click links in text for more info


Kırklareli is a city in the European part of Turkey. It is not known when the city was founded, nor under what name; the Byzantine Greeks called it Sarànta Ekklisiès. In modern Greek is known with the same name, too. In the 14th century this was translated to Turkish and called "Kırk Kilise". Following the establishment of the Turkish Republic in 1923, sanjaks became cities and on December 20, 1924, Kırk Kilise's name was changed to Kırklareli, meaning The Place of the Forties; the denomination Kırklareli was used years before 1924, for example in the contemporary literature concerning the Balkan Wars of 1912–13. The Bulgarian name of the town is Lozengrad. Ongoing archeological excavations in the city support the claim that the area was the location of one of the first organized settlements on the European continent, with artifacts from the Paleolithic and Neolithic periods; the settlement and its surrounding areas were conquered by the Persians in 513–512 BC, during the reign of King Darius I.

In 914 during the Bulgarian invasion in Adrianople led by Simeon I, the settlement was captured by the Bulgarians and was under Bulgarian rule until 1003 when it was lost to the Byzantines. The Ottoman Turks took the city and its region from the Byzantines in 1363, during the reign of Sultan Murad I; the city was damaged during the Greek War of Independence. According to the 1878 record "Ethnography of the Wilayahs Adrianopol and Thessaloniki" Kırk Kilise was inhabited by 6,700 Bulgarians, 2,850 Greeks, 2,700 belonging to other ethnic groups. According to the official Ottoman census of 1906–1907, the ethnic-religious breakdown in the Sanjak of Kırk Kilise was: 22,022 Muslims. During the Balkan Wars Kırk Kilise was occupied by Bulgaria, by Greece in the aftermath of World War I resulting in mass immigration of Bulgarian population. Following the Turkish War of Independence the city was retaken by the Turks on November 10, 1922. According to the 1923 population exchange agreement between Greece and Turkey, the Greeks of the city were exchanged for the Muslims living in Greece.

Most of the inhabitants of the city are Turks who lived in Thessaloniki until the First Balkan War of 1912. The Treaty of Lausanne which defines Turkey's western border in Thrace defined the western boundaries of the Kırklareli Province. In 1923 most of the 3700 inhabitants of Notia, the only Muslim village of the Megleno-Romanians in northern Greece, settled in the Odrin area and became known as Karadjovalides after the Turkish name of Moglena; the number of these megleno-vlach families settled in Kırklareli were more than 110, while those settled in small villages around were 400: in total nearly 2000 Megleno-Romanians. They number only 500, concentrated in Kırklareli and culturally assimilated to the Turks Hızır Bey Külliye: This külliye consists of the Hızır Bey Mosque, Hızır Bey Bath and Arasta Hızır Bey Mosque: Located at the center of the city, it was built on a square plan by Köse Mihalzade Hızır Bey in 1383. Built of cut stone and having one minaret, it was restored by Yusuf Pasha of Aydost in 1824.

Still used today, the final praying place and garden walls of the mosque were built afterwards. Hızır Bey Bath: Also located at the center of the city and built adjacent to Bath and Arasta by Köse Mihalzade Hızır Bey in 1383. There are two entrances, one each for women and men, which are called the "Paired Baths". According to an inscription in the women's bath, Hacı Hüseyin Ağa restored it between 1683 and 1704. Still used today, the outer walls are regular and built from coarse sandstone. It's a Turkish Bath in the traditional Ottoman architecture style. Arasta: Built adjacent to the Hızır Bey Bath in a "T" form, it has arch-type walls; the upper cover is a vault 15 m long. There were 12 shops inside formed by three beams, it was restored in 1704. Kırklareli Jewish Quarter: A historic neighborhood. Kırklareli Museum: A natural history and archaeology museum. Dupnisa Cave: Kırklareli Province is host to the only cave, open to tourists in Thrace, the Dupnisa Cave near the village of Sarpdere, believed to have formed circa 4 million years ago.

The Dupnisa Cave was used for Dionysian Rituals in ancient times. The name of Dionysus is associated with Mount Nisa right above the cave of Dupnisa; the Bulgarian name of Kırklareli, Lozengrad which means Vineyard Town may have its origins in this ancient Greek myth. Demirköy Foundry: Archaeological site of a historic iron foundry, where cannonballs fired during the Conquest of Istanbul in 1453 were manufactured. Kırklareli has a borderline mediterranean/humid subtropical climate due to the rain shadow effect caused by the mountain range to the immediate northeast, while the region is humid subtropical. Summers are long and humid whilst winters are cool and damp. Snowfall is quite common between the months of December and March, snowing for two. Anthim I, first head of the Bulgarian Exarchate Nikola Aslanov, Bulgarian revolutionary Can

SS Ausonia (1956)

SS Ausonia known as the SS Ivory and Aegean Two while in service with her last owners, Golden Star Cruises, was a cruise liner belonging to Louis Cruise Lines operating in the Mediterranean. She operated cruise service during her 52 years of life, she was the last vintage Italian ocean liner in service when she was retired from service in September 2008 and beached for dismantling in March 2010. She was commissioned by Adriatica Lines for its Trieste–Egypt–Lebanon service, she was launched by Cantieri Riuniti dell' Adriatico at Monfalcone on 5 August 1956, delivered on 23 September 1957. She was fitted out and commenced service in October 1957. Ports of call were Trieste, Brindisi, Beirut and Bari, she remained in service with her original owners until 1978, when she underwent a major refit that increased her passenger capacity from 529 to 690. She remained in service with her new owners, Italia Crociere Internazionali, until 1998, when she was sold to the Cyprus-based Louis Cruise Lines. A baby girl was born, named after the ship "Ausonia' on January 5, 1959 at 07:30.

Her parents Elias Sleiman Saikali and Harba her name was registered as'Azonia'. Ausonia was delivered by Doctor Viviani Leonardo. Ausonia was baptized the same day, the godfather was Captain Gino Fabbro. Witness was Vianello Francesco; the couple were immigrating from Lebanon to Canada. Her birth was registered at the Lebanese Consulat in Napoli on January 8, 1959, she never entered service with her original owners right away, as she was chartered to First Choice Holidays for about four years, before entering service for Louis. She was in 2005 renamed Ivory by Louis and continued to operate under Louis Cruise Lines until the end of summer 2008; the Ivory was withdrawn from service in 2009 due to her not fulfilling the SOLAS 2010 regulations. She was beached for scrapping operations at Alang, India on March 3, 2010, she was renamed Winner 5 in preparation for scrapping. The stripping of her interiors has begun, cutting is imminent. By May 20 scrapping had begun, the tip of her bow was cut.. Fellow ocean liner Maestro replaced her and was beached in her plot, 141.

Media related to SS Ausonia at Wikimedia Commons


Hecastocleis is a genus of low thorny shrubs with stiff branches, assigned to the daisy family. At the tip of each of the branches, inflorescences are subtended by oval, whitish to greenish bracts that enclose several flower heads which each contain only one pinkish bud, opening into a white corolla, it contains but one species, Hecastocleis shockleyi, the only representative of the tribe Hecastocleideae, of the subfamily Hecastocleidoideae. Its vernacular name is prickleleaf, it is confined to the southwestern United States. Hecastocleis shockleyi is a xerophitic thorny shrub of 40–70 cm ) 1½ m high, it has sixteen chromosomes. The leaves are alternately set along the branches; the leaf blades are hairless or with a few soft hairs olive green and leathery, with three main veins, linear to narrowly ovate in shape, 1–4 cm long, their base clasping the branch, with thickened margins carrying three to six spines of 1–3 mm long, denser spaced near the base, while the tip is more or less abruptly tapering into a point.

The complex inflorescences are carried at the end of the branches. These consist of a number of crowded clusters; each of the clusters is subtended by white to yellowish green, ovate to orbicular bracts that have a spiny margin, further consist of one to five flower heads which each contain only a single disk floret. The most outward part of the flower head is the involucre, narrowly vase-shaped to cylindric and 1 cm high, consists of about six worls of four bracts called phyllaries, which have soft woolly hairs around the edge; the base of the flower head lacks a bract directly at the base of the floret. The corolla of the florets is pinkish purple when still in bud, but turns pinkish white at flowering, at which time it is about 1 cm high; these are hermaphrodite, star-symmetric, have five narrow outwards oriented lobes. The five pinkish purple anthers are fused into a long tube, that covers the entire style; the bone-colored style grows through the anther tube, collecting the pollen on hairs, displaying it above the anter tube like in all other Asteraceae.

