SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

K2

K2, at 8,611 metres above sea level, is the second highest mountain in the world, after Mount Everest at 8,848 metres. It is located on the China–Pakistan border between Pakistan's disputed Gilgit-Baltistan region, claimed by India as a part of its Jammu and Kashmir state and the in the Trans-Karakoram or Shaksgam Tract, ceded by Pakistan from its disputed Gilgit-Baltistan region to China's Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, claimed by India as a part of its Ladakh region. K2 is known as the Savage Mountain after George Bell, a climber on the 1953 American Expedition, told reporters "It's a savage mountain that tries to kill you." Of the five highest mountains in the world, K2 is the deadliest where one person dies on the mountain for every four who reach the summit. Known as Chhogori, or Mount Godwin-Austen, other nicknames for K2 are The King of Mountains and The Mountaineers' Mountain, as well as The Mountain of Mountains after climber Reinhold Messner titled his book about K2 the same.

K2 is the only eight-thousand metre peak that has never been climbed during winter or from its East Face. Ascents have always been made in July and August, the warmest times of year; the peak has now been climbed by all of its ridges. Although the summit of Everest is at a higher altitude, K2 is a more difficult and dangerous climb, due in part to its more inclement weather and comparatively greater height from base to peak; as of June 2018, only 367 people have completed the ascent. 86 people have died attempting the climb according to the list maintained on the List of deaths on eight-thousanders. The summit was reached for the first time by the Italian climbers Lino Lacedelli and Achille Compagnoni, on the 1954 Italian Karakoram expedition led by Ardito Desio; the name K2 is derived from the notation used by the Great Trigonometrical Survey of British India. Thomas Montgomerie made the first survey of the Karakoram from Mount Haramukh, some 210 km to the south, sketched the two most prominent peaks, labeling them K1 and K2.

The policy of the Great Trigonometrical Survey was to use local names for mountains wherever possible and K1 was found to be known locally as Masherbrum. K2, appeared not to have acquired a local name due to its remoteness; the mountain is not visible from Askole, the last village to the south, or from the nearest habitation to the north, is only fleetingly glimpsed from the end of the Baltoro Glacier, beyond which few local people would have ventured. The name Chogori, derived from two Balti words, chhogo and ri has been suggested as a local name, but evidence for its widespread use is scant, it may have been a compound name invented by Western explorers or a bemused reply to the question "What's that called?" It does, form the basis for the name Qogir by which Chinese authorities refer to the peak. Other local names have been suggested including Lamba Pahar and Dapsang, but are not used. With the mountain lacking a local name, the name Mount Godwin-Austen was suggested, in honor of Henry Godwin-Austen, an early explorer of the area.

While the name was rejected by the Royal Geographical Society, it was used on several maps and continues to be used occasionally. The surveyor's mark, K2, therefore continues to be the name by which the mountain is known, it is now used in the Balti language, rendered as Kechu or Ketu. The Italian climber Fosco Maraini argued in his account of the ascent of Gasherbrum IV that while the name of K2 owes its origin to chance, its clipped, impersonal nature is appropriate for so remote and challenging a mountain, he concluded that it was:... just the bare bones of a name, all rock and ice and storm and abyss. It makes no attempt to sound human, it is stars. It has the nakedness of the world before the first man – or of the cindered planet after the last. André Weil named K3 surfaces in mathematics after the beauty of the mountain K2. K2 lies in the northwestern Karakoram Range, it is located in the Baltistan region of Gilgit–Baltistan and the Taxkorgan Tajik Autonomous County of Xinjiang, China. The Tarim sedimentary basin borders the Lesser Himalayas on the south.

Melt waters from vast glaciers, such as those south and east of K2, feed agriculture in the valleys and contribute to the regional fresh-water supply. K2 is ranked 22nd by topographic prominence, a measure of a mountain's independent stature, because it is part of the same extended area of uplift as Mount Everest, in that it is possible to follow a path from K2 to Everest that goes no lower than 4,594 metres, at the Kora La on the Nepal/China border in the Mustang Lo. Many other peaks that are far lower than K2 are more independent in this sense, it is, the most prominent peak within the Karakoram range. K2 is notable for its local relief as well as its total height, it stands over 3,000 metres above much of the glacial valley bottoms at its base. It is a steep pyramid, dