Captain is the name most given in English-speaking navies to the rank corresponding to command of the largest ships. The rank is equal to the army rank of colonel. Equivalent ranks worldwide include "ship-of-the-line captain", "captain of sea and war", "captain at sea" and "captain of the first rank"; the NATO rank code is OF-5, although the United States of America uses the code O-6 for the equivalent rank. Any naval officer who commands a ship is addressed by naval custom as "captain" while aboard in command, regardless of his or her actual rank though technically an officer of below the rank of captain is more titled the commanding officer, or C. O. Officers with the rank of captain travelling aboard a vessel they do not command should be addressed by their rank and name, but they should not be referred to as "the captain" to avoid confusion with the vessel's captain; the naval rank should not be confused with the army, air force, or marine ranks of captain, which all have the NATO code of OF-2.
On large US ships, the executive officer may be a captain in rank, in which case it would be proper to address him by rank. The XO prefers to be called "XO" to avoid confusion with the CO, a captain in rank and the captain of the ship; the same applies to senior commanders on board US aircraft carriers, where the commander and deputy commander of the embarked carrier air wing are both captains in rank, but are addressed by the titles of "CAG" and "DCAG", respectively. Captains with sea commands command ships of cruiser size or larger. In the Royal Navy, a captain might command an aircraft carrier, an amphibious assault ship, or the Ice Patrol Ship, while naval aviator and naval flight officer captains in the U. S. Navy command aircraft carriers, large-deck amphibious assault ships, carrier air wings, maritime patrol air wings, functional and specialized air wings and air groups. Maritime battlestaff commanders of one-star rank will embark on large capital ships such as aircraft carriers, which will function as the flagship for their strike group or battle group, but a captain will retain command of the actual ship, assume the title of "flag captain".
When a senior officer, in the ship's captain's chain of command is present, all orders are given through the captain. The following articles deal with the rank of captain. Captain Captain Captain Capitaine de vaisseau Kapitän zur See Kapitan of the 1st rank Kapitan of the 1st rank Sea captain Post captain Captain's cabin
Japanese destroyer Inazuma (1932)
Inazuma was the twenty-fourth Fubuki-class destroyers, or the fourth of the Akatsuki class, built for the Imperial Japanese Navy in the inter-war period. When introduced into service, these ships were the most powerful destroyers in the world, they remained formidable weapons systems well into the Pacific War. Construction of the advanced Fubuki-class destroyers was authorized as part of the Imperial Japanese Navy's expansion program from fiscal 1923, intended to give Japan a qualitative edge with the world's most modern ships; the Fubuki class had performance, a quantum leap over previous destroyer designs, so much so that they were designated Special Type destroyers. The large size, powerful engines, high speed, large radius of action and unprecedented armament gave these destroyers the firepower similar to many light cruisers in other navies; the Akatsuki sub-class was an improved version of the Fubuki, externally identical, but incorporating changes to her propulsion system. Inazuma, built at the Fujinagata Shipyards in Osaka was the fourth in the “Type III” improved series of Fubuki destroyers, incorporating a modified gun turret which could elevate her main battery of Type 3 127 mm 50 caliber naval guns to 75° as opposed to the original 40°, thus permitting the guns to be used as dual purpose guns against aircraft.
Inazuma was laid down on 7 March 1930, launched on 25 February 1932 and commissioned on 15 November 1932. Soon after completion, on 9 June 1934, Inazuma collided with the destroyer Miyuki on 29 June 1934 while on maneuvers off of Cheju Island; the collision sank Miyuki and severed the bow of Inazuma, towed to Sasebo Naval Arsenal by the heavy cruiser Nachi for extensive repairs. After repairs were completed, she was assigned to Destroyer Division 6 along with her sister ships, Ikazuchi and Akatsuki, under the IJN 1st Fleet. At the time of the attack on Pearl Harbor, Inazuma was assigned to Destroyer Division 6 of Desron 1 of the IJN 1st Fleet, had deployed from Mako Guard District to provide cover for landing operations in the Invasion of Hong Kong. After assisting the cruiser Isuzu in sinking British gunboats HMS Cicala and HMS Robin, she helped secure Hong Kong Harbor. After the start of 1942, Inazuma deployed from Hong Kong to Davao, providing cover for landing operations during the Battle of Manado in the Netherlands East Indies.
