1990–91 NBA season
The 1990–91 NBA season was the 45th season of the National Basketball Association. The season ended with the Chicago Bulls winning their first NBA Championship, eliminating the Los Angeles Lakers 4 games to 1 in the NBA Finals; the Trent Tucker Rule was adopted. When Trent Tucker hit a trey at the buzzer last season, the clock had started with 0.1 left. It prevents any shot to be taken with up to 0.2 seconds left in the period. The Los Angeles Lakers failed to win their division for the first time in ten years; the Orlando Magic moved to the Midwest Division of the Western Conference, but like the Miami Heat two seasons ago, experienced long road trips back and forth out west. They would move to the Atlantic Division the next season; the 1991 NBA All-Star Game was played at the Charlotte Coliseum in Charlotte, North Carolina, with the East defeating the West 116-114. Charles Barkley of the Philadelphia 76ers won the game's MVP award. In the Three-Point Shootout, Chicago Bulls guard Craig Hodges set a record by making 19 consecutive shots, en route to winning his second straight shootout title, Boston Celtics guard Dee Brown won the Slam Dunk Contest.
The Minnesota Timberwolves played their first game at the Target Center. They had played their first season at Hubert H. Humphrey Metrodome while Target Center was being built; the NBA on NBC began when the National Broadcasting Company signed a 4-year, US$600 million deal with the NBA. The relationship lasted 12 years, until The NBA on ABC returned in 2002–03. On December 30, the last game of 1990, Scott Skiles of Orlando recorded 30 assists in a game against the Denver Nuggets to set a new NBA record; the Utah Jazz played their final season at the Salt Palace. The flagrant foul was instituted. For the first time since 1981, the Los Angeles Lakers were not the Number 1 seed in the Western Conference; however they still reached the NBA Finals by upsetting the favored Portland Trail Blazers in six games. They would go on to lose to the Chicago Bulls in five games, their last NBA Finals appearance until 2000. During the season, all NBA teams sport patches featuring the American flag on their warmups as an honor to the American soldiers fighting during the Persian Gulf War.
Champion became the league's official outfitter. The Golden State Warriors became the only seventh seeded team to beat the second seed twice since the 16-team playoff field was introduced seven years earlier; the Warriors ousted the San Antonio Spurs in four games. The NBA becomes the first major professional sports league to play outside North America, as the Phoenix Suns and Utah Jazz open the season against each other in Tokyo, Japan. On March 9, 1991, the Houston Rockets' Akeem Olajuwon changed the spelling of his first name to Hakeem; the Indiana Pacers changed their logo and uniforms. The New Jersey Nets changed their logo and uniforms; the Sacramento Kings changed their uniforms, adding a darker blue color from their primary logo
Taylor is a city in Williamson County, United States. The population was 13,575 at the 2000 census. In 1876 the Texas Land Company auctioned lots in anticipation of the arrival of the International-Great Northern Railroad when Taylor was founded that year; the city was named after Edward Moses Taylor, a railroad official, under the name Taylorsville which became Taylor in 1892. Immigrants from Moravia and Bohemia and other Slavic states, as well as from Germany and Austria, helped establish the town, it soon became a busy shipping point for cattle and cotton. By 1878 the town had 1,000 residents and thirty-two businesses, twenty-nine of which were destroyed by fire in 1879. Recovery was rapid and more substantial buildings were constructed. In 1882 the Taylor and Houston Railway reached the community, machine shops and a roundhouse serviced both rail lines. In 1882 the town was incorporated with a mayor-council form of city government, in 1883 a public school system replaced a number of private schools.
By 1890 Taylor had the first savings and loan institution in Texas. An electric company, a cotton compress, several newspapers were among the new enterprises. A water line from the San Gabriel River, a 100-man volunteer fire department and local entertainment, an annual fair made noteworthy news items by 1900. Since 1900, Taylor's population growth has averaged 128 new residents per year, based on an estimated population of 1100 in the year 1900, the population in 2010 of 15191, according to the U. S. Census Bureau. Between the years 2000 and 2010, the population grew 11.9%, from 13575 to 15191, about 1.2% per year. Taylor is located at 30°34′21″N 97°25′00″W, about 9 miles east of Hutto and 8 miles south of Granger. Taylor is about 29 miles northeast of Austin. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 13.6 square miles, of which, 13.5 square miles of it is land and 0.04 square miles of it is water. The climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters.