The style branches have rounded tips. At the base of the corolla the one-seeded indehiscent fruit develops, not flattened, has four to five hardly visible nerves, turns brown and has lost any hairs when ripe, is about ½ cm high. On the top of the cypselas is a crown of six unequal scales of 1–2 mm high; these scales are lanceolate in shape, may have several teeth and are sometimes fused at their base, so forming a crown. The pollen of Hecastocleis is yellow and tricolpate. Like Hecastocleis, some other Asteraceae have flower heads consisting of a single floret, such as Gundelia, a perennial herbaceous plant from the Middle-East, Gymnarrhena a winter annual from northern Africa and the Middle-East. Both have male flowers and female flowers, not hermaphrodite as in Hecastocleis, while Gymnarrhena has tetramerous male florets, not pentamerous. Hecastocleis shockleyi was placed it to the tribe Mutisieae. Kåre Bremer in 1994 assigned it to the subtribe Mutisiinae, while Hind in 2006 erected its own group within the Mutisieae.

Scholars agree that Hecastocleis occupies a isolated position on the evolutionary grade of subfamilies of the Asteraceae, this is expressed by the erection of the monotypic subfamily Hecastocleidoideae. The current insights in the relationships between Hecastocleis and its closest relatives, as based on genetic analysis, is expressed in the following tree. Earlier splits of the Asteraceae tree are supposed to have taken place in southern South America; the splits that occur than Hecastocleis have occurred Africa southern Africa, some may have occurred in Asia. This implies that the common ancestor of Hecastocleis and all branches moved from South America to North American and after the split with Hecastocleis, the ancestor of the remainder of the subfamilies arrived in Africa from North-America. Alternatively, only the ancestor of Hecastocleis migrated from South America to North America while the ancestor of the remainder was distributed from South America to Africa; the placement of Hecastocleis in the tree could be incorrect due to parallel evolution an reversal of earlier mutations.

However, the support in the analysis for the separation of Hecastocleis from the Gochnatieae is strong. The name of the genus Hecastocleis is the contraction of two Greek words, ἕκαστος meaning "each" and κλειω, said to mean "to shut up", referring to each flower having its own involucre. An alternative meaning of kleio is "glory"; the species was named shockleyi in honor of William Hillman Shockley, an early plant collector of the flora of Nevada. Prickleleaf is native to the desert plains and mountains of eastern California and southern Nevada, where it grows on arid, rocky slopes and flats. Records of this plant include Nevada Test Site, Grapevine Mountains and Red Pass. In the mountains rimming the north-side of Death Valley, Hecastocleis shockleyi may be one of the dominant shrubs together with Atriplex confertifolia, Eriogonum fasciculatum, Tetradymia axillaris. Less dominant but present shrubs are Ephedra viridis, Ericameria laricifolia, Lepidium fremontii. Trees are absent. Herbaceous plants form an open layer and include the grasses Achnatherum hymenoides, Bromus ruben

Hassan Bility

Hassan Bility is a Liberian journalist, the founder and Director of the Global Justice and Research Project, a non-governmental organization dedicated to the documentation of war time atrocities in Liberia and to assisting victims in their pursuit of justice for these crimes. During Liberia's civil wars, Bility was one of the country's most prominent journalists and human rights activists. While serving as Editor-in-Chief of the Analyst Newspaper under the regime of Charles Taylor, he was arrested multiple times. During the last of his arrests, he was accused of being an “unlawful combatant”, was brutally tortured on Taylor's orders, he testified in several trials, including the so-called ‘RUF trial’ of three former members of the Revolutionary United Front, as well as the trial of Charles Taylor, at the Special Court for Sierra Leone. BA Degree in Mass Communication University of Liberia. Bility worked as Managing Editor of the National Newspaper, Liberia. In 2000, he became Editor-in-Chief of the Analyst Newspaper and the Training Officer of the Press Union of Liberia.