On 20 January, Inazuma collided with the transport Sendai Maru at Davao, suffered considerable damage, repaired by the repair ship Akashi until further work could be performed at Mako. On 1 March, Inazuma was involved in the Second Battle of the Java Sea, where she assisted in the sinking of the U. S. destroyer the British destroyer HMS Encounter and cruiser HMS Exeter. After assisting in operations in the Philippines in March, she returned to Yokosuka Naval Arsenal for repairs in April. Inazuma deployed from Ōminato Guard District in support of Admiral Boshirō Hosogaya’s Northern Force in the Aleutians campaign, patrolling waters around Kiska and Attu during June and July, rescuing 36 survivors from the torpedoed destroyer Nenohi, she continued to be assigned to northern patrols in the Chishima islands and Aleutian islands through the end of August. From September, Inazuma was reassigned to Kure Naval District, training exercises in the Inland Sea with new aircraft carriers Junyō and Hiyō. From October, Inazuma escorted these aircraft carriers to Truk, patrolled from Truk to the northern Solomon Islands.
During the First and Second Naval Battle of Guadalcanal from 12–15 November, Inazuma claimed sinking an American cruiser and assisted in sinking American destroyers USS Benham, USS Walke and USS Preston and damaging USS Gwin. After the battle, Inazuma was based at Truk, used for numerous “Tokyo Express" high speed transport runs throughout the Solomon Islands. In mid-January 1943, Inazuma was sent back for maintenance at Kure, escorting Zuikaku and Suzuya. After repairs were completed in February, she was assigned back to Ōminato to resume patrols of northern waters, was at the Battle of the Komandorski Islands in March, albeit as escort for transports and away from the main combat. From April through the end of 1943, Inazuma escorted numerous convoys between Truk. In February 1944, Inazuma was reassigned to the Combined Fleet, from March served as escort for the aircraft carrier Chiyoda on various missions from Palau. While escorting a tanker convoy from Manila towards Balikpapan on 14 May 1944, Inazuma exploded after being struck by torpedoes launched by USS Bonefish in the Celebes Sea near Tawitawi at position 5°8′N 119°38′E.
Her sister ship Hibiki rescued the 125 survivors, which did not include her captain, LtCdr Teizo Tokiwa. On 10 June 1944, Inazuma was removed from the navy list. List of ships of the Japanese Navy List of Japanese Navy ships and war vessels in World War II D'Albas, Andrieu. Death of a Navy: Japanese Naval Action in World War II. Devin-Adair Pub. ISBN 0-8159-5302-X. Brown, David. Warship Losses of World War Two. Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-55750-914-X. Hammel, Eric. Guadalcanal: Decision at Sea: The Naval Battle of Guadalcanal, Nov. 13–15, 1942.: Pacifica Press. ISBN 0-517-56952-3. Morison, Samuel Eliot. Aleutians and Marshalls, June 1942-April 1944, vol. 7 of History of United States Naval Operations in World War II. Boston: Little and Company. ASIN B0007FBB8I. Howarth, Stephen; the Fighting Ships of the Rising Sun: The Drama of the Imperial Japanese Navy, 1895–1945. Atheneum. ISBN 0-689-11402-8. Jentsura, Hansgeorg. Warships of the
Leiji Matsumoto is a well-known creator of several anime and manga series. His wife Miyako Maki is a manga artist. Matsumoto is famous for his space operas such as Space Battleship Yamato, his style is characterized by tragic heroes. Matsumoto made his debut under his real name, Akira Matsumoto, in 1953, his wife is shōjo manga artist Miyako Maki. Matsumoto had his big break with Otoko Oidon, a series that chronicled the life of a rōnin, in 1971. Around the same time he started a series of unconnected short stories set during World War II, Senjo Manga Series, which would become popular under the title The Cockpit, he was involved in Space Battleship Yamato and created the popular series Space Pirate Captain Harlock and Galaxy Express 999. In 1978, he was awarded the Shogakukan Manga Award for shōnen for Galaxy Express 999 and Senjo Manga Series. Animated versions of Captain Harlock and Galaxy Express 999 are set in the same universe, which spanned several spin offs and related series, most notably Queen Emeraldas and Queen Millennia.
