Kārlis Ulmanis

Kārlis Augusts Vilhelms Ulmanis was one of the most prominent Latvian politicians of pre-World War II Latvia during the interwar period of independence from November 1918 to June 1940. He served four times as the last time as the head of an authoritarian regime; the legacy of his dictatorship still divides public opinion in Latvia. Born in a prosperous farming family, Ulmanis studied agriculture at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich and at Leipzig University, he worked in Latvia as a writer and manager in agricultural positions. He was politically active during the 1905 Revolution, was imprisoned in Pskov, subsequently fled Latvia to avoid incarceration by the Russian authorities. During this period of exile, Ulmanis studied at the University of Nebraska–Lincoln in the United States, earning a Bachelor of Science degree in agriculture. After working at that university as a lecturer, Ulmanis moved to Houston, Texas; the dairy business he had bought there ran into financial difficulties.

Ulmanis returned to Latvia from American exile in 1913, after being informed that it was now safe for political exiles to return due to the declaration of a general amnesty by Nicholas II of Russia. This safety was short-lived as World War I broke out one year and Courland Governorate was occupied by Germany in 1915. Not much is known about the personal life of Ulmanis, it is known that there are no records of him dating anyone. When once asked about why he isn't married or has not had a significant other, his response was "I am married to Latvia, and, enough for me." During his lifetime, there were rumors over his sexuality, with some claims that he might have been homosexual. The rumors were fueled by Ulmanis' close relationships with two of his male employees; the rumors were fueled by Ulmanis himself not giving any information about his personal life. He did not have any offspring, although his brother did, with Ulmanis' brother's grandson becoming the president of Latvia. In the last stages of World War I, he founded the Latvian Farmers' Union, one of the two most prominent political parties in Latvia at that time.

Ulmanis was one of the principal founders of the People's Council, which proclaimed Latvia's independence on November 18, 1918, with Ulmanis as the Prime Minister of the first Provisional government of Latvia. After the Latvian War of Independence of 1919 - 1920, a constitutional convention established Latvia as a parliamentary democracy in 1920. Ulmanis served as Prime Minister in several subsequent Latvian government administrations from 1918 to 1934. On the night from May 15–16, 1934, with the support of Minister of War Jānis Balodis, proclaimed a state of war and dissolved all political parties and the Saeima; the bloodless coup was carried out by army and units of the national guard Aizsargi loyal to Ulmanis. They moved against key government offices and transportation facilities. Many elected officials and politicians were detained, as were any military officers who resisted the coup d'etat; some 2,000 Social Democrats were detained by the authorities, including most of the Social Democratic members of the disbanded Saeima, as were members of various right-wing radical organisations, such as Pērkonkrusts.

In all, 369 Social Democrats, 95 members of Pērkonkrusts, pro-Nazi activists from the Baltic German community, a handful of politicians from other parties were interned in a prison camp established in the Karosta district of Liepāja. After several Social Democrats, such as Bruno Kalniņš, had been cleared of weapons charges by the courts, most of those imprisoned began to be released over time; those convicted by the courts of treasonous acts, such as the leader of Pērkonkrusts Gustavs Celmiņš, remained behind bars for the duration of their sentences, three years in the case of Celmiņš. For the next four years, Ulmanis ruled without a parliament. A decree vested the Saeima's functions in the cabinet until a new constitution could be drafted. Although the incumbent State President Alberts Kviesis did not support the coup, he remained in office and collaborated with Ulmanis. On March 19, 1936, Ulmanis' cabinet drafted a law that provided for Ulmanis to become State President as well as Prime Minister upon the expiration of Kviesis' term.

This violated the Constitution, which stipulated that the chairman of the Saeima would become acting president pending new elections. However, no one dared object; when Kviesis left office on April 11, 1936, Ulmanis combined the offices of president and prime minister. The Ulmanis regime was unique among other European dictatorships of the interwar period. Ulmanis did not create rubber-stamp parliament or a new ideology, it was a personal, paternalistic dictatorship in which Ulmanis–who called himself "the leader of the people"–claimed to do what he thought was best for Latvians. All political life was proscribed and economy was organized into a type of corporate statism made popular during those years by Mussolini. Chambers of Professions were similar to Chambers of Corporations in other dictatorships. All political parties, including Ulmanis' own Farmers' Union, were outlawed. Part of the constitution of the Latvian Republic and civil liberties were suspended. All newspapers owned by political parties or organisations were closed and all publications were subjected to censorship and government oversight by the Ministry of Public Affairs led by Alfrēds Bērziņš


Edson Abel Jeremias Tchamo, known by his stage name Laylizzy, is a Mozambican, hip-hop recording artist and performer who raps in Portuguese and English. At the age of 14, Laylizzy joined a music group called 360 Graus, with his friends Hernani da Silva and alongside producer, Ellputo, they founded Sameblood Studios. In 2014, Laylizzy signed to Pan African orientated Geobek Entertainment's record label, Geobek Records, he has since released two singles under the label, "Tha Crew" in July 2015, followed by the single "Hello" featuring AKA, released on 1 April 2016, charting on iTunes Mozambique as #1 on all genre and #2 on iTunes South Africa Hip-hop chart. Laylizzy won an award for'Best Hip Hop Song' at the 2015 Mozambique Music Awards and was the winner of the Newcomers Delight Section in Hip Hop Magazine, HYPE in December 2015. In March 2016, laylizzy and fellow Mozambican top artists such as G2, Lizha James, Zena Bacar, António Marcos, Cristel and Luwi Ace came together to make the 2016 "Vive Agora" campaign song powered by Vodacom Mozambique.

