Rustom is a 2016 Indian crime thriller film written by Vipul K. Rawal, directed by Tinu Suresh Desai and produced by Neeraj Pandey. Starring Akshay Kumar and Ileana D'Cruz in the lead roles; the film is loosely based on the real life incident of Naval Officer K. M. Nanavati and businessman Prem Ahuja. Principal photography of the film was commenced in February 2016 and it was released on 12 August 2016. Akshay Kumar received the National Film Award for Best Actor at the 64th National Film Awards for his performance in the film; the story dates back to the late 1950s and revolves around a Parsi Indian Naval Officer Rustom Pavri, married to Cynthia Pavri. Their marriage hits the rocks when Rustom discovers about his wife's affair with his friend Vikram Makhija. After returning early from his ship's deployment, Rustom discovers Vikram's love letters in Cynthia's cupboard. While trying to find her, Rustom sees them together, he returns home and waits for Cynthia to return and confronts her with the love letters, but walks away before Cynthia can explain.
Rustom gets himself a pistol from the Naval Ship's Armory and makes a Trunk call to Defence HQ, New Delhi. Afterwards, he searches for Vikram, first in his office and at his home. After Rustom enters Vikram's bedroom, the servant hears three gun shots and rushes to the room, to discover Vikram's body in a pool of blood and Rustom walking away with the pistol in his hand. Rustom surrenders to the police and Inspector Vincent Lobo starts the investigation. Vikram's sister Priti Makhija meets with public prosecutor, Lakshman Khangani to get Rustom the toughest punishment possible. Truth, a local newspaper, publishes the news adding some spice to it, which creates a stir in the city. On the one side the Navy supports its officer and asks the police to hand over his custody to them while on the other side the Parsi community offers help by hiring a good defense lawyer. Rustom decides to fight the case on his own and prefers police custody. While the Editor in Chief of Truth, Erich Billimoria, creates a sympathetic image for Rustom in public, Rustom's senior Naval officer Rear Admiral Prashant Kamat sends two goons to his house to search for a set of documents, but they fail to find anything.
Scared, Cynthia rushes to jail to inform Rustom, who hasn't talked to her since he is in custody. Rustom meets and listens to Cynthia's story, about how she was lonely and upset when Rustom went away to London for many months. With the connivance of Priti, Vikram took advantage of Cynthia's loneliness and she fell for him. However, on the day of Vikram's murder, Cynthia had broken-up with him for the sake of her marriage after she found out he had deceived her. Vikram slapped her hard, she walked out of Vikram's house. On Rustom's instructions, Cynthia blackmails Rear Admiral Prashant Kamat for Rs 5 crore in exchange for the vital documents he needed. In the court hearing, Rustom unexpectedly pleads not guilty in front of the Judge Patel, which leads to a 9-member jury trial. At the culmination of the trial, Rustom is found not guilty by the jury since he shot Vikram in self-defence. Meanwhile, it is found that Vincent Lobo was in Delhi and he had met the office secretary of the Ministry of Defence to obtain the recording of the trunk call that Rustom had made.
When back in Bombay, the trunk call is played, convincing everyone that Rustom is guilty, the court proceedings end for the jury to decide on their opinion. In the police station on the night of the court proceeding, Rustom tells Vincent Lobo the truth: he was posted in London for several months inspecting an aircraft carrier that the Navy wants to purchase, but on inspection, it was found by Rustom that the carrier's hull was corroded, it would have to be repaired and modified before the carrier could be transferred to India. Vikram was in charge of the aircraft carrier, he attempted to bribe him in order to convince him to say that the carrier is seaworthy; when Rustom attempted to notify the defence secretary in London, the secretary attempted to bribe him and get the carrier to India. Vikram attempted to persuade him and Rustom slapped him showing his power of his uniform; the next day it is shown and he walks free. It is shown in the flashback that Vikram had dated Cynthia to show Rustom his power of money and take revenge on him, but not for her beauty.