According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Taylor has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated "Cfa" on climate maps. As of the census of 2010, there were 15,191 people and 5,300 households in the city; the population change between 2000 and 2010 was 11.9%. The racial makeup of the city was 71.7% White, 10.2% African American, 1.2% Native American, 0.7% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 3.0% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 42.8% of the population. 7.7% of the population was under 5 years old, 27.5% were under 18 years old, 11.9% were 65 years old or older. The percent of high school graduates at age 25+ between the years 2005 and 2009 was 75.9%. The percentage of the population having a bachelor's degree or higher, age 25 or more, between the years of 2005 and 2009 was 17.6%. This is somewhat lower than the 25.4% Statewide average. The Per-Capita Income of $18,859 was lower than the State average of $24,318, the Median Household Income of $41,814 was lower than the State average of $48,199.
The percentage of persons living at or below the poverty level in 2009 was 15.4%. In 2011, Taylor Independent School District was quoted as being a Gem by the Texas Education Agency, District XIX, for the improvements made to the curriculum and programming. In addition, Taylor ISD won six Gold Performance Standard awards for academic performance, according to the State of Texas during the 2011 school year; the City of Taylor is home to the Taylor High School Ducks. As of 2011, Taylor Independent School District was ranked 634th of 953 Texas school districts, Taylor High School is ranked 850th of 1517 Texas public high schools, placing both the school district and the high school in the bottom one-third of Texas schools. In 2011, the Taylor Independent School District opened a brand-new High School, where each student gets a Mac Book as part of their educational curriculum; the new high school accommodates 900 students in the 207,000 sq. foot campus, with a core facility for 1,200 students. Students utilize a Wi-Fi network, two gyms, a 2nd floor library, 58 classrooms including a Culinary Arts Academy, a modern welding lab and a band hall.
In the 2011-2012 school year, students from Taylor ISD won their fifth invitation to the World Odyssey of the Mind competitions, the high school Academic Decathlon team won 2nd place at the state's highest academic competition, the Academic Decathlon. The school district as a whole merited six achievement awards from Texas Education Agency in 2011-2012. One of the most progressive education systems in the state is the Legacy Early College High School where students earn an associate degree before graduating high school; the district has more than 3,000 students enrolled. Taylor's largest employers include the Electric Reliability Council of Durcon Inc.. Burrows Cabinets and the T. Don Hutto Residential Center; the City of Taylor, along with the Taylor Economic Development Corporation and the Taylor Chamber of Commerce, has worked to attract new investment to improve the economic base and economic vitality of the community. Since 2008, nearly 20 companies have expanded or relocated to Taylor, creating nearly 300 new jobs and investing $40 million combined.
The community has made capital improvements in facilities and infrastructure to improve the educational offerings and quality of life in the community. Over the last five years, the City Council has made numer
The point guard called the one or point, is one of the five positions in a regulation basketball game. A point guard has the most specialized role of any position. Point guards are expected to run the team's offense by controlling the ball and making sure that it gets to the right player at the right time. Above all, the point guard must understand and accept their coach's game plan. While the point guard must understand and accept the coach's gameplan, they must be able to adapt to what the defense is allowing, they must control the pace of the game. A point guard, like other player positions in basketball, specializes in certain skills. A point guard's primary job is to facilitate scoring opportunities for his/her team, or sometimes for themselves. Lee Rose has described a point guard as a coach on the floor, who can handle and distribute the ball to teammates; this involves setting up plays on the court, getting the ball to the teammate in the best position to score, controlling the tempo of the game.
A point guard should know when and how to instigate a fast break and when and how to initiate the more deliberate sets. Point guards are expected to be vocal floor leaders. A point guard needs always to have in mind the times on the shot clock and the game clock, the score, the numbers of remaining timeouts for both teams, etc. Among the taller players who have enjoyed success at the position is Ben Simmons, who at 6’ 10” won the 2018 National Basketball Association Rookie of the Year Award. Behind him is Magic Johnson, who at 6’ 9” won the National Basketball Association Most Valuable Player Award three times in his career. Other point guards who have been named NBA MVP include Russell Westbrook, Bob Cousy, Oscar Robertson, Allen Iverson, Derrick Rose and two-time winners Steve Nash and Stephen Curry. In the NBA, point guards are about 6' 4" or shorter, average about 6' 2" whereas in the WNBA, point guards are 5' 9" or shorter. Having above-average size is considered advantageous, although size is secondary to situational awareness, speed and ball handling skills.
