Justin Martyr

Justin Martyr, an early Christian apologist, is regarded as the foremost exponent of the Divine Word, the Logos, in the second century. He was martyred, alongside some of his students, is venerated as saint by the Roman Catholic Church, the Anglican Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Oriental Orthodox Churches. Most of his works are lost; the First Apology, his most well known text, passionately defends the morality of the Christian life, provides various ethical and philosophical arguments to convince the Roman emperor, Antoninus, to abandon the persecution of the Church. Further, he indicates, as St. Augustine would regarding the "true religion" that predated Christianity, that the "seeds of Christianity" predated Christ's incarnation; this notion allows him to claim many historical Greek philosophers, in whose works he was well studied, as unknowing Christians. Justin Martyr was born around AD 100 at Flavia Neapolis in Samaria into a pagan family, defined himself as a Gentile, his grandfather, had a Greek name, while his father, bore a Latin name, which has led to speculations that his ancestors may have settled in Neapolis soon after its establishment or that they were descended from a Roman "diplomatic" community, sent there.

In the opening of the Dialogue, Justin describes his early education, stating that his initial studies left him unsatisfied due to their failure to provide a belief system that would afford theological and metaphysical inspiration to their young pupil. He says he tried first the school of a Stoic philosopher, unable to explain God's being to him, he attended a Peripatetic philosopher but was put off because the philosopher was too eager for his fee. He went to hear a Pythagorean philosopher who demanded that he first learn music and geometry, which he did not wish to do. Subsequently, he adopted Platonism after encountering a Platonist thinker who had settled in his city, and the perception of immaterial things quite overpowered me, the contemplation of ideas furnished my mind with wings, so that in a little while I supposed that I had become wise. Some time afterwards, he chanced upon an old man a Syrian Christian, in the vicinity of the seashore, who engaged him in a dialogue about God and spoke of the testimony of the prophets as being more reliable than the reasoning of philosophers.

There existed, long before this time, certain men more ancient than all those who are esteemed philosophers, both righteous and beloved by God, who spoke by the Divine Spirit, foretold events which would take place, which are now taking place. They are called prophets; these alone both saw and announced the truth to men, neither reverencing nor fearing any man, not influenced by a desire for glory, but speaking those things alone which they saw and which they heard, being filled with the Holy Spirit. Their writings are still extant, he who has read them is much helped in his knowledge of the beginning and end of things, of those matters which the philosopher ought to know, provided he has believed them. For they did not use demonstration in their treatises, seeing that they were witnesses to the truth above all demonstration, worthy of belief, but pray that, above all things, the gates of light may be opened to you. Moved by the aged man's argument, Justin renounced both his former religious faith and his philosophical background, choosing instead to re-dedicate his life to the service of the Divine.

His newfound convictions were only bolstered by the ascetic lives of the early Christians and the heroic example of the martyrs, whose piety convinced him of the moral and spiritual superiority of Christian doctrine. As a result, he thenceforth decided that the only option for him was to travel throughout the land, spreading the knowledge of Christianity as the "true philosophy." His conversion is assumed to have taken place at Ephesus though it may have occurred anywhere on the road from Syria Palestina to Rome. He adopted the dress of a philosopher himself and traveled about teaching. During the reign of Antoninus Pius, he started his own school. Tatian was one of his pupils. In the reign of Marcus Aurelius, after disputing with the cynic philosopher Crescens, he was denounced by the latter to the authorities, according to Tatian and Eusebius. Justin was tried, together with six companions, by Junius Rusticus, urban prefect from 163–167, was beheaded. Though the precise year of his death is uncertain, it can reasonably be dated by the prefectoral term of Rusticus.

The martyrdom of Justin preserves the court record of the trial. The Prefect Rusticus says: sacrifice, all of you, to the gods. Justin says: No one in his right mind gi


Borexino is a particle physics experiment to study low energy solar neutrinos. The detector is the world's most radio-pure liquid scintillator calorimeter, it is placed within a stainless steel sphere which holds the signal detectors and is shielded by a water tank to protect it against external radiation and tag incoming cosmic muons that manage to penetrate the overburden of the mountain above. The primary aim of the experiment is to make a precise measurement of the individual neutrino fluxes from the Sun and compare them to the Standard solar model predictions; this will allow scientists to test and to further understand the functioning of the Sun and will help determine properties of neutrino oscillations, including the MSW effect. Specific goals of the experiment are to detect beryllium-7, boron-8, pp, pep and CNO solar neutrinos as well as anti-neutrinos from the Earth and nuclear power plants; the project may be able to detect neutrinos from supernovae within our galaxy with a special potential to detect the elastic scattering of neutrinos onto protons, due to neutral current interactions.

