The Englischer Garten is a large public park in the centre of Munich, stretching from the city centre to the northeastern city limits. It was created in 1789 by Sir Benjamin Thompson Count Rumford, for Prince Charles Theodore, Elector of Bavaria. Thompson's successors, Reinhard von Werneck and Friedrich Ludwig von Sckell, advisers on the project from its beginning, both extended and improved the park. With an area of 3.7 km2, the Englischer Garten is one of world's largest urban public parks. The name refers to its English garden form of informal landscape, a style popular in England from the mid-18th century to the early 19th century and associated with Capability Brown; when the Elector of Bavaria Maximilian III Joseph, the last ruler from the Bavarian branch of the Wittelsbach dynasty, died childless in 1777, his throne passed to Charles Theodore and elector of the Palatinate. The new ruler preferred his existing home in Mannheim on the Rhine to living in Bavaria and tried unsuccessfully to trade his unloved inheritance for the Austrian Netherlands.
Understandably, the people of Munich returned his disdain. To offset this unhappy atmosphere, Charles Theodore devoted much attention to improvements in the city. Among others, he created an art gallery in the northern arcades of the Residence's Hofgarten and made both the garden and the new gallery open to the public. While the Hofgarten was the only public park in Munich, not the primary motivation for the creation of the English Garden. Rather, it was part of a series of military reforms being pursued under the guidance of Sir Benjamin Thompson, the new Elector's chief military aide created Count Rumford and appointed as Bavarian war minister. Born in Massachusetts, Thompson had served on the Loyalist side in the American Revolutionary War, after the British defeat had returned to England before moving to continental Europe and entering Charles Theodore's service in 1784. In 1788 Thompson proposed that in peacetime the majority of the soldiers of the Elector's army should be given leave to do civilian work, such as farming and gardening.
In February 1789, Charles Theodore decreed that military gardens should be laid out in each garrison city, to provide soldiers with good agricultural knowledge and to serve as recreation areas, accessible to the public. The planned location of the Munich gardens was the area north of the Schwabinger city gate, a hunting ground of the Wittelsbach rulers since the Middle Ages. Known as the Hirschanger, the higher part of the hunting ground closer to the city was included in the scheme, while the Hirschau and further north, a more densely wooded part to the south known as the Hirschangerwald were not included; the whole area had been subject to flooding from the Isar, the river on which Munich stands, a little to the east. This problem was soon removed by the construction of a river wall in 1790, which became known as the "Riedl-Damm" after the engineer Anton von Riedl, who had supervised its construction; the laying out of the military garden was begun in July 1789, an area of 800 by less than 200 metres was made ready for cultivation, but soon the idea was extended to the creation of a public park, of which the military garden should be only a small part.
On August 13, 1789, Charles Theodore published a decree, devoting the Hirschanger to the amusement of the people of Munich. To advise on the project, the Royal Gardener Friedrich Ludwig Sckell who had studied landscape gardening in England and had worked for Charles Theodore at Schwetzingen, had been summoned to Munich earlier in August. Various associated projects were made part of the park development, among them the Elevengarten, a "Schweizerey", "Schäfery" and "Ackerbauschule" to improve farming techniques, a "Vihearzneyschule" for the treatment of cattle diseases. Most of these projects did not long survive the creation of the park, but the veterinary school went on to become what is now the Tierärztliche Fakultät of the Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich; the gateway from 1790 can be seen at the Veterinärstraße entrance to the garden. The park was named "Theodors Park", but it quickly became known by the descriptive name of "the English Garden". By May, 1790 sufficient progress had been made to allow Charles Theodore to make an inspection tour.
Thompson left Munich in 1798. His successor, Baron von Werneck, attempted to make the garden itself through its agricultural use. To that end he expanded the park in December 1799 to encompass the Hirschau, improved to provide pasture; the fields of the military gardens were added to the Englischer Garten in January 1800. Werneck's improvements had been costly, in 1804 he was replaced by Sckell, given the post of Bayerischer Hofgärtenintendant. Although Sckell had had a guiding role from the beginning, many aspects of the execution differed from his ideas, which he set out in a memorandum of 1807, his long supervision of the garden was marked by a movement away from agricultural uses and by concentration on the landscape garden. For instance, two mills at the point where the Schwabingerbach leaves t
Renaissance Revival architecture
Renaissance Revival architecture is a group of 19th century architectural revival styles which were neither Greek Revival nor Gothic Revival but which instead drew inspiration from a wide range of classicizing Italian modes. Under the broad designation "Renaissance architecture" nineteenth-century architects and critics went beyond the architectural style which began in Florence and central Italy in the early 15th century as an expression of Humanism. Self-applied style designations were rife in the mid- and nineteenth century: "Neo-Renaissance" might be applied by contemporaries to structures that others called "Italianate", or when many French Baroque features are present; the divergent forms of Renaissance architecture in different parts of Europe in France and Italy, has added to the difficulty of defining and recognizing Neo-Renaissance architecture. A comparison between the breadth of its source material, such as the English Wollaton Hall, Italian Palazzo Pitti, the French Château de Chambord, the Russian Palace of Facets—all deemed "Renaissance"—illustrates the variety of appearances the same architectural label can take.