Matsumoto supervised the creation of several music videos for the French house group Daft Punk, set to tracks from their album Discovery. These videos were issued end-to-end on a DVD release titled Interstella 5555: The 5tory of the 5ecret 5tar 5ystem. About two dozen bronze statues – each four feet tall – of characters and scenes from Space Battleship Yamato and Galaxy Express 999 were erected in the downtown area of Tsuruga in 1999; each statue includes a plaque at its base explaining the character, featuring Matsumoto's signature. Matsumoto worked with Yoshinobu Nishizaki on Space Battleship Yamato. Matsumoto created a manga loosely based on the series, the Yamato makes cameo appearances in several of his works including the Galaxy Express 999 manga. A recent work by Matsumoto called Great Yamato featuring an updated Yamato had to be renamed Great Galaxy due to legal issues with Nishizaki; as of 2009, Matsumoto and Nishizaki were working on independent anime projects featuring the acclaimed Space Battleship Yamato, with the conditions that Matsumoto cannot use the name Yamato or the plot or characters from the original, Nishizaki cannot use the conceptual art, character or ship designs of the original.
Since Nishizaki's death in 2010, it is uncertain. On August 2014, to celebrate the 60th anniversary of his debut, Matsumoto launched the manga Captain Harlock ~Jigen Kōkai~, illustrated by Kōichi Shimahoshi, in the pages of Akita Shoten's Champion Red magazine. Dimensional Voyage is a retelling of the original 1978 Space Pirate Captain Harlock manga, it had been licensed in the U. S. by Seven Seas. Great Galaxy Harlock Saga Der Ring des Nibelungen Queen Millennia Starzinger The Ultimate Time Sweeper Mahoroba Planet Robot Danguard Ace Official website Leiji Matsumoto at Anime News Network's encyclopedia Leiji Matsumoto on IMDb Entry in the Encyclopedia of Science Fiction Leiji Matsumoto manga and anime at Media Arts Database Ozma interview Ozma interview with Asahi Shimbun
Tatsuno is a town located in Nagano Prefecture, Japan. As of 1 October 2016, the town had an estimated population of 19,236, a population density of 114 persons per km², its total area is 169.20 square kilometres. Tatsuno is located in the Ina Valley of south-central Nagano Prefecture, bordered by the Kiso Mountains; the Tenryū River flows through the town, surrounded by mountains and is rich in a natural environment. It is takes about 3 hours from Tokyo, 2 hours from Nagoya, 5 hours from Kyoto by train and by car. Part of the town is within the borders of the Enrei Ōjō Prefectural Natural Park; the Yokokawa Dam is located in Tatsuno. Nagano Prefecture Okaya Suwa Shiojiri Minamiminowa Minowa The area of present-day Tatsuno was part of ancient Shinano Province; the village of Inatomi established on April 1, 1889 by the establishment of the municipalities system, was elevated to town status on January 1, 1947, changing its name to Tatsuno at that time. The neighboring village of Asahi was annexed on April 1, 1955, followed by Kawashima on September 30, 1956 and Ono on March 31, 1961.
Tatsuno has five public elementary schools and five public middle school operated by the town government, one high school operated the Nagano Prefectural Board of Education. The Shinshu Honan Junior College us located in Tatsuno. JR East - Chūō Main Line Tatsuno - Shinano-Kawashima - Ono JR Tōkai - Iida Line Haba - Ina-Shimmachi - Miyaki - Tatsuno Chūō Expressway Japan National Route 153 - Waitomo, New Zealand. Matsuo-kyo: one of the most famous places in Japan for fireflies every summer. However, the intentional introduction of non-native fireflies and its negative influence on the native fireflies of Tatsuno were highlighted in an academic journal, and several major newspapers. Enrei Ōjō Prefectural Natural Park Media related to Tatsuno, Nagano at Wikimedia Commons Official Website
Operation Ten-Go was a Japanese naval operation plan in 1945, consisting of four scenarios. Its first scenario, Operation Heaven One became the last major Japanese naval operation in the Pacific Theater of World War II; the resulting engagement is known as the Battle of the East China Sea. In April 1945, the Japanese battleship Yamato, along with nine other Japanese warships, embarked from Japan on a deliberate suicide attack upon Allied forces engaged in the Battle of Okinawa; the Japanese force was attacked and destroyed by United States carrier-borne aircraft before reaching Okinawa. Yamato and five other Japanese warships were sunk; the battle demonstrated U. S. air supremacy in the Pacific theater by this stage in the war and the vulnerability of surface ships without air cover to aerial attack. The battle exhibited Japan's willingness to sacrifice entire ships the pride of its fleet, in desperate kamikaze attacks aimed at slowing the Allied advance on the Japanese home islands. By early 1945, following the Solomon Islands campaign, the Battle of the Philippine Sea and the Battle of Leyte Gulf, the once-formidable Imperial Japanese Navy's Combined Fleet was reduced to just a handful of operational warships and a few remaining aircraft and aircrew.
