plaza. On April 4, 2013, a new pedestrian bridge opened, helping residents and visitors connect from the Muhammad Ali Center's plaza to the Belvedere, the Waterfront, other downtown attractions; the 170-foot-long walkway is nine feet wide, with exterior metal panels that complement the Ali Center plaza's design. The cultural center features exhibitions regarding Ali's six core principles of confidence, dedication, giving and spirituality. Throughout his life, Muhammad Ali strived to be guided by these core principles in his quest to inspire people around the world, dedicating himself to helping others, being the best athlete he could be and by standing up for what he believed in.
An orientation theater helps present Ali's life. A mock boxing ring is recreated based on his Deer Lake Training Camp. A two-level pavilion, housed within a large elliptical room, features Ali's boxing memorabilia and history. A large projector displays the film The Greatest onto a full-sized boxing ring. There are booths where visitors can view clips of Ali's greatest fights on video-on-demand terminals, which feature pre- and post-fight interviews. Another exhibit offers visitors the chance to explore sense of self and purpose through an interactive terminal program. Visitors are encouraged to share what they are fighting for in the Generation Ali Story Booths Two art galleries, the LeRoy Neiman Gallery and the Howard L. Bingham Gallery, feature rotating exhibits that are located on the third floor. List of attractions and events in the Louisville metropolitan area List of museums focused on African Americans List of museums in the Louisville metropolitan area Official website
Chicago the City of Chicago, is the most populous city in Illinois, as well as the third most populous city in the United States. With an estimated population of 2,716,450, it is the most populous city in the Midwest. Chicago is the principal city of the Chicago metropolitan area referred to as Chicagoland, the county seat of Cook County, the second most populous county in the United States; the metropolitan area, at nearly 10 million people, is the third-largest in the United States, the fourth largest in North America and the third largest metropolitan area in the world by land area. Located on the shores of freshwater Lake Michigan, Chicago was incorporated as a city in 1837 near a portage between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River watershed and grew in the mid-nineteenth century. After the Great Chicago Fire of 1871, which destroyed several square miles and left more than 100,000 homeless, the city made a concerted effort to rebuild; the construction boom accelerated population growth throughout the following decades, by 1900 Chicago was the fifth largest city in the world.
Chicago made noted contributions to urban planning and zoning standards, including new construction styles, the development of the City Beautiful Movement, the steel-framed skyscraper. Chicago is an international hub for finance, commerce, technology, telecommunications, transportation, it is the site of the creation of the first standardized futures contracts at the Chicago Board of Trade, which today is the largest and most diverse derivatives market gobally, generating 20% of all volume in commodities and financial futures. O'Hare International Airport is the one of the busiest airports in the world, the region has the largest number of U. S. highways and greatest amount of railroad freight. In 2012, Chicago was listed as an alpha global city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, it ranked seventh in the entire world in the 2017 Global Cities Index; the Chicago area has one of the highest gross domestic products in the world, generating $680 billion in 2017. In addition, the city has one of the world's most diversified and balanced economies, not being dependent on any one industry, with no single industry employing more than 14% of the workforce.
Chicago's 58 million domestic and international visitors in 2018, made it the second most visited city in the nation, behind New York City's approximate 65 million visitors. The city ranked first place in the 2018 Time Out City Life Index, a global quality of life survey of 15,000 people in 32 cities. Landmarks in the city include Millennium Park, Navy Pier, the Magnificent Mile, the Art Institute of Chicago, Museum Campus, the Willis Tower, Grant Park, the Museum of Science and Industry, Lincoln Park Zoo. Chicago's culture includes the visual arts, film, comedy and music jazz, soul, hip-hop and electronic dance music including house music. Of the area's many colleges and universities, the University of Chicago, Northwestern University, the University of Illinois at Chicago are classified as "highest research" doctoral universities. Chicago has professional sports teams in each of the major professional leagues, including two Major League Baseball teams; the name "Chicago" is derived from a French rendering of the indigenous Miami-Illinois word shikaakwa for a wild relative of the onion, known to botanists as Allium tricoccum and known more as ramps.
The first known reference to the site of the current city of Chicago as "Checagou" was by Robert de LaSalle around 1679 in a memoir. Henri Joutel, in his journal of 1688, noted that the eponymous wild "garlic" grew abundantly in the area. According to his diary of late September 1687:...when we arrived at the said place called "Chicagou" which, according to what we were able to learn of it, has taken this name because of the quantity of garlic which grows in the forests in this region. The city has had several nicknames throughout its history such as the Windy City, Chi-Town, Second City, the City of the Big Shoulders, which refers to the city's numerous skyscrapers and high-rises. In the mid-18th century, the area was inhabited by a Native American tribe known as the Potawatomi, who had taken the place of the Miami and Sauk and Fox peoples; the first known non-indigenous permanent settler in Chicago was Jean Baptiste Point du Sable. Du Sable arrived in the 1780s, he is known as the "Founder of Chicago".