Shorter players tend to be better dribblers since they are closer to the floor, thus have better control of the ball while dribbling. After an opponent scores, it is the point guard who brings the ball down court to begin an offensive play. Passing skills, ball handling, court vision are crucial. Speed is important. Point guards are valued more for their assist totals than for their scoring. Another major evaluation factor is assist-to-turnover ratio, which reflects the decision-making skills of the player. Still, a first-rate point guard should have a reasonably effective jump shot; the point guard is positioned on the perimeter of the play, so as to have the best view of the action. This is a necessity because of the point guard's many leadership obligations. Many times, the point guard is referred to by announcers as a "coach on the floor" or a "floor general". In the past, this was true, as several point guards such as Lenny Wilkens served their teams as player-coaches; this is not so common anymore, as most coaches are now specialized in coaching and are non-players.
Some point guards are still given a great deal of leeway in the offense. Point guards who are not given this much freedom, are still extensions of their coach on the floor and must display good leadership skills. Along with leadership and a general basketball acumen, ball-handling is a skill of great importance to a point guard. Speaking, the point guard is the player in possession of the ball for the most time during a game and is responsible for maintaining possession of the ball for his team in the face of any pressure from the opponents. Point guards must be able to maintain possession of the ball in crowded spaces and in traffic and be able to advance the ball quickly. A point guard that has enough ball-handling skill and quickness to be able to drive to the basket in a half-court set is very valuable and considered by some to be a must for a successful offense. After ball-handling and scoring are the most important areas of the game for a point guard; as the primary decision-maker for a team, a point guard's passing ability determines how well a point guard is able to put his decision into play.
It is one thing to be able to recognize the player, in a tactically advantageous position, but it is another thing to be able to deliver the ball to that player. For this reason, a point guard is but not always, more skilled and focused on passing than shooting. However, a good jump shot and the ability to score off a drive to the basket are still valuable skills. A point guard will use his ability to score in order to augment his effectiveness as a decision maker and play maker. In addition to the traditional role of the point guard, modern teams have found new ways to utilize the position. Notably, several modern point guards have used a successful style of post play, a tactic practiced by much larger centers and forwards. Working off of the fact that the opposing point guard is in all probability an undersized player with limited strength, several modern point guards have developed games close to the basket that include being able to utilize the drop step, spin move, fade away jump shot. In recent years, the sport's shift from a fundamental style of play to a more athletic, scoring-oriented game resulted in the proliferation of so-called combo guards at the po
The Washington Wizards are an American professional basketball team based in Washington, D. C; the Wizards compete in the National Basketball Association as a member of the league's Eastern Conference Southeast Division. The team plays its home games at the Capital One Arena, in the Chinatown neighborhood of Washington, D. C; the franchise was established in 1961 as the Chicago Packers based in Chicago and were renamed to Chicago Zephyrs the following season. In 1963, they relocated to Baltimore and became the Baltimore Bullets, taking the name from a previous team of the same name. In 1973, the team changed its name to the Capital Bullets to reflect their move to the Washington metropolitan area, to Washington Bullets in the following season. In 1997, they rebranded themselves as the Wizards; the Wizards have appeared in four NBA Finals, won in 1978. They have had a total of 28 playoff appearances, won four conference titles, seven division titles, their best season came in 1975 with a record of 60–22.
Wes Unseld is the only player in franchise history to become the MVP, win the Finals MVP award. Four players have won the Rookie of the Year award; the team now known as the Wizards began playing as the Chicago Packers in 1961, as the first modern expansion team in NBA history, an expansion prompted by Abe Saperstein's American Basketball League. Rookie Walt Bellamy was the team's star, averaging 31.6 points per game, 19.0 rebounds per game, leading the NBA in field goal percentage. During the All-Star game, Bellamy represented the team while scoring 23 points and grabbing 17 rebounds. Bellamy was named the league Rookie of the Year, but the team finished with the NBA's worst record at 18-62; the team's original nickname was a nod to Chicago's meatpacking industry. However, it was unpopular since it was the same nickname used by the NFL's Green Bay Packers, bitter rivals of the Chicago Bears. After only one year, the organization changed its name to the Chicago Zephyrs and played its home games at the Chicago Coliseum.