Lobo is told that Rustom did not reveal about the aircraft carrier as everyone would think the navy to be corrupt and not believe in them just because of few officers. Rustom and Cynthia walk out of the court with their heads held up high and the film rolls into the credits, showing the couple settled in Canada. In the end it is shown, and Defence Secretary K. G. Bakshi committed suicide by shooting himself on INS Vishal unexpectedly; the news shows India being the 4th nation to acquire a navy carrier. Akshay Kumar as Commander Rustom Pavri based on real life ex-naval officer K. M. Nanavati Ileana D'Cruz as Cynthia Pavri, Commander Rustom Pavri's wife Arjan Bajwa as Vikram Makhija Esha Gupta as Preeti Makhija, Vikram's sister Pavan Malhotra as Senior Inspector Vincent Lobo Usha Nadkarni as Jamnabai, Cdr Pavri's maid servant Sachin Khedekar as Public Prosecutor Lakshman Khangani, based on real life Ram Jethmalani Kumud Mishra as Erich Billimoria and publisher of Truth, based on real life Russi Karanjia who published Blitz Anang Desai as Judge Patel Parmeet Sethi as Rear Admiral Prashant Kamath, Fla
Life imprisonment is any sentence of imprisonment for a crime under which convicted persons are to remain in prison either for the rest of their natural life or until paroled. Crimes for which, in some countries, a person could receive this sentence include murder, attempted murder, conspiracy to commit murder, apostasy, severe child abuse, child rape, treason, high treason, drug dealing, drug trafficking, drug possession, human trafficking, severe cases of fraud, severe cases of financial crimes, aggravated criminal damage in English law, aggravated cases of arson, burglary, or robbery which result in death or grievous bodily harm, aircraft hijacking, in certain cases genocide, ethnic cleansing, crimes against humanity, certain war crimes or any three felonies in case of three strikes law. Life imprisonment can be imposed, in certain countries, for traffic offenses causing death; the life sentence does not exist in all countries, Portugal was the first to abolish life imprisonment, in 1884.
For more info about life imprisonment in other countries worldwide, refer here. Where life imprisonment is a possible sentence, there may exist formal mechanisms for requesting parole after a certain period of prison time; this means. Early release is conditional on past and future conduct with certain restrictions or obligations. In contrast, when a fixed term of imprisonment has ended, the convict is free; the length of time served and the conditions surrounding parole vary. The date when a convict is eligible for parole does not predict when or if parole will be granted. In many countries around the world in the Commonwealth, courts have the authority to pass prison terms which exceed a century. For example, courts in South Africa have handed out at least two sentences that have exceeded a century. In Tasmania, Martin Bryant, the perpetrator of the Port Arthur massacre in 1996, received 35 life sentences, plus 1,035 consecutive years, all to run concurrently and for the term of his natural life.
Another example of a life sentence that exceeded a century was Aurora Cinema shooter James Holmes, who received 12 consecutive life sentences and an extra 3,318 years without the possibility of parole for injuring 70,killing 12, 112 counts of attempted murder in the Colorado cinema and booby trapping his apartment with explosives. Few countries allow for a minor to be given a lifetime sentence with no provision for eventual release. According to a University of San Francisco Law School study, only the U. S. had minors serving such sentences in 2008. In 2009, Human Rights Watch estimated that there were 2,589 youth offenders serving life sentences without the possibility for parole in the U. S; the United States leads in life sentences, at a rate of 50 people per 100,000 residents imprisoned for life. In 2011, the Supreme Court of the United States ruled that sentencing minors to life without parole, automatically or as the result of a judicial decision, for crimes other than intentional homicide, violated the Eighth Amendment's ban on "cruel and unusual punishments", in the case of Graham v. Florida.