The origin of Renaissance architecture is accredited to Filippo Brunelleschi Brunelleschi and his contemporaries wished to bring greater "order" to architecture, resulting in strong symmetry and careful proportion. The movement grew in particular human anatomy. Neo-Renaissance architecture is formed by not only the original Italian architecture but by the form in which Renaissance architecture developed in France during the 16th century. During the early years of the 16th century the French were involved in wars in northern Italy, bringing back to France not just the Renaissance art treasures as their war booty, but stylistic ideas. In the Loire valley a wave of chateau building was carried out using traditional French Gothic styles but with ornament in the forms of pediments, shallow pilasters and entablatures from the Italian Renaissance. In England the Renaissance tended to manifest itself in large square tall houses such as Longleat House; these buildings had symmetrical towers which hint at the evolution from medieval fortified architecture.
This is evident at Hatfield House built between 1607 and 1611, where medieval towers jostle with a large Italian cupola. This is why so many buildings of the early English Neo-Renaissance style have more of a "castle air" than their European contemporaries, which can add again to the confusion with the Gothic revival style; when in the 19th century Renaissance style architecture came into vogue, it materialized not just in its original form according to geography, but as a hybrid of all its earlier forms according to the whims of architects and patrons rather than geography and culture. If this were not confusing enough, the new Neo-Renaissance frequently borrowed architectural elements from the succeeding Mannerist period, in many cases the later Baroque period. Mannerism and Baroque being two opposing styles of architecture. Mannerism was exemplified by Baroque by the Wurzburg Residenz, thus Italian and Flemish Renaissance coupled with the amount of borrowing from these periods can cause great difficulty and argument in identifying various forms of 19th-century architecture.
Differentiating some forms of French Neo-Renaissance buildings from those of the Gothic revival can at times be tricky, as both styles were popular during the 19th century. John Ruskin's panegyrics to architectural wonders of Venice and Florence contributed to shifting "the attention of scholars and designers, with their awareness heightened by debate and restoration work" from Late Neoclassicism and Gothic Revival to the Italian Renaissance; as a consequence, a self-consciously "Neo-Renaissance" manner first began to appear circa 1840. By 1890 this movement was in decline; the Hague's Peace Palace completed in 1913, in a heavy French Neo-Renaissance manner was one of the last notable buildings in this style. Charles Barry introduced the Neo-Renaissance to England with his design of the Travellers Club, Pall Mall. Other early but typical, domestic examples of the Neo-Renaissance include Mentmore Towers and the Château de Ferrières, both designed in the 1850s by Joseph Paxton for members of the Rothschild banking family.
The style is characterized by original Renaissance motifs, taken from such Quattrocento architects as Alberti. These motifs included rusticated masonry and quoins, windows framed by architraves and doors crowned by pediments and entablatures. If a building were of several floors, the uppermost floor had small square windows representing the minor mezzanine floor of the original Renaissance designs. However, the Neo-renaissance style came to incorporate Romanesque and Baroque features not found in the original Renaissance architecture, more severe in its design. Like all architectural styles, the Neo-Renaissance did not appear overnight formed but evolved slowly. One of the first signs of its emergence was the Würzburg Women's Prison, erected in 1809 designed by Peter Speeth, it included a rusticated ground floor, alleviated by one semicircular arch, with a curious Egyptian style miniature portico above, high above this were a sequence of six tall arched windows and above these just beneath the projecting roof were the small windows of the upper floor.