Their only season as the Zephyrs boasted former Purdue star Terry Dischinger, who went on to win Rookie of the Year honors. In 1963 the franchise moved to Baltimore and became the Baltimore Bullets, taking their name from a 1940s–'50s Baltimore Bullets BAA/NBA franchise and playing home games at the Baltimore Civic Center. In their first year in Baltimore, the Bullets finished fourth in a five–team Western Division. Prior to the 1964–65 NBA season the Bullets pulled off a blockbuster trade, sending Dischinger, Rod Thorn and Don Kojis to the Detroit Pistons for Bailey Howell, Don Ohl, Bob Ferry and Wali Jones; the trade worked out well. He helped. In the 1965 NBA Playoffs, the Bullets stunned the St. Louis Hawks 3–1, advanced to the Western Conference finals. In the finals, Baltimore managed to split the first four games with the Los Angeles Lakers before losing the series 4–2. In the late 1960s, the Bullets drafted two future Hall of Fame members: Earl Monroe, in the 1967 draft, number two overall, Wes Unseld, in the 1968 draft number two overall.
The team improved from 36 wins the previous season to 57 in the 1968–69 season, Unseld received both the rookie of the year and MVP awards. The Bullets reached the playoffs with high expectations to go far, but they were eliminated by the New York Knicks in the first round; the next season the two teams met again in the first round, although this one went to seven games, the Knicks emerged victorious again. In the 1970–71 season, the 42–40 Bullets again met the 1970–71 Knicks, this time though in the Eastern Conference finals. With the Knicks team captain Willis Reed injured in the finals, the injury-free Bullets took advantage of his absence, in game seven, at New York's Madison Square Garden, the Bullets' Gus Johnson made a critical basket late in the game to lift the Bullets over the Knicks 93–91 and advance to their first NBA Finals, they were swept in four games by the powerful Milwaukee Bucks led by future Hall of Fame members Kareem Abdul-Jabbar and Oscar Robertson. After the trades of Earl Monroe and Gus Johnson, the Bullets remained a playoff contender throughout the 1970s.
Following a less than spectacular 1971–72 season, Baltimore acquired Elvin Hayes from the Houston Rockets and drafted Kevin Porter in the third round, out of St. Francis in Pennsylvania. After a slow start in 1972–73, Baltimore made their charge in December, posting a 10–4 record on the way to capturing the Central Division title for the third straight year; the Bullets again faced the Knicks in the 1973 NBA Playoffs, losing for the fourth time in five series against New York. In February 1973, the team announced its pending move 30 miles southwest to the Capital Centre in Landover, a Washington, D. C. suburb, became the Capital Bullets. After that 1973–74 season, they changed their name to the Washington Bullets. During November 1973, while waiting for the completion of their new arena in Landover, the Bullets played their home games at Cole Field House on the campus of the University of Maryland in College Park; the Capital Centre opened on December 2, 1973, with the Bullets defeating the SuperSonic
College basketball today is governed by collegiate athletic bodies including the United States's National Collegiate Athletic Association, the National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics, the United States Collegiate Athletic Association, the National Junior College Athletic Association, the National Christian College Athletic Association. Governing bodies in Canada include the Canadian Collegiate Athletic Association; each of these various organizations are subdivided into from one to three divisions based on the number and level of scholarships that may be provided to the athletes. Each organization has different conferences to divide up the teams into groups. Teams are selected into these conferences depending on the location of the schools; these conferences are put in due to the regional play of the teams and to have a structural schedule for each to team to play for the upcoming year. During conference play the teams are ranked not only through the entire NCAA, but the conference as well in which they have tournament play leading into the NCAA tournament.
The history of basketball can be traced back to a YMCA International Training School, known today as Springfield College, located in Springfield, Massachusetts. The sport was created by a physical education teacher named James Naismith, who in the winter of 1891 was given the task of creating a game that would keep track athletes in shape and that would prevent them from getting hurt; the date of the first formal basketball game played at the Springfield YMCA Training School under Naismith's rules is given as December 21, 1891. Basketball began to be played at some college campuses by 1893; the first known college to field a basketball team against an outside opponent was Vanderbilt University, which played against the local YMCA in Nashville, Tennessee, on February 7, 1893. The second recorded instance of an organized college basketball game was Geneva College's game against the New Brighton YMCA on April 8, 1893, in Beaver Falls, which Geneva won 3–0; the first recorded game between two college teams occurred on February 9, 1895, when Hamline University faced Minnesota A&M. Minnesota A&M won the game, played under rules allowing nine players per side, 9–3.
The first intercollegiate match using the modern rule of five players per side is credited as a game between the University of Chicago and the University of Iowa, in Iowa City, Iowa, on January 18, 1896. The Chicago team won the game 15-12, under the coaching of Amos Alonzo Stagg, who had learned the game from James Naismith at the Springfield YMCA. However, some sources state the first "true" five-on-five intercollegiate match was a game in 1897 between Yale and Penn, because although the Iowa team that played Chicago in 1896 was composed of University of Iowa students, it did not represent the university, rather it was organized through a YMCA. By 1900, the game of basketball had spread to colleges across the country; the Amateur Athletic Union's annual U. S. national championship tournament featured collegiate teams playing against non-college teams. Four colleges won the AAU tournament championship: NYU, Butler and Washburn. College teams were runners-up in 1915, 1917, 1920, 1921, 1932 and 1934.
The first known tournament featuring college teams was the 1904 Summer Olympics, where basketball was a demonstration sport, a collegiate championship tournament was held. The Olympic title was won by Hiram College. In March 1908, a two-game "championship series" was organized between the University of Chicago and Penn, with games played in Philadelphia and Bartlett, Illinois. Chicago swept both games to win the series. In March 1922, the 1922 National Intercollegiate Basketball Tournament was held in Indianapolis – the first stand-alone post-season tournament for college teams; the champions of six major conferences participated: Pacific Coast Conference, Southern Intercollegiate Athletic Association, Western Pennsylvania League, Illinois Intercollegiate Athletic Conference, Michigan Intercollegiate Athletic Association and Indiana Intercollegiate Athletic Association. The Western Conference and Eastern Intercollegiate League declined invitations to participate. Wabash College won the 1922 tournament.
The first organization to tout a occurring national collegiate championship was the NAIA in 1937, although it was surpassed in prestige by the National Invitation Tournament, or NIT, which brought six teams to New York's Madison Square Garden in the spring of 1938. Temple defeated Colorado in the first NIT tournament championship game, 60–36. In 1939, another national tournament was implemented by the National Collegiate Athletic Association; the location of the NCAA Tournament varied from year to year, it soon used multiple locations each year, so more fans could see games without traveling to New York. Although the NIT was created earlier and was more prestigious than the NCAA for many years, it lost popularity and status to the NCAA Tournament. In 1950, following a double win by the 1949–50 CCNY Beavers men's basketball team, the NCAA ruled that no team could compete in both tournaments, indicated that a team eligible for the NCAA tournament should play in it. Not long afterward, assisted by the 1951 scandals based in New York City, the NCAA tournament had become more prestigious than before, with conference champions and the majority of top-ranked teams competing there.
The NCAA tournament overtook the NIT by 1960. Through the 1960s and 1970s, with UCLA leading the way as winner
University of San Francisco
The University of San Francisco is a Jesuit university in San Francisco, California. The school's main campus is located on a 55-acre setting between the Golden Gate Bridge and Golden Gate Park; the main campus is nicknamed "The Hilltop", part of the main campus is located on Lone Mountain, one of San Francisco's major geographical features. Its close historical ties with the City and County of San Francisco are reflected in the University's traditional motto, Pro Urbe et Universitate; the University of San Francisco offers more than 230 undergraduate, graduate and certificate programs on its main Hilltop Campus. USF offers programs at several additional campuses; the USF Downtown San Francisco Campus, which began in 2012 in the historic Folger Building at 101 Howard Street, offers the MBA and the Executive MBA, MBA Dual Degree programs, master's degrees in Entrepreneurship and Innovation, Financial Analysis, Global Entrepreneurial Management, Nonprofit Administration, Organization Development, Public Administration.
The Orange County Campus, founded in the City of Orange in 1983, offers the Master's in Sport Management and the Master's in Nursing for Non-Nurses. The Pleasanton Campus, which began in 1986 in San Ramon, moved to Pleasanton in 2012, offers a Bachelor's in Management, the Master's in Nursing for the Registered Nurse, the Master's in Teaching with the Single or Multiple Subject Teaching Credential; the Presidio Campus, established at the San Francisco Presidio in 2003, offers the Master in Behavior Health, the Master of Public Health, the Doctor of Psychology in Clinical Psychology. The Sacramento Campus, founded in 1975, offers the Bachelor of Science in Nursing, the Master of Public Health, the Master's in Counseling with an Emphasis in Marriage and Family Therapy, the Master's in Teaching with the Single or Multiple Subject Teaching Credential; the San Jose Campus, established in 1980, offers the Master's in Information Systems, the Master's in Teaching with the Single or Multiple Subject Teaching Credential, the Master's in Counseling with an Emphasis in Marriage and Family Therapy, the RN to MSN Nursing/Clinical Nurse Leader.
The Santa Rosa Campus, founded in 1989, offers the Master's in Counseling with an Emphasis in Marriage and Family Therapy, the Master's in Teaching with the Single or Multiple Subject Teaching Credential. Founded by the Jesuits in 1855 as St. Ignatius Academy, USF started as a one-room schoolhouse along Market Street in what became downtown San Francisco. Under its founding president, Anthony Maraschi, S. J. St. Ignatius Academy received its charter to issue college degrees on April 30, 1859, from the State of California, signed by governor John B. Weller. In that year, the school changed its name to St. Ignatius College; the original curriculum included Greek, Latin, French, algebra, history, geography and bookkeeping. Father Maraschi was the college's first president, a professor, the college's treasurer, the first pastor of St. Ignatius Church. A new building was constructed in 1862 to replace the first frame building. In June 1863, the university awarded its first Bachelor of Arts degree. In 1880, the college moved from Market Street to a new site on the corner of Hayes Street and Van Ness Avenue.
The third St. Ignatius College received moderate damage in the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, but was destroyed in the ensuing fire; the campus moved west, to the corner of Hayes and Shrader Streets, close to Golden Gate Park, where it occupied a hastily constructed structure known as The Shirt Factory for the next 21 years. The college moved to its present site on Fulton Street in 1927, on the site of a former Masonic Cemetery. To celebrate its diamond jubilee in 1930, St. Ignatius College changed its name to the University of San Francisco; the change from college to university was sought by many alumni groups and by long-time San Francisco Mayor James Rolph Jr. A male-only school for most of its history, USF became coeducational in 1964, though women started attending the evening programs in business and law as early as 1927. In 1969, the high school division wholly separate from the university, moved to the western part of San Francisco and became St. Ignatius College Preparatory. In 1978, the university acquired Lone Mountain College.
October 15, 2005, marked the 150th anniversary of the university's founding. In the fall of 2017, USF enrolled 11,080 undergraduate and graduate students in all of its programs housed in four schools and one college. Saint Ignatius Church Kalmanovitz Hall School of Education Building Lone Mountain Gleeson Library and the Geschke Learning Resource Center Toler Hall War Memorial Gymnasium Ulrich Field Fromm Hall The Koret Law Center: Kendrick Hall and Dorraine Zief Law Library Lone Mountain North Gillson Hall Harney Science Center Hayes-Healy Hall University Center Cowell Hall Negoesco Stadium USF Koret Health and Recreation Center Loyola House 281 Masonic Pedro Arrupe Hall Loyola Village Malloy Hall John Lo Schiavo, S. J. Center for Science and Innovation Sobrato Center The University of San Francisco is chartered as a non-profit organization and is governed by a appointed board of trustees, along with the university president, the university chancellor, the university provost and vice-presidents
Basketball at the Summer Olympics
Basketball at the Summer Olympics has been a sport for men since 1936. Prior to its inclusion as a medal sport, basketball was held as a demonstration event in 1904. Women's basketball made its debut in the Summer Olympics in 1976; the United States is by far the most successful country in Olympic basketball, with United States men's teams having won 15 of 18 tournaments in which they participated, including seven consecutive titles from 1936 through 1968. United States women's teams have won 8 titles out of the 10 tournaments in which they competed, including six in a row from 1996 to 2016. Besides the United States, Argentina is the only nation still in existence who has won either the men's or women's tournament; the Soviet Union and the Unified Team are the countries no longer in existence who have won the tournament. The United States are the defending champions in women's tournaments. On June 9, 2017, the Executive Board of the International Olympic Committee announced that 3x3 basketball would become an official Olympic sport as of the 2020 Summer Olympics in Tokyo, for both men and women.