Graham v. Florida was a significant case in juvenile justice. In Jacksonville, Terrence J. Graham tried to rob a restaurant along with three adolescent accomplices. During the robbery, one of Graham's accomplices had a metal bar that he used to hit the restaurant manager twice in the head. Once arrested, Graham was charged with attempted armed robbery and armed burglary with assault/battery; the maximum sentence he faced from these charges was life without the possibility of parole, the prosecutor wanted to charge him as an adult. During the trial, Graham pleaded guilty to the charges, resulting in three years of probation, one year of which had to be served in jail. Since he had been awaiting trial in jail, he served six months and therefore was released after six additional months. Within six months of his release, Graham was involved in another robbery. Since he violated the conditions of his probation, his probation officer reported to the trial court about his probation violations a few weeks before Graham turned 18 years old.
It was a different judge presiding over his trial for the probation violations a year later. While Graham denied any involvement of the robbery, he did admit to fleeing from the police; the trial court found that Graham violated his probation by "committing a home invasion robbery, possessing a firearm, associating with persons engaged in criminal activity", sentenced him to 15 years for the attempted armed robbery plus life imprisonment for the armed burglary. The life sentence Graham received meant he had a life sentence without the possibility of parole, "because Florida abolished their parole system in 2003". Graham's case was presented to the United States Supreme Court, with the question of whether juveniles should receive life without the possibility of parole in non-homicide cases; the Justices ruled that such a sentence violated the juvenile's 8th Amendment rights, protecting them from punishments that are disproportionate to the crime committed, resulting in the abolition of life s
Ram Boolchand Jethmalani is an Indian lawyer and politician. He has served as chairman of the Bar Council of India, he has represented a sweep of cases from the high-profile to the controversial for which he has faced severe criticism. He is the highest-paid Indian lawyer. Ram Jethmalani obtained LL. B.degree at the age of 17and started practising law in his hometown until the partition of India. He married Durga Jethmalani and his second wife, Ratna Jethmalani; the partition led him to move to Mumbai as a refugee and he began his life afresh with his family. He has two sons and two daughters, of whom, Mahesh Jethmalani and Rani Jethmalani are well-known lawyers.. He announced his retirement from judicial profession on 10th September 2017. Parvati came to his life at the age of 90, he was elected a member of parliament in the 6th and 7th Lok Sabha on a Bharatiya Janata Party ticket from Mumbai. He has served as Law Minister of India and as Minister of Urban Development during the prime ministership of Atal Bihari Vajpayee against whom he contested election in the general elections of 2004 from Lucknow constituency.
However, in 2010 he was elected to Rajya Sabha on its ticket from Rajasthan. He has been criticised as being opportunistic because of this. Jethmalani is a well known face amongst the legal community in India. Though his forte lies in criminal law, he has appeared in many high-profile civil cases. From 1993 to 1998, he was one of the lawyers who represented Harshad Mehta during the Harshad Mehta scam and the Narasimha Rao bribery case. On 7 May 2010 he was elected as the president of Supreme Court Bar Association. Ram Jethmalani was born in Shikarpur, Sindh in the Sindh division of the Bombay Presidency, now part of Pakistan in the family of Boolchand Gurmukhdas Jethmalani and Parbati Boolchand, he got a double promotion in school and completed matriculation at the age of 13. He secured an LLB degree from Bombay University with a first class first at the young age of 17. At that time, the minimum age for becoming a lawyer was 21, but a special exception allowed him to become a lawyer at 18, he received LL.
M. from Bombay university, since Sindh did not have a university of its own at that time. Ram Jethmalani was married at an age of little above 18, to Durga, in a traditional Indian arranged marriage. In 1947, just before partition, he married Ratna Shahani, a lawyer by profession, his family today includes both wives and four children – three by Durga and one by Ratna Ram Jethmalani started his career as a lawyer and Professor in Sindh before partition. He started his own law firm in Karachi with his friend A. K. Brohi, senior to him by seven years. In February 1948, when riots broke out in Karachi, he fled to India on the advice of his friend Brohi and when he came to India in that day he has only a one paisa coin in his pocket and with that note he stayed in the refugee camp for few days. Jethmalani fought his first case at the age of 17 in the court of Sindh under Justice Godfrey Davis, contesting the rule regarding minimum age passed by the bar council of Sindh. In a talk at Algebra in June 2017, Jethmalani recounted his first case fought in India as a refugee.