This building foreshadows similar effects in the work of the American architect Henry Hobson Richardson whose work in the Neo-Renaissance style was popu
Baroque Revival architecture
The Baroque Revival known as Neo-Baroque, was an architectural style of the late 19th century. The term is used to describe architecture which displays important aspects of Baroque style, but is not of the Baroque period proper—i.e. The 17th and 18th centuries. Elements of the Baroque architectural tradition were an essential part of the curriculum of the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris, the pre-eminent school of architecture in the second half of the 19th century, are integral to the Beaux-Arts architecture it engendered both in France and abroad. An ebullient sense of European imperialism encouraged an official architecture to reflect it in Britain and France, in Germany and Italy the Baroque revival expressed pride in the new power of the unified state. Akasaka Palace, Japan Alferaki Palace, Russia Ashton Memorial, England Belfast City Hall, Northern Ireland Beloselsky-Belozersky Palace, Saint Petersburg, Russia Bode Museum, Germany British Columbia Parliament Buildings, British Columbia, Canada Burgtheater, Austria Christiansborg Palace, Denmark Cluj-Napoca National Theatre, Cluj-Napoca, Romania Ortaköy Mosque, Turkey Dolmabahçe Palace, Turkey The Elms Mansion, Rhode Island, United States National Theatre, Norway Palais Garnier, France Rosecliff Mansion, Rhode Island, United States Royal Museum for Central Africa, Belgium Semperoper, Germany Sofia University rectorate, Bulgaria Zachęta National Gallery of Art, Poland St. Barbara's Church, New York, United States St. John Cantius Church, United States Church of St. Ignatius Loyola, New York City, United States Church of Saints Peter and Paul, Ireland Cathedral of Salta, Argentina Széchenyi thermal bath, Hungary Volkstheater, Austria National Art Gallery of Bulgaria, Bulgaria Wenckheim Palace, Hungary Stefánia Palace, Hungary Gran Teatro de La Habana, Cuba Old Parliament Building, Sri Lanka Altare della Patria, Italy House of the National Assembly of Serbia, Serbia.
Durban City Hall, South AfricaThere are number of post-modern buildings with a style that might be called "Baroque", for example the Dancing House in Prague by Vlado Milunić and Frank Gehry, who have described it as "new Baroque". Ferdinand Fellner and Hermann Helmer Arthur Meinig Sir Edwin Lutyens Members of the Armenian Balyan family Charles Garnier Baroque List of Baroque architecture Second Empire architecture Beaux-Arts architecture Edwardian Baroque architecture Wilhelminism James Stevens Curl. A Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture. 2000. — Encyclopedia.com. Accessed 3 Jan. 2010
An electric car is a plug-in electric automobile, propelled by one or more electric motors, using energy stored in rechargeable batteries. From 2008, a renaissance in electric vehicle manufacturing occurred due to advances in batteries and deaths from air pollution, the desire to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Several national and local governments have established tax credits and other incentives to promote the introduction and adoption in the mass market of new electric vehicles depending on battery size, their electric range and purchase price; the current maximum tax credit allowed by the US Government is US$7,500 per car. Compared with internal combustion engine cars, electric cars are quieter, have no tailpipe emissions, lower emissions in general. Charging an electric car can be done at a variety of charging stations, these charging stations can be installed in both houses and public areas; the two all-time best selling electric cars, the Nissan Leaf and the Tesla Model S, have EPA-rated ranges reaching up to 151 mi and 335 mi respectively.
The Leaf is the best-selling highway-capable electric car with more than 400,000 units sold globally by March 2019, followed by the Tesla Model S with 263,500 units sold worldwide by December 2018. As of December 2018, there were about 5.3 million light-duty all-electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles in use around the world. Despite the rapid growth experienced, the global stock of plug-in electric cars represented just about 1 out of every 250 vehicles on the world's roads by the end of 2018; the plug-in car market is shifting towards electric battery vehicles, as the global ratio between annual sales of battery BEVs and PHEVs went from 56:44 in 2012, to 60:40 in 2015, rose to 69:31 in 2018. Electric cars are a variety of electric vehicle; the term "electric vehicle" refers to any vehicle that uses electric motors for propulsion, while "electric car" refers to highway-capable automobiles powered by electricity. Low-speed electric vehicles, classified as neighborhood electric vehicles in the United States, as electric motorised quadricycles in Europe, are plug-in electric-powered microcars or city cars with limitations in terms of weight and maximum speed that are allowed to travel on public roads and city streets up to a certain posted speed limit, which varies by country.