Borexino is a member of the Supernova Early Warning System. Searches for rare processes and potential unknown particles are underway; the name Borexino is the Italian diminutive of BOREX, after the original 1 kT-fiducial experimental proposal with a different scintillator, was discontinued because of a shift in focus in physics goals as well as financial constraints. The experiment is located at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso near the town of L'Aquila, is supported by an international collaboration with researchers from Italy, the United States, France and Russia; the experiment is funded by multiple national agencies including the INFN and the NSF. In May 2017, Borexino reached 10 years of continuous operation since the start of its data-taking period in 2007; the SOX project was projected study the possible existence of sterile neutrinos or other anomalous effects in neutrino oscillations at short ranges through the use of a neutrino generator based on radioactive cerium-144. This project was cancelled in early 2018 due to unsurmountable technical problems in the fabrication of the antineutrino source.

As of May 2007, the Borexino detector started taking data. The project first detected solar neutrinos in August 2007; this detection occurred in real-time. The data analysis was further extended in 2008. In 2010, geoneutrinos from Earth's interior were observed for the first time in Borexino; these are anti-neutrinos produced in radioactive decays of uranium, thorium and rubidium, although only the anti-neutrinos emitted in the 238U/232Th chains are visible because of the inverse beta decay reaction channel Borexino is sensitive to. That year, the lowest-threshold measurement of the 8B solar neutrino flux was published. Additionally, a multi-source detector calibration campaign took place, where several radioactive sources were inserted in the detector to study its response to known signals which are close to the expected ones to be studied. In 2011, the experiment published a precision measurement of the beryllium-7 neutrino flux, as well as the first evidence for the pep solar neutrinos. In 2012, they published the results of measurements of the speed of CERN Neutrinos to Gran Sasso.

The results were consistent with the speed of light. See measurements of neutrino speed. An extensive scintillator purification campaign was performed, achieving the successful goal of further reducing the residual background radioactivity levels to unprecedented low amounts. In 2013, Borexino set a limit on sterile neutrino parameters, they extracted a signal of geoneutrinos, which gives insight into radioactive element activity in the earth's crust, a hitherto unclear field. In 2014, the experimental collaboration published an analysis of the proton–proton fusion activity in the solar core, finding solar activity has been stable on a 105-year scale. Once the phenomenon of neutrino oscillations, as described by MSW theory, is considered, the measurement of Borexino is consistent with the expectations from the standard solar model; the result of Borexino is a milestone in our understanding of the functioning of the Sun. The previous experiments sensitive to low energy neutrinos have succeeded to count the neutrinos above a certain energy, but did not measure the individual fluxes.

In 2015, an updated spectral analysis of geoneutrinos was presented, the world best limit on the electric charge non-conservation was set. Additionally, a versatile Temperature Management and Monitoring System was installed in several phases throughout 2015, it consists of the multi-sensor Latitudinal Temperature Probe System, whose testing and first-phase installation occurred in late 2014. In 2015, Borexino yielded the best available limit to the lifetime of the electron, providing the most stringent confirmation of charge conservation to date. In 2017, Borexino provided the first wideband spectroscopic measurement of the solar ν spectrum, featuring the simultaneous and most precise measurements available of the 7Be, pep and pp neutrino fluxes, furthermore extracted from a single extended energy window; these measur

Barry Murphy (rugby union)

Barry John Murphy is a retired Irish rugby union player. He played for Munster in the Heineken Cup, he was a part of the Munster squad which won the Heineken Cup in 2006. He burst onto the scene in January 2006 when he put in a man of the match performance against the Sale Sharks in Thomond Park, he broke his leg in a Celtic League game against Ulster in March 2006 and missed the rest of the season including the Heineken Cup Final. He scored a try for Munster against the touring All Blacks when they visited Thomond Park on 18 November 2008, it was the only try conceded by the All Blacks in the course of their victorious 5-match tour. Murphy announced his retirement from rugby in May 2011 due to a series of serious injuries, he is in a band called Hermitage Green. As of October 2017, Murphy co-hosts a podcast called House of Rugby with fellow ex-Irish rugby international, Andrew Trimble for St Munchin's College Munster profile IRFU profile ESPNscrum profile