A new law that had just been passed by the chief minister Morarji Desai treated refugees badly and in an inhumane manner. The act treated refugees in a manner similar to convicted prisoners, allowing the state to relocate and question them anytime. Jethmalani file a case against this at the Bombay high court, asking the law to be declared unconstitutional and won it. Ram Jethmalani next came to the spot light a decade with his appearance in the K. M. Nanavati vs. State of Maharashtra case in 1959 with Yeshwant Vishnu Chandrachud to become Chief Justice of India, his defence of a string of smugglers in the late 1960s established Jethmalani’s image as a'smuggler’s lawyer'. Back he would point out that he was only doing his duty as a lawyer. In 1954, he became a part-time Professor at the Government Law College, Mumbai for both graduate and post graduate studies, he taught Comparative law at International Law at Wayne State University in Detroit, Michigan. He has been the Chairman of Bar Council of India for four tenures both before and after the emergency.
He was a member of International Bar Association 1996. He has been Professor Emeritus at Symbiosis Law School, Pune since 2003. Jethmalani contested as an independent candidate from Ulhasnagar supported both by the Shiv Sena and Bharatiya Jan Sangh but he lost the elections. During the emergency period of 1975–1977, he was the chairman of the Bar Association of India, he criticised the Prime Minister of India, Indira Gandhi. An arrest warrant was issued against him from Kerala, it was stayed by the Bombay High Court when over 300 lawyers led by Nani Palkhivala appeared for him. However the stay was nullified by the habeas corpus judgment Additional District Magistrate of Jabalpur v. Shiv Kant Shukla and Ram Jethmalani exiled himself in Canada carrying on his campaign against the emergency, he returned 10 months after the emergency was lifted. While in Canada, his candidature was filed from Bombay North-West constituency, he won the election and retained the seat in 1980 general elections, but lost to Sunil Dutt of the Indian National Congress in 1985.
In the 1977 general elections after the emergency, he ousted the serving Law Minister H. R. Gokhale from Bombay in the Lok Sabha elections and hence started his political career as a parliamentarian; however he was not made
The Nehru Family is an Indian political family that has occupied a prominent place in the politics of India. The involvement of the family has traditionally revolved around the Indian National Congress, as various members have traditionally led the party. Three members of the family — Jawaharlal Nehru, Indira Gandhi, Rajiv Gandhi have served as the Prime Minister of India, while several others have been members of the parliament; the Guardian wrote in 2007 "The Nehru brand has no peer in the world — a member of the family has been in charge of India for 40 of the 60 years since independence. The allure of India's first family blends the right to rule of British monarchy with the tragic glamour of America's Kennedy clan."The Ghandy surname came from Feroze Gandhi, who changed the spelling of his surname after joining the independence movement to bring it in line with that of Mahatma Gandhi. Indira Priyadarshini Nehru adopted his surname. Raj Kaul a Kashmiri Pandit, he is the earliest recorded ancestor of the Nehru family.
He is believed to have moved from Kashmir to Delhi in 1716 AD. A Jagir with a house situated on the banks of a canal was granted to Raj Kaul, from the fact of this residence,'Nehru' came to be attached to his name. Kaul was the original family name. During the early part of the 19th Century, Gangadhar's father, Lakshmi Narayan Nehru, worked as a scribe in Delhi for the East India Company. Gangadhar Nehru, a direct descendant of Raj Kaul, he was the last Kotwal of Delhi, prior to the Indian Rebellion of 1857, he was the father of freedom fighter Motilal Nehru and grandfather of Jawaharlal Nehru, the first Prime Minister of India, thus part of the Nehru family. Bansi Dhar Nehru, Gangadhar's eldest son worked in the judicial department of the British Government and, being appointed successively to various places, was cut off from the rest of the family. Nandlal Nehru, older brother of Motilal Nehru, he was the Diwan of the princely state of Khetri in Rajputana. Motilal Nehru, patriarch of Nehru–Gandhi family.