Most of the remaining Japanese warships in the Combined Fleet were stationed at ports in Japan, with most of the large ships at Kure, Hiroshima. As a final step before the planned invasion of the Japanese home islands, Allied forces invaded Okinawa on 1 April 1945. In March, in briefing Emperor Hirohito on Japan's response to the expected Okinawan invasion, Japanese military leaders explained that the Imperial Japanese Army was planning extensive air attacks, including the use of kamikaze; the emperor reportedly asked, "But what about the Navy? What are they doing to assist in defending Okinawa? Have we no more ships?" Now feeling pressured by the emperor to mount some kind of attack, Japan's Navy commanders conceived a kamikaze-type mission for their remaining operational large ships, which included the battleship Yamato. The resulting plan—drafted under the direction of the Commander-in-Chief of the Combined Fleet, Admiral Toyoda Soemu—called for Yamato and her escorts to attack the U. S. fleet supporting the U.
S. troops landing on the west of the island. Yamato and her escorts were to fight their way to Okinawa and beach themselves between Higashi and Yomitan and fight as shore batteries until they were destroyed. Once the ships were destroyed, their surviving crewmembers were supposed to abandon ship and fight U. S. forces on land. Little, if any, air cover could be provided for the ships, which would render them helpless to concentrated attacks from US carrier-based aircraft. In preparation for executing the plan, the assigned ships left Kure for Tokuyama, off Mitajiri, Japan, on 29 March. However, despite obeying orders to prepare for the mission, Vice-Admiral Seiichi Itō—commander of the Ten-Go force—still refused to order his ships to carry it out, believing the plan to be futile and wasteful. Other commanders of the Imperial Japanese Navy had negative feelings about the operation, believing that it was a waste of human life and fuel. Captain Atsushi Ōi—who commanded escort fleets—was critical as fuel and resources were diverted from his operation.
As he was told that the aim of this operation was "the tradition and the glory of Navy," he shouted: This war is of our nation and why should the honor of our "surface fleet" be more respected? Who cares about their glory? Damn fools! Vice Admiral Ryūnosuke Kusaka flew from Tokyo on 5 April to Tokuyama in a final attempt to convince the assembled commanders of the Combined Fleet—including Admiral Itō—to accept the plan. Upon first hearing of the proposed operation, the Combined Fleet commanders and captains unanimously joined Admiral Itō in rejecting it for the same reasons that he had expressed. Admiral Kusaka explained that the Navy's attack would help divert U. S. aircraft away from the Army's planned kamikaze attacks on the U. S. fleet at Okinawa. He explained that Japan's national leadership, including the emperor, were expecting the Navy to make their best effort to support the defense of Okinawa. Upon hearing this, the Combined Fleet commanders accepted the proposed plan; the ships' crews were briefed on the nature of the mission and given the opportunity to stay behind if desired — none did.
However 80 crew members who were new, sick, or infirm, were ordered off the ships, including sixty-seven naval cadets of Etajima Naval Academy Class No. 74 who had arrived on the battleship three days earlier. The ships' crews now engaged in some last-minute intense drills to prepare for the mission practicing damage-control procedures. At midnight, the ships were fueled. In secret defiance of orders to provide the ships with only just enough fuel to reach Okinawa, the Tokuyama personnel gave Yamato and the other ships all of the remaining fuel in the port, although this still was not enough to allow the force to return to Japan from Okinawa. In a ceremonial farewell and enlisted men drank sake together. At 16:00 on 6 April, with Admiral Itō on board, the light cruiser Yahagi and eight destroyers departed Tokuyama to begin the mission. Two American submarines—Threadfin and Hackleback—sighted the Japanese force as it proceeded south through Bungo Suidō. Although they were unable to attack, they did spend several hours shadowing th
Battle of Okinawa
The Battle of Okinawa, codenamed Operation Iceberg, was a major battle of the Pacific War fought on the island of Okinawa by United States Marine and Army forces against the Imperial Japanese Army. The initial invasion of Okinawa on April 1, 1945, was the largest amphibious assault in the Pacific Theater of World War II; the 82-day battle lasted from April 1 until June 22, 1945. After a long campaign of island hopping, the Allies were planning to use Kadena Air Base on the large island of Okinawa as a base for Operation Downfall, the planned invasion of the Japanese home islands, 340 mi away; the United States created the Tenth Army, a cross-branch force consisting of the 7th, 27th, 77th, 96th infantry divisions of the US Army with the 1st, 2nd, 6th divisions of the Marine Corps, to fight on the island. The Tenth was unique in that it had its own tactical air force, was supported by combined naval and amphibious forces; the battle has been referred to as the "typhoon of steel" in English, tetsu no ame or tetsu no bōfū in Japanese.