While an electric car's power source is not explicitly an on-board battery, electric cars with motors powered by other energy sources are referred to by a different name. An electric car carrying solar panels to power it is a solar car, an electric car powered by a gasoline generator is a form of hybrid car. Thus, an electric car that derives its power from an on-board battery pack is a form of battery electric vehicle. Most the term "electric car" is used to refer to battery electric vehicles, but may refer to plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. In 1884, over 20 years before the Ford Model T, Thomas Parker built the first practical production electric car in London using his own specially designed high-capacity rechargeable batteries; the Flocken Elektrowagen of 1888 was designed by German inventor Andreas Flocken. Electric cars were among the preferred methods for automobile propulsion in the late 19th century and early 20th century, providing a level of comfort and ease of operation that could not be achieved by the gasoline cars of the time.
The electric vehicle stock peaked at 30,000 vehicles at the turn of the 20th century. In 1897, electric cars found their first commercial use in the US. Based on the design of the Electrobat II, a fleet of twelve hansom cabs and one brougham were used in New York City as part of a project funded in part by the Electric Storage Battery Company of Philadelphia. During the 20th century, the main manufacturers of electric vehicles in the US were Anthony Electric, Columbia, Edison, Milburn, Bailey Electric and others. Unlike gasoline-powered vehicles, the electric ones were less noisy, did not require gear changes. Advances in internal combustion engines in the first decade of the 20th century lessened the relative advantages of the electric car, their much quicker refueling times, cheaper production costs, made them more popular. However, a decisive moment was the introduction in 1912 of the electric starter motor which replaced other laborious, methods of starting the ICE, such as hand-cranking.
Six electric cars held the land speed record. The last of them was the rocket-shaped La Jamais Contente, driven by Camille Jenatzy, which broke the 100 km/h speed barrier by reaching a top speed of 105.88 km/h on 29 April 1899. In the early 1990s, the California Air Resources Board began a push for more fuel-efficient, lower-emissions vehicles, with the ultimate goal being a move to zero-emissions vehicles such as electric vehicles. In response, automakers developed electric models, including the Chrysler TEVan, Ford Ranger EV pickup truck, GM EV1, S10 EV pickup, Honda EV Plus hatchback, Nissan Altra EV miniwagon, Toyota RAV4 EV. Both US Electricar and Solectria produced 3-phase AC Geo-bodied electric cars with the support of GM, Delco; these early cars were withdrawn from the U. S. market. California electric automaker Tesla Motors began development in 2004 on what would become the Tesla Roadster, first delivered to customers in 2008; the Roadster was the first highway legal serial production all-electric car to use lithium-ion battery cells, the first production all-electric car to travel more than 320 km per charge.
Tesla global sales passed 250,000 units in September 2017. The Renault–Nissa
Schwabing is a borough in the northern part of Munich, the capital of the German state of Bavaria. It is divided into the city borough 4 and the city borough 12; the main boulevard is Leopoldstraße. For further information on the Munich boroughs, see: Boroughs of Munich. Schwabing used to be famous as Munich's bohemian quarter and is still popular among tourists and locals young people, for its accumulation of bars and restaurants. Another popular location is the Englischer Garten, or English Garden, one of the world's largest public parks.. The main buildings of Munich's largest universities, Ludwigs-Maximilians-Universität and the Technical University of Munich and Academy of Fine Arts are situated in the nearby Maxvorstadt. A student housing area called. Schwabing became famous during the reign of Prince Regent Luitpold when numerous artists like Ludwig Ganghofer, Heinrich Mann, Thomas Mann, Oskar Panizza, Otto Julius Bierbaum, Frank Wedekind, Ernst von Wolzogen, Gustav Meyrink, Rainer Maria Rilke, Isolde Kurz, Ludwig Thoma, Max Halbe, Annette Kolb, Stefan George, Karl Wolfskehl, Ludwig Klages, Roda Roda, Christian Morgenstern, Max Dauthendey, Mechtilde Lichnowsky, Lion Feuchtwanger, Leonhard Frank, Joachim Ringelnatz, Claire Goll, Oskar Maria Graf, Hugo Ball, Hermann Kesten, Thomas Theodor Heine, Olaf Gulbransson, Bruno Paul, Eduard Thöny and Rudolf Wilke lived or worked there.