In 1795, following the Northwest Indian War, an area, to be part of Chicago was turned over to the United States for a military post by native tribes in accordance with the Treaty of Greenville. In 1803, the United States Army built Fort Dearborn, destroyed in 1812 in the Battle of Fort Dearborn and rebuilt; the Ottawa and Potawatomi tribes had ceded additional land to the United States in the 1816 Treaty of St. Louis; the Potawatomi were forcibly removed from their land after the Treaty of Chicago in 1833. On August 12, 1833, the Town of Chicago was organized with a population of about 200. Within seven years it grew to more than 4,000 people. On June 15, 1835, the first public land sales began with Edmund Dick Taylor as U. S. Receiver of Public Monies; the City of Chicago was incorporated on Saturday, March 4, 1837, for several decades was the world's fastest-growing city. As the site of the Chicago Portage, the city became an important transportation hub between the eastern and western United States.
Chicago's first railway and Chicago Union Railroad, the Illi
The National Broadcasting Company is an American English-language commercial terrestrial television network, a flagship property of NBCUniversal, a subsidiary of Comcast. The network is headquartered at 30 Rockefeller Plaza in New York City, with additional major offices near Los Angeles and Philadelphia; the network is one of the Big Three television networks. NBC is sometimes referred to as the "Peacock Network", in reference to its stylized peacock logo, introduced in 1956 to promote the company's innovations in early color broadcasting, it became the network's official emblem in 1979. Founded in 1926 by the Radio Corporation of America, NBC is the oldest major broadcast network in the United States. At that time the parent company of RCA was General Electric. In 1930, GE was forced to sell the companies as a result of antitrust charges. In 1986, control of NBC passed back to General Electric through its $6.4 billion purchase of RCA. Following the acquisition by GE, Bob Wright served as chief executive officer of NBC, remaining in that position until his retirement in 2007, when he was succeeded by Jeff Zucker.
In 2003, French media company Vivendi merged its entertainment assets with GE, forming NBC Universal. Comcast purchased a controlling interest in the company in 2011, acquired General Electric's remaining stake in 2013. Following the Comcast merger, Zucker left NBCUniversal and was replaced as CEO by Comcast executive Steve Burke. NBC has thirteen owned-and-operated stations and nearly 200 affiliates throughout the United States and its territories, some of which are available in Canada and/or Mexico via pay-television providers or in border areas over-the-air. During a period of early broadcast business consolidation, radio manufacturer Radio Corporation of America acquired New York City radio station WEAF from American Telephone & Telegraph. Westinghouse, a shareholder in RCA, had a competing outlet in Newark, New Jersey pioneer station WJZ, which served as the flagship for a loosely structured network; this station was transferred from Westinghouse to RCA in 1923, moved to New York City. WEAF acted as a laboratory for AT&T's manufacturing and supply outlet Western Electric, whose products included transmitters and antennas.
The Bell System, AT&T's telephone utility, was developing technologies to transmit voice- and music-grade audio over short and long distances, using both wireless and wired methods. The 1922 creation of WEAF offered a research-and-development center for those activities. WEAF maintained a regular schedule of radio programs, including some of the first commercially sponsored programs, was an immediate success. In an early example of "chain" or "networking" broadcasting, the station linked with Outlet Company-owned WJAR in Providence, Rhode Island. C. WCAP. New parent RCA saw an advantage in sharing programming, after getting a license for radio station WRC in Washington, D. C. in 1923, attempted to transmit audio between cities via low-quality telegraph lines. AT&T refused outside companies access to its high-quality phone lines; the early effort fared poorly, since the uninsulated telegraph lines were susceptible to atmospheric and other electrical interference. In 1925, AT&T decided that WEAF and its embryonic network were incompatible with the company's primary goal of providing a telephone service.
AT&T offered to sell the station to RCA in a deal that included the right to lease AT&T's phone lines for network transmission. RCA spent $1 million to purchase WEAF and Washington sister station WCAP, shut down the latter station, merged its facilities with surviving station WRC; the division's ownership was split among RCA, its founding corporate parent General Electric and Westinghouse. NBC started broadcasting on November 15, 1926. WEAF and WJZ, the flagships of the two earlier networks, were operated side-by-side for about a year as part of the new NBC. On January 1, 1927, NBC formally divided their respective marketing strategies: the "Red Network" offered commercially sponsored entertainment and music programming. Various histories of NBC suggest the color designations for the two networks came from the color of the pushpins NBC engineers used to designate affiliate stations of WEAF and WJZ, or from the use of double-ended red and blue colored pencils. On April 5, 1927, NBC expanded to the West Coast with the launch of the NBC Orange Network known as the Pacific Coast Network.
This was followed by the debut of the NBC Gold Network known as the Pacific Gold Network, on October 18, 1931. The Orange Network carried Red Network programming, the Gold Network carried programming from the Blue Network; the Orange Network recreated Eastern Red Network programming for West Coast stations at KPO in San Francisco. In 1936, the Orange Network affiliate stations became part of the Red Network, at the same time the Gold Network became part of the Blue Network. In the 1930s, NBC developed a network for shortwave radio stations, called the NBC White Network. In 1927, NBC moved its operations to 711 Fifth Avenue in Manhattan, occupying the upper floors of a building de