The nicknames refer to the ferocity of the fighting, the intensity of Japanese kamikaze attacks, the sheer numbers of Allied ships and armored vehicles that assaulted the island. The battle was one of the bloodiest in the Pacific, with 160,000 casualties on both sides: at least 75,000 Allied and 84,166–117,000 Japanese, including drafted Okinawans wearing Japanese uniforms. 149,425 Okinawans were killed, committed suicide or went missing, a significant proportion of the estimated pre-war 300,000 local population. In the naval operations surrounding the battle, both sides lost considerable numbers of ships and aircraft, including the Japanese battleship Yamato. After the battle, Okinawa provided a fleet anchorage, troop staging areas, airfields in proximity to Japan in preparation for the planned invasion. In all, the Army had over 102,000 soldiers, over 18,000 Navy personnel. At the start of the Battle of Okinawa, the 10th Army had 182,821 personnel under its command, it was planned that General Buckner would report to Turner until the amphibious phase was completed, after which he would report directly to Spruance.
Although Allied land forces were composed of American units, the British Pacific Fleet provided about ¼ of Allied naval air power. It comprised a force. Although all the BPF aircraft carriers were provided by Britain, the carrier group was a combined British Commonwealth fleet with Australian, New Zealand and Canadian ships and personnel, their mission was to neutralize Japanese airfields in the Sakishima Islands and provide air cover against Japanese kamikaze attacks. Most of the air-to-air fighters and the small dive bombers and strike aircraft were US Navy carrier-based airplanes; the Japanese land campaign was conducted by the 67,000-strong regular 32nd Army and some 9,000 Imperial Japanese Navy troops at Oroku naval base, supported by 39,000 drafted local Ryukyuan people. The Japanese had used kamikaze tactics since the Battle of Leyte Gulf, but for the first time, they became a major part of the defense. Between the American landing on April 1 and May 25, seven major kamikaze attacks were attempted, involving more than 1,500 planes.
The 32nd Army consisted of the 9th, 24th, 62nd Divisions, the 44th Independent Mixed Brigade. The 9th Division was moved to Taiwan before the invasion, resulting in shuffling of Japanese defensive plans. Primary resistance was to be led in the south by Lieutenant General Mitsuru Ushijima, his chief of staff, Lieutenant General Isamu Chō and his chief of operations, Colonel Hiromichi Yahara. Yahara advocated a defensive strategy, whilst Chō advocated an offensive one. In the north, Colonel Takehido Udo was in command; the IJN troops were led by Rear Admiral Minoru Ōta. They expected the Americans to land 6–10 divisions against the Japanese garrison of two and a half divisions; the staff calculated that superior quality and numbers of weapons gave each US division five or six times the firepower of a Japanese division. To this, would be added the Americans' abundant naval and air firepower. In Okinawa island, middle school boys were organized into front-line-service Tekketsu Kinnōtai, while Himeyuri students were organized into a nursing unit.
The Japanese Imperial Army mobilized 1,780 middle school boys aged 14–17 years into front-line-service. They were named "Tekketsu Kinnōtai"; this mobilization was conducted by the ordinance of the Ministry of Army, not by law. The ordinances mobilized the student as a volunteer soldier for form's sake. In reality, the military authorities ordered schools to force all students to "volunteer" as soldiers. Sometimes they counterfeited the necessary documents. About half of Tekketsu Kinnōtai were killed, including in suicide bomb attacks against tanks, in guerrilla operations. After losing the Battle of Okinawa, the Japanese government enacted new laws in preparation for the decisive battles in the main islands; these laws made it possi
The captain goes down with the ship
"The captain goes down with the ship" is a maritime tradition that a sea captain holds ultimate responsibility for both his ship and everyone embarked on it, that in an emergency, he will either save them or die trying. Although connected to the sinking of RMS Titanic in 1912 and its captain, Edward J. Smith, the tradition precedes Titanic by at least 11 years. In most instances, the captain forgoes his own rapid departure of a ship in distress, concentrates instead on saving other people, it results in either the death or belated rescue of the captain as the last person on board. The tradition is related to another protocol from the nineteenth century, "women and children first." Both reflect the Victorian ideal of chivalry, in which the upper classes were expected to adhere to a morality tied to sacred honour and respect for the disadvantaged. The actions of the captain and men during the sinking of HMS Birkenhead in 1852 prompted praise from many due to the sacrifice of the men who saved the women and children by evacuating them first.