Lenin was a resident of Schwabing for some years, as was noted psychoanalyst and bohemian Otto Gross. The Countess Fanny zu Reventlow was known as "The Bohemian Countess of Schwabing"; the gentrification of Schwabing and various construction projects have led to protests, as around 2011
Allianz SE is a German multinational financial services company headquartered in Munich, Germany. Its core businesses are asset management; as of 2014, it is the world's largest insurance company, the largest financial services group and the largest company according to a composite measure by Forbes magazine, as well as the largest financial services company when measured by 2013 revenue. The company is a component of the Euro Stoxx 50 stock market index, its asset management division, which consists of PIMCO and Allianz Global Investors, has €1,960 billion of assets under management, of which €1,448 billion are third-party assets. Allianz sold Dresdner Bank to Commerzbank in November 2008; as a result of this transaction, Allianz gained a 14% controlling stake in the new Commerzbank. Allianz AG was founded in Berlin on 5 February 1890 by director of the Munich Reinsurance Company Carl von Thieme and Wilhelm von Finck; the joint company was listed in Berlin's trade register under the name Allianz Versicherungs-Aktiengesellschaft.
The first Allianz products were marine and accident policies first sold only in Germany, however in 1893 Allianz opened its first international branch office in London. It distributed marine insurance coverage to German clientele looking for coverage abroad. In 1900 the company became the first insurer to obtain a license to distribute corporate policies. In 1904 Paul Von Naher took over the sole leadership of the company, as it moved into the US and other markets. Markets entered by 1914 included the Netherlands, Belgium, the Scandinavian countries and the Baltic States, Allianz had become the largest maritime insurer in Germany; the company suffered an early disaster in expansion, when the 1906 San Francisco earthquake caused the company to sustain 300,000 marks in losses. In 1905 the company acquired Fides Insurance Company, a firm that had innovated the first form of home invasion insurance. Other places it would expand into during the 1910s and 1920s included Palestine, Iraq, the Dutch Indies and Siam.
In 1905 the company began to offer fire insurance, in 1911 it began to sell machinery breakdown policies. Allianz remained the only company in the world that sold machine breakdown insurance until 1924. In 1918 it began to offer automobile insurance as well. In 1921 Von Naher was succeeded by Kurt Schmitt; the company would begin to offer life insurance as of 1922, becoming Europe's largest offerer of the policies by the end of the 1920s. In 1927 Allianz merged with Stuttgarter Verein Versicherung AG and two years acquired the insurance businesses of Favag, a large German insurer that declared bankruptcy due to the onset of the Great Depression. Expansion of the company slowed until 1938 at which point it employed more than 24,000 people. Christian Stadler wrote of the history of Allianz that it "shows how important it is to diversify into related areas to hedge against the risk of fundamental changes in markets and economies". During World War II the Berlin headquarters of Allianz were destroyed by Allied bombing runs.
Following the end of the war in 1945, Hans Heß became head of the company, Allianz shifted its headquarters to Munich in 1949 due to the split between East and West Germany. Heß only held the position until 1948. After World War II, global business activities were resumed. Allianz opened an office in Paris in 1959, started repurchasing stakes in former subsidiaries in Italy and Austria. In 1971 Wolfgang Schieren became the head of the company; these expansions were followed in the 1970s by the establishment of business in the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Spain and the United States. In 1986, Allianz acquired Cornhill Insurance PLC, the purchase of a stake in Riunione Adriatica di Sicurità, strengthened its presence in Western and Southern Europe in the 1980s. In 1990, Allianz started an expansion into eight Eastern European countries with establishing a presence in Hungary. In the same decade, Allianz acquired Fireman's Fund, an insurer in the United States, followed by the purchase of Assurances Générales de France, Paris.
These acquisitions were followed by the expansion into Asia with several joint ventures and acquisitions in China and South Korea and the acquisition of Australia's Manufacturers Mutual Insurance. Around this time Allianz expanded its asset management business as well by purchasing for example asset management companies in California. In April 2001, Allianz agreed to acquire the 80 per cent of Dresdner Bank that it did not own for US$20 billion; as part of the transaction, Allianz agreed to sell its 13.5 per cent stake in HypoVereinsbank to Munich Re, to acquire Munich Re's 40 per cent stake in Allianz Leben. Following completion of the acquisition and Dresdner Bank combined their asset management activities by forming Allianz Global Investors. In 2002, Michael Diekmann succeeded Henning Schulte-Noelle as CEO of Allianz AG. In June 2006, Allianz announced the layoff of 7,280 employees, about 4 percent of its worldwide work force at the time, as part of a restructuring program aimed at raising profitability.