Basketball was invented by James Naismith in Springfield, Massachusetts, in 1891. Within a few decades, the new game became popular throughout the United States as an indoor sport; the popularity spread overseas and the International Basketball Federation was organized in 1932 in Geneva, Switzerland. Thanks in part to the effort of Phog Allen—a Kansas Jayhawks collegiate coach—the first Olympic basketball tournament was organized in the 1936 Berlin Olympics on outdoor tennis courts. Dr. Naismith presented the medals to the top three teams. According to the Olympic rules of that time, all of the competitors were amateurs; the tournament was held indoors for the first time in 1948. The American team proved its dominance, winning the first seven Olympic tournaments until 1968, without losing a single game. While the Americans were barred from sending a team that contained players from the professional National Basketball Association, they instead sent in college players; the U. S. winning streak ended in 1972 in one of the most controversial matches in history, when the Soviet Union beat them in the gold-medal game by one point.
The U. S. team reclaimed the gold medal in 1976, with Yugoslavia, which had beaten the Soviet Union in the semifinal, finishing runner-up for the second time. In 1980, with the Americans' absence due to the boycott, Yugoslavia became the third team to win the title, after beating the Soviets anew in the semifinals and Italy in the final; the Americans regained the title in 1984, by beating Spain in the final, with the Soviets boycotting this time. The Soviets won the gold medal for the second time in 1988, after beating the U. S. team for the second time in the semifinal, the Yugoslavs in the gold medal game. The advent of the state-sponsored "full-time amateur athlete" of the Eastern Bloc countries eroded the ideology of the pure amateur, as it put the self-financed amateurs of the Western countries at a disadvantage; the Soviet Union entered teams of athletes who were all nominally students, soldiers, or working in a profession, but all of whom were in reality paid by the state to play in a well-developed league with modern facilities and train year-round.
In April 1989, through the leadership of Secretary General Borislav Stanković, FIBA approved the rule that allowed NBA players to compete in international tournaments, including the Olympics. In the 1992 Summer Olympics, the U. S. "Dream Team" won the gold medal with an average winning margin of 44 points per game, without calling a timeout. By this time, the Soviet Union and Yugoslavia no longer existed, but their successor states continued to be among the leading forces. Two newly independent countries of the former Yugoslavia and Soviet Union and Lithuania, won the silver and bronze medals respectively; the American team repeated its victory in 1996 and 2000, but its performance was not as dominant as in 1992. Since active NBA players have been allowed to compete in the Summer Olympics, the 1996 Games in Atlanta is the only instance where the Olympic host city had a home NBA team — the Hawks. Yugoslavia was the runner-up in Atlanta, France in Sydney, with Lithuania winning bronze again on both occasions.
The renewed dominance of the U. S. was interrupted in 2004, when the Americans made it to the semifinal, after losing to Puerto Rico and Lithuania in the preliminaries. The Americans regrouped in 2008, beating the reigning FIBA world champions, Spain, in an intense gold medal game, with the Argentines beating the Lithuanians in the bronze medal game; the Americans and the Spaniards met again in the 2012 gold medal game, with the U. S. again winning, although with the closest winning margin for the American team. The U. S. won again in 2016, defeating the Serbians in the gold medal game, a rematch of the 2014 FIBA Basketball World Cup Final, after eliminating the Spaniards, who settled for bronze. The first women's tournament was staged in the 1976 Summer Olympics; the Soviet Union won five straight games. The next two tournaments followed the six-team round-robin format, with the Soviets defending their title in 1980 amid the U. S.-led boycott, the U. S. winning in 1984, against the South Koreans, amid the Soviet-led boycott.
In 1988, the tournament expanded into eight teams, with the Americans beating Yugoslavia in the gold medal game. In 1992, the Unified Team, consisting of