At the same time, he was engaged as Coordinator of the London-based International Alert peace-building program, through the Press Union of Liberia, served as Press Officer of the European Union Liberian office in Monrovia under Ambassador Brian O’Neal. For one year, Bility was a contracted writer with Amnesty International. In 2004, he became Director of Communication at the International Institute for Justice and Development, based in Boston, Massachusetts, USA, he toured the US raising awareness about the atrocities committed in Liberia. Since 2006, Bility has been working on the documentation of war-time crimes in Liberia in order assist in multiple investigations against alleged war criminals. Bility founded the GJRP in 2012. Since under his leadership, the GJRP's documentation work has contributed to the investigation and arrest of multiple alleged Liberian war criminals throughout Europe and the US, including the arrests of: ● Alieu Kosiah, a former commander of the ULIMO rebel group. ● 2002 – Press Union of Liberia, Best Journalist of the Year Award, Liberia ● 2003 – Amnesty International, International UK Media Award under the category ‘Human Rights Journalism under Threat’, London, UK ● 2003 – The Hassan Bility Courageous Journalism Award initiated by Liberians, USA ● 2004 – Freedom and Human Rights Courage Award, Philadelphia, PA, USA ● 2018 – Judith Lee Stronach Human Rights award for his courage, his singular pursuit of justice for Liberia

Nathaniel Smith

Nathaniel Smith was a nineteenth-century lawyer, cattle dealer and politician. He served as a U. S. Representative from Connecticut and as a judge of the Supreme Court of Connecticut. Smith was born in Woodbury, the son of Richard Smith and Annis Smith, he engaged in agricultural pursuits. He was a cattle dealer. Smith attended the Litchfield Law School, he studied law and was admitted to the bar in 1787. Smith began the practice of law in Woodbury. In 1789 Smith became a member of the Connecticut House of Representatives, served in the State House until 1795, he was elected as a Federalist candidate to the Fourth and Fifth Congresses, serving from March 4, 1795 to March 3, 1799. He declined to be a candidate for renomination in 1798. Smith served as a member of the Connecticut council of assistants from 1799 to 1804, he served in the Connecticut Senate from 1800 to 1805. Smith was State's Attorney for Litchfield County in 1805. In 1806 he became judge of the Supreme Court of Connecticut, he kept this position for thirteen years.

He was a delegate to the Hartford Convention from 1814 to 1815. Smith died in Woodbury on March 9, 1822, he is interred in the Episcopal Church Cemetery. Smith married Ruth Benedict Smith, they had Harriet J. Smith and Nathaniel Benedict Smith. Smith was the brother of Nathan Smith, United States Senator from Connecticut, the uncle of Truman Smith, United States Senator from Connecticut. Nathaniel Smith at Find a Grave Rep. Nathaniel Smith The Political Graveyard: Smith family of Connecticut Litchfield Historical Society: Nathaniel Smith Biographical Directory of the United States Congress: SMITH, Nathaniel

1990 NCAA Division III Men's Ice Hockey Tournament

The 1990 NCAA Division III Men's Ice Hockey Tournament was the culmination of the 1989–90 season, the 7th such tournament in NCAA history. It concluded with Wisconsin-Stevens Point defeating Plattsburgh State in the championship series 1-0 in the deciding minigame. All Quarterfinals matchups were held at home team venues, while all succeeding games were played in Stevens Point, Wisconsin; the following teams qualified for the tournament. There were no automatic bids, conference tournament champions were given preferential consideration. No formal seeding was used while quarter and semifinal matches were arranged so that the road teams would have the shortest possible travel distances; because the semifinal series were played at home team venues the NCAA elected to select an equal amount of eastern and western teams. The tournament featured three rounds of play. Starting in 1988, each round of the tournament consisted of a two-game series where the first team to reach 3 points was declared a winner.

If both teams ended up with 2 points after the first two games a 20-minute mini-game used to determine a winner. Mini-game scores are in italics; the teams were seeded according to geographic proximity in the quarterfinals so the visiting team would have the shortest feasible distance to travel. Note: * denotes overtime periodNote: Mini-games in italics Division III Men's Ice Hockey Record Book