The reductions comprised 5,000 staff at 2,480 at Dresdner Bank. In the same month, Allianz announced that its Dresdner Kleinwort Wasserstein investment banking operation would be renamed as Dresdner Kleinwort. In September 2005, Allianz announced that it would convert its holding company into a Societas Europaea, b
Classical dressage evolved from cavalry movements and training for the battlefield, has since developed into the competitive dressage seen today. Classical riding is the art of riding in the horse. Correct classical riding only occurs when the rider has a good seat and a correct and well-balanced body position, moves with the horse's motion, applies and times the aids correctly; the origins of classical dressage and collection lie in the natural ability of the horse and its movements in the wild. In fact, most modern definitions of dressage state that the goal is to have the horse perform under saddle with the degree of athleticism and grace that it shows when free. Horses use collection when playing, fighting and courting with each other; when trying to impress other horses, they make. They achieve this by lifting the forehand, raising the neck and making it bigger by flexing the poll, while at the same time transforming their gaits to emphasize more upwards movement; when fighting, the horse will collect because in collection he can produce lightning speed reactions for kicking, spinning, striking with the front feet and jumping.
This natural ability to collect is visible in every horse of any breed, inspired early trainers to reproduce that kind of behavior in more controlled circumstances. This origin points out why, according to most Classical dressage trainers, every healthy horse, regardless of its breed, can perform classical dressage movements, including the Haute Ecole jumps, or Airs above the ground though it may perform them a little differently from the ideal performance due to the build of its body; the ultimate goal of dressage training is to develop a horse to its ability as an athlete: maximum performance with a minimum of effort. The training scale is to physically develop the horse in a consistent manner with longevity in mind. Dressage is fitness training and needs to be treated as such, with thought and patience; the Western World's earliest complete surviving work on many of the principles of classical dressage is Xenophon's On Horsemanship. Xenophon emphasized training the horse through reward. In the 15th century, brute force training fell out of favour, while artistry in riding came to the fore.
Along with these developments came an increase in indoor riding. The Renaissance gave rise to a new and more enlightened approach to riding, as a part of the general cultivation of the classical arts. By the Victorian age, indoor riding had become a sophisticated art, with both rider and horse spending many years perfecting their form. Gueriniere, Ruy d'Andrade and Marialva wrote treatises on technique and theory during these periods; the horses were trained to perform a number of airs above the ground movements, which could enable their riders to escape if surrounded, or to fight more easily. These included movements such as levade, capriole and ballotade. Movements still seen today in competitive dressage include the piaffe and half-pass. Modern, or competitive, dressage evolved from the classical school, although it now exists in a somewhat different form from its ancestor. Competitive dressage is an international sport ranging from beginner levels to the Olympics. Unlike classical dressage, competitive dressage does not require the airs above ground, which most horses cannot perform well with correct training, due to physical limitations.
Instead, competitive dressage focuses on movements such as the piaffe, half-pass, extended trot and tempi changes. In theory, competitive dressage should follow the same principles as classical dressage. However, there has been criticism by some riders for the trend at all levels for "quick fixes" and incorrect training that makes the horse appear correct, but, in fact neglecting the fundamentals. Classical riders criticize such training methods on the grounds that they are biomechanically incompatible with correct movement, are painful to the horse, cause long-term physical damage; these short-cuts catch up to the rider as they move up the levels and need to be corrected to perform certain movements. While these modern methods, such as the controversial rollkur technique, can produce winning animals, classical dressage riders argue that such training is incorrect and abusive, it is believed by some that competitive dressage does not always reward the most trained horse and rider at the lower levels.
For example, some riders who consider themselves to be training classically would not ask their horse to hold his head near-vertical when he first began training, this would be penalized at the lower levels of competitive dressage, marked down because the horse is not considered to be on the bit. Other riders, who would consider themselves classically trained, would disagree, saying that if a horse is not ready to travel in a correct outline he is not ready for competition, this is the reason such horses would be marked down; the highest form of classical riding, as well as dressage, high school dressage, or haute école, takes years for both the horse and rider to master. When a horse is advanced in its training, it can perform not only Grand Prix dressage movements such as collected and extended gaits and piaffe, but some can perform certain "Airs Above the Ground," although a horse will only be trained in one air, only if it is able; the "high school" or haute ecole school jumps, popularly known as the "airs above the ground", include the courbette, capriole and ballotade.