He was a prominent leader of the Indian independence movement. He served as the Congress President twice, 1919–1920 and 1928–1929. Swarup Rani Nehru, wife of Motilal Nehru. Jawaharlal Nehru, son of Motilal Nehru, he was the first Prime Minister of India and was one of the most prominent leaders of the Indian independence movement. He had succeeded his father as President of the Congress in 1929. Vijaya Lakshmi Pandit, eldest daughter of Motilal Nehru, she was an Indian diplomat and politician who became the President of the United Nations General Assembly. Krishna Nehru Hutheesing was an Indian writer, the youngest sister of Jawaharlal Nehru and Vijaya Lakshmi Pandit, part of the Nehru-Gandhi family. Kamala Nehru, wife of Jawaharlal Nehru, she was an active member of the All India Congress Committee. Brijlal Nehru, son of Nandlal Nehru and a nephew of Motilal Nehru, he was the Finance Minister of the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir during the rule of Maharaja Hari Singh. Rameshwari Nehru, wife of Brij Lal Nehru.
She was a journalist and social worker who co-founded All India Women's Conference Ratan Kumar Nehru, civil servant and diplomat Indira Priyadarshini Nehru, only daughter of Jawaharlal Nehru. She became the first woman Prime Minister of India. Feroze Gandhi, husband of Indira, he was a journalist. Braj Kumar Nehru, son of Brijlal Nehru, he served as the Indian diplomat and ambassador to the United States and as High Commissioner to the United Kingdom. He served as Governor of several Indian states and was an adviser to his cousin Indira Gandhi. Magdolna Nehru, nicknamed Fori, wife of Braj Kumar Nehru. Balwant Kumar Nehru, son of Brijlal Nehru and brother of Braj Kumar Nehru. Engineer and corporate manager who rose to become the Deputy Chairman of ITC and the President of the All-India Management Association. Sarup Nehru, wife of Balwant Kumar Nehru. Harsha Hutheesing and Ajit Hutheesing, sons of Krishna Nehru Hutheesing and Raja Hutheesing Chandralekha Mehta, the eldest of the three daughters born to Jawaharlal Nehru's sister, Vijaya Lakshmi Pandit Nayantara Sahgal, the second of the three daughters born to Vijaya Lakshmi Pandit Rita Dar, the youngest of the three daughters born to Vijaya Lakshmi Pandit Arun Nehru, great grand son of Nandlal Nehru.
He was a union minister during the 1980s. Rajiv Gandhi, eldest son of Indira and Feroze Ghandy, he became the 7th Prime Minister of India after Indira's death. Sanjay Gandhi, second son of Indira and Feroze Ghandy, he was one of the most trusted lieutenants of his mother during the 1970s and was expected to succeed his mother as Prime Minister of India. But met with an untimely death in a plane crash. Sonia Gandhi, widow of Rajiv Ghandy, she took Indian citizenship, 11 years after marrying Rajiv Gandhi. She was the President of the Indian National Congress from 1998 to 2017 and has served as the Chairperson of the United Progressive Alliance since 2004. Maneka Gandhi, widow of Sanjay Gandhi, she is a noted animal welfare activist. She is a prominent member of the Bharatiya Janata Party, she has served as a cabinet minister in four governments
Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru was a freedom fighter, the first Prime Minister of India and a central figure in Indian politics before and after independence, he emerged as an eminent leader of the Indian independence movement under the tutelage of Mahatma Gandhi and served India as Prime Minister from its establishment as an independent nation in 1947 until his death in 1964. He has been described by the Amar Chitra Katha as the architect of India, he was known as Pandit Nehru due to his roots with the Kashmiri Pandit community while Indian children knew him as Chacha Nehru. The son of Motilal Nehru, a prominent lawyer and nationalist statesman and Swaroop Rani, Nehru was a graduate of Trinity College and the Inner Temple, where he trained to be a barrister. Upon his return to India, he enrolled at the Allahabad High Court and took an interest in national politics, which replaced his legal practice. A committed nationalist since his teenage years, he became a rising figure in Indian politics during the upheavals of the 1910s.