In April 2016, Laylizzy became the first Mozambican artist to get verified on instagram and Facebook. In Oct 2016, CNN African Voices profiled Laylizzy as Mozambique's influential artist pushing the boundaries of hip hop music across borders and an artist who believes in future of Mozambique. SA Hip-Hop Magazine ranks Laylizzy as one of the top 10 rappers in Africa

Au revoir les enfants

Au revoir les enfants is an autobiographical 1987 film written and directed by Louis Malle. The film won the Golden Lion at the Venice Film Festival. During the winter of 1943–44, Julien Quentin, a student at a Carmelite boarding school in occupied France, is returning to school from vacation, he acts tough to the students at the school, but he is a pampered boy who misses his mother deeply. Saddened to be returning to the tedium of boarding school, Julien's classes seem uneventful until Père Jean, the headmaster, introduces three new pupils. One of them, Jean Bonnet, is the same age as Julien. Like the other students, Julien at first despises Bonnet, a awkward boy with a talent for arithmetic and playing the piano. One night, Julien discovers that Bonnet is wearing a kippah and is praying in Hebrew. After digging through his new friend's locker, Julien learns the truth, his new friend's name is not Jean Kippelstein. Père Jean, a compassionate, sacrificing priest of the old school, had agreed to grant a secret asylum to hunted Jews.

After a game of treasure hunt, however and Jean bond and a close friendship develops between them. When Julien's mother visits on Parents' Day, Julien asks his mother if Bonnet, whose parents could not come, could accompany them to lunch at a gourmet restaurant; as they sit around the table, the talk turns to a factory owner. When Julien's brother asks if he is still for Marshal Pétain, Madame Quentin responds, "No one is anymore." However, the Milice attempt to expel a Jewish diner. When Julien's brother calls them "Collabos," the Milice commander is enraged and tells Madam Quentin, "We serve France, madam, he insulted us." However, when a Wehrmacht officer coldly orders them to leave, the Milice officers grudgingly obey. Julien's mother comments that the Jewish diner appears to be a distinguished gentleman, she insists that she has nothing against Jews, but would not object if the socialist politician Léon Blum were hanged. Shortly thereafter, the school's assistant cook, is exposed for selling the school's food supplies on the black market.

He implicates several students as accomplices, including his brother, François. Although Père Jean is visibly distressed by the injustice, he fires Joseph but does not expel the students for fear of offending their wealthy and influential parents. On a cold morning in January 1944, the Gestapo raid the school; as his classroom is being searched, Julien unintentionally gives away Bonnet by looking in his direction. As the other two Jewish boys are hunted down, Julien encounters the person who denounced them, Joseph the kitchen hand. Trying to justify his betrayal in the face of Julien's mute disbelief, Joseph tells him, "Don't act so pious. There's a war on, kid." Disgusted, Julien runs off. Jean and Julien exchange books, a shared hobby of theirs, as they pack away their belongings due to the closure of the school; as the students are lined up in the school courtyard, a Gestapo officer denounces the illegal nature of Père Jean's actions. He further accuses all French people of being undisciplined.

Meanwhile, Père Jean and the three Jewish students are led away by the officers. Père Jean shouts: "Au revoir, les enfants! À bientôt!" to the children and they respond: "Au revoir, mon père!" As they leave the grounds, Jean glances over towards Julien and he waves in return. The film ends with an older Julien providing a voiceover epilogue: "Bonnet and Dupre died at Auschwitz; the school reopened its doors in October. More than 40 years have passed, but I'll remember every second of that January morning until the day I die." Gaspard Manesse as Julien Quentin Raphaël Fejtö as Jean Kippelstein, alias "Jean Bonnet" Francine Racette as Mme Quentin Stanislas Carré de Malberg as François Quentin Philippe Morier-Genoud as Father Jean/Père Jean François Berléand as Father Michel/Père Michel Irène Jacob as Mlle Davenne François Négret as Joseph Peter Fitz as Muller Pascal Rivet as Boulanger Benoît Henriet as Ciron Richard Leboeuf as Sagard Xavier Legrand as Babinot Arnaud Henriet as Negus Damien Salot as Dupre The film is based on events in the childhood of the director, Louis Malle, who at age 11 was attending a Roman Catholic boarding school near Fontainebleau.

One day, he witnessed a Gestapo raid in which three Jewish students and a Jewish teacher were rounded up and deported to Auschwitz. The school's headmaster, Père Jacques, was arrested for harboring them and sent to the concentration camp at Mauthausen, he died shortly after the camp was liberated by the U. S. Army, having refused to leave until the last French prisoner was repatriated. Forty years Yad Vashem, Israel's official memorial to the victims of the Holocaust, granted Père Jacques the title of Righteous Among the Nations; the film was well received by critics and has a 97% "Fresh" rating at the review aggregator site Rotten Tomatoes based on 29 reviews, with the consensus: "Louis Malle's autobiographical tale of a childhood spent in a WWII boarding school is a beautifully realized portrait of friendship and youth.". The film was a box office success having 3.5 million admissions in France and grossing $4,542,825 in North America. The screenplay was published by Gallimard in the same year.

Academy Awards Best Foreign Language Film - Nominated Best Original Screenplay - NominatedGolden Globe Awards Best Foreign Language Film - NominatedBritish Academy Film Awards Best Film - Nominated Best Film Not in the English Language - Nominated Best Direction - Won Best Original Screenplay - Nominated