Rudyard Kipling's poem "Soldier an' Sailor Too" and Samuel Smiles' Self-Help both highlighted the valour of the men who stood at attention and played in the band as their ship was sinking. The tradition says that a captain will be the last person to leave a ship alive before its sinking or utter destruction, if unable to evacuate the crew and passengers, the captain will not save himself if he can. In a social context as a mariner, the captain will feel compelled to take this responsibility as a social norm. In maritime law, the ship's master's responsibility for his vessel is paramount no matter what its condition, so abandoning a ship has legal consequences, including the nature of salvage rights; therefore if a captain abandons his ship in distress, he is responsible for it in his absence and would be compelled to return to the ship until danger to the vessel has relented. If a naval captain evacuates a vessel in wartime, it may be considered a capital offence similar to desertion, unless he subsequently returns to the ship at his first opportunity to prevent its capture and rescue the crew.
Abandoning a ship in distress may be considered a crime that can lead to imprisonment. Captain Francesco Schettino, who left his ship in the midst of the Costa Concordia disaster, was not only reviled for his actions, but lost his final appeal against his 16-year Italian prison sentence, including one year for abandoning his passengers, five years for causing the shipwreck, ten years for manslaughter of its victims. Abandoning ship is a maritime crime, on the books for centuries in Spain and Italy. South Korean law may require the captain to rescue himself last. In Finland the Maritime Law states that the captain must do everything in his power to save everyone on board the ship in distress and that unless his life is in immediate danger, he shall not leave the vessel as long as there is reasonable hope that it can be saved. In the United States, abandoning the ship is not explicitly illegal, but the captain could be charged with other crimes, such as manslaughter, which encompass common law precedent passed down through centuries.
It is not illegal under international maritime law. September 27, 1854: James F. Luce was in command of the Collins Line steamer SS Arctic when it collided with SS Vesta off the coast of Newfoundland. Captain Luce regained the surface after going down with the ship, he was rescued two days drifting on wreckage of the same paddle-wheel box that killed his youngest son Willie. September 12, 1857: William Lewis Herndon was in command of the commercial mail steamer Central America when it encountered a hurricane. Two ships came to the rescue, but could save only a fraction of the passengers, so Captain Herndon chose to remain with the rest. March 27, 1904: Commander Takeo Hirose, in command of the blockship Fukui Maru at the Battle of Port Arthur, went down with the ship while searching for survivors, after the ship sustained a direct strike from Russian coastal artillery, causing it to explode. April 13, 1904: Admiral Stepan Makarov of the Imperial Russian Navy went down with his ship, after his ship hit a Japanese naval mine during the early phase of the Siege of Port Arthur.
April 15, 1912: Captain Edward Smith, in command of RMS Titanic when it struck an iceberg, was seen walking onto the bridge only a few minutes before it was engulfed by the sea. There are conflicting accounts of what happened to Smith: some claimed to have seen him jumping into the water, or in the water, swimming either toward a lifeboat or near the capsized collapsible lifeboat "B," while others claimed he committed suicide by shooting himself, yet others said that Smith died there when it was engulfed. May 30, 1918: When the Italian steamer Pietro Maroncelli was torpedoed by the German submarine UB-49 and started to sink, Italian Rear Admiral Giovanni Viglione, on board as the convoy commodore, ordered all the survivors into the lifeboats chose to stay aboard and to go down with the ship. November 1, 1918: In the last days of World War I, Croatian Rear Admiral Janko Vuković, the first day he was appointed fleet commander, chose to go down with his flagship SMS Viribus Unitis in Pula harbor as Italian frogmen sank it with two 200 kg mines.
November 23, 1939. HMS Rawalpindi, a British armed merchant cruiser encountered the German battleships Scharnhorst and Gneisenau north of the Faroe Islands, her captain, Edward Coverley Kennedy, despite being hopelessly outgunned, ordered an attack. He went down with his ship. June 27, 1940; when Italian submarine Console Generale Liuzzi was forced to surface by British destroyers in the Mediterrane