He became the prominent leader of the left-wing factions of the Indian National Congress during the 1920s, of the entire Congress, with the tacit approval of his mentor, Gandhi. As Congress President in 1929, Nehru called for complete independence from the British Raj and instigated the Congress's decisive shift towards the left. Nehru and the Congress dominated Indian politics during the 1930s as the country moved towards independence, his idea of a secular nation-state was validated when the Congress, under his leadership, swept the 1937 provincial elections and formed the government in several provinces. But these achievements were compromised in the aftermath of the Quit India Movement in 1942, which saw the British crush the Congress as a political organisation. Nehru, who had reluctantly heeded Gandhi's call for immediate independence, for he had desired to support the Allied war effort during World War II, came out of a lengthy prison term to a much altered political landscape; the Muslim League under his old Congress colleague and now opponent, Muhammad Ali Jinnah, had come to dominate Muslim politics in India.
Negotiations between Congress and Muslim League for power sharing failed and gave way to the independence and bloody partition of India in 1947. Nehru was elected by the Congress to assume office as independent India's first Prime Minister, although the question of leadership had been settled as far back as 1941, when Gandhi acknowledged Nehru as his political heir and successor; as Prime Minister, he set out to realise his vision of India. The Constitution of India was enacted in 1950, after which he embarked on an ambitious program of economic and political reforms. Chiefly, he oversaw India's transition from a colony to a republic, while nurturing a plural, multi-party system. In foreign policy, he took a leading role in the Non-Aligned Movement while projecting India as a regional hegemon in South Asia. Under Nehru's leadership, the Congress emerged as a catch-all party, dominating national and state-level politics and winning consecutive elections in 1951, 1957, 1962, he remained popular with the people of India in spite of political troubles in his final years and failure of leadership during the 1962 Sino-Indian War.
In India, his birthday is celebrated as Bal Diwas. Jawaharlal Nehru was born on 14 November 1889 in Allahabad in British India, his father, Motilal Nehru, a self-made wealthy barrister who belonged to the Kashmiri Pandit community, served twice as President of the Indian National Congress, in 1919 and 1928. His mother, Swaruprani Thussu, who came from a well-known Kashmiri Brahmin family settled in Lahore, was Motilal's second wife, the first having died in child birth. Jawaharlal was the eldest of three children; the elder sister, Vijaya Lakshmi became the first female president of the United Nations General Assembly. The youngest sister, Krishna Hutheesing, became a noted writer and authored several books on her brother. Nehru described his childhood as a "sheltered and uneventful one", he grew up in an atmosphere of privilege at wealthy homes including a palatial estate called the Anand Bhavan. His father had him educated at home by private tutors. Under the influence of a tutor, Ferdinand T. Brooks, he became interested in theosophy.
He was subsequently initiated into the Theosophical Society at age thirteen by family friend Annie Besant. However, his interest in theosophy did not prove to be enduring and he left the society shortly after Brooks departed as his tutor, he wrote: "for nearly three years was with me and in many ways he influenced me greatly". Nehru's theosophical interests had induced him to the study of the Hindu scriptures. According to Bal Ram Nanda, these scriptures were Nehru's "first introduction to the religious and cultural heritage of.... provided Nehru the initial impulse for long intellectual quest which culminated...in The Discovery of India." Nehru became an ardent nationalist during his youth. The Second Boer War and the Russo-Japanese War intensified his feelings. About the latter he wrote, " Japanese victories stirred up my enthusiasm... Nationalistic ideas filled my mind... I mused of Indian freedom and Asiatic freedom from the thraldom of Europe." When he had begun his institutional schooling in 1905 at Harrow, a leading school in England, he was influenced by G. M. Trevelyan's Garibaldi books, which he had received as prizes for academic merit.
He viewed Garibaldi as a revolutionary her
The bourgeoisie is a polysemous French term that can mean: a sociologically defined class in contemporary times, referring to people with a certain cultural and financial capital belonging to the middle or upper middle class: the upper and petty bourgeoisie. Originally and "those who live in the borough", to say, the people of the city, as opposed to those of rural areas. A defined class of the Middle Ages to the end of the Ancien Régime in France, that of inhabitants having the rights of citizenship and political rights in a city; the "bourgeoisie" in its original sense is intimately linked to the existence of cities recognized as such by their urban charters, so there was no bourgeoisie "outside the walls of the city" beyond which the people were "peasants" submitted to the stately courts and manorialism. In Marxist philosophy, the bourgeoisie is the social class that came to own the means of production during modern industrialization and whose societal concerns are the value of property and the preservation of capital to ensure the perpetuation of their economic supremacy in society.
Joseph Schumpeter saw the incorporation of new elements into an expanding bourgeoisie entrepreneurs who took risks to bring innovation to industries and the economy through the process of creative destruction, as the driving force behind the capitalist engine. The Modern French word bourgeois derived from the Old French burgeis, which derived from bourg, from the Old Frankish burg. In its literal sense, bourgeois in Old French means "town dweller". In English, the word "bourgeoisie" identified a social class oriented to economic materialism and hedonism, to upholding the extreme political and economic interests of the capitalist ruling-class. In the 18th century, before the French Revolution, in the French feudal order, the masculine and feminine terms bourgeois and bourgeoise identified the rich men and women who were members of the urban and rural Third Estate – the common people of the French realm, who violently deposed the absolute monarchy of the Bourbon King Louis XVI, his clergy, his aristocrats in the French Revolution of 1789-1799.
Hence, since the 19th century, the term "bourgeoisie" is politically and sociologically synonymous with the ruling upper-class of a capitalist society. The medieval French word bourgeois denoted the inhabitants of the bourgs, the craftsmen, artisans and others, who constituted "the bourgeoisie", they were the socio-economic class between the peasants and the landlords, between the workers and the owners of the means of production; as the economic managers of the materials, the goods, the services, thus the capital produced by the feudal economy, the term "bourgeoisie" evolved to denote the middle class – the businessmen and businesswomen who accumulated and controlled the capital that made possible the development of the bourgs into cities. Contemporarily, the terms "bourgeoisie" and "bourgeois" identify the ruling class in capitalist societies, as a social stratum; the 18th century saw a partial rehabilitation of bourgeois values in genres such as the drame bourgeois and "bourgeois tragedy".
The bourgeoisie emerged as a historical and political phenomenon in the 11th century when the bourgs of Central and Western Europe developed into cities dedicated to commerce. This urban expansion was possible thanks to economic concentration due to the appearance of protective self-organisation into guilds. Guilds arose when individual businessmen conflicted with their rent-seeking feudal landlords who demanded greater rents than agreed. In the event, by the end of the Middle Ages, under régimes of the early national monarchies of Western Europe, the bourgeoisie acted in self-interest, politically supported the king or queen against legal and financial disorder caused by the greed of the feudal lords. In the late-16th and early 17th centuries, the bourgeoisies of England and the Netherlands had become the financial – thus political – forces that deposed the feudal order. During the 17th and 18th centuries, the bourgeoisie were the politically progressive social class who
Vijaya Lakshmi Pandit
Vijaya Lakshmi Pandit was an Indian diplomat and politician, the sister of Jawaharlal Nehru, the aunt of Indira Gandhi and the grand-aunt of Rajiv Gandhi, each of whom served as Prime Minister of India. Pandit was sent to London, as India's most important diplomat, after serving as Nehru’s envoy to the Soviet Union, the USA and the United Nations, her time in London offers insights into the wider context of changes in Indo–British relations. Her High-Commissionership was a microcosm of inter-governmental relations. Vijaya Lakshmi's father, Motilal Nehru, a wealthy barrister who belonged to the Kashmiri Pandit community, served twice as President of the Indian National Congress during the Independence Struggle, her mother, Swaruprani Thussu, who came from a well-known Kashmiri Brahmin family settled in Lahore, was Motilal's second wife, the first having died in child birth. She was the second of three children. In 1921, she was married to Ranjit Pandit, a successful barrister from Kudal and classical scholar who translated Kalhana's epic history Rajatarangini into English from Sanskrit.
He was arrested for his support of Indian independence and died in Lucknow prison in 1944, leaving behind his wife and their three daughters Chandralekha Mehta, Nayantara Sehgal and Rita Dar. She died in the year 1990, her daughter Chandralekha has three children. Her second daughter Nayantara Sahgal, who settled in her mother's house in Dehradun, is a well-known novelist, she had a daughter, Gita Sahgal. Nayantara married E. N Mangat Rai after Gautam's death, her third daughter was Rita, married to Avatar Krishna Dhar and has two sons, including Gopaldhar. She worked in Redcross. Gita Sahgal, the writer and journalist on issues of feminism and racism, director of prize-winning documentary films, human rights activist, is her granddaughter. Pandit was the first Indian woman to hold a cabinet post in pre-independent India. In 1937, she was elected to the provincial legislature of the United Provinces and was designated minister of local self-government and public health, she held the latter post until 1938 and again from 1946 to 1947.
In 1946, she was elected to the Constituent Assembly from the United Provinces. Following India's freedom from British occupation in 1947 she entered the diplomatic service and became India's ambassador to the Soviet Union from 1947 to 1949, the United States and Mexico from 1949 to 1951, Ireland from 1955 to 1961, Spain from 1958 to 1961. Between 1946 and 1968, she headed the Indian delegation to the United Nations. In 1953, she became the first woman President of the United Nations General Assembly. In India, she served as Governor of Maharashtra from 1962 to 1964, after which she was elected to the Indian parliament's lower house, Lok Sabha, from Phulpur, her brother's former constituency from 1964 to 1968. Pandit was a harsh critic of her niece, Indira Gandhi's Prime Minister years specially after Indira had declared the emergency. Pandit retired from active politics. On retiring, she moved to Dehradun in the Doon Valley in the Himalayan foothills, she came out of retirement in 1977 to campaign against Indira Gandhi and helped the Janata Party win the 1977 election.
She was reported to have considered running for the presidency, but Neelam Sanjiva Reddy ran and won the election unopposed. In 1979, she was appointed the Indian representative to the UN Human Rights Commission, after which she retired from public life, her writings include The Scope of Happiness: A Personal Memoir. She was the member of Aligarh Muslim University Executive Council, she never received any formal education. She was an Honorary Fellow of Somerville College, where her niece studied Modern History. A portrait of her by Edward Halliday hangs in the Somerville College Library. List of political families History of Indian foreign relations Ankit, Rakesh. "Between Vanity and Sensitiveness: Indo–British Relations During Vijayalakshmi Pandit’s High-Commissionership." Contemporary British History 30.1: 20-39, major scholarly stify Gupta, Indra. India’s 50 Most Illustrious Women. ISBN 81-88086-19-3. A film clip "Longines Chronoscope with Mme. Vijaya Lakshmi Pandit" is available at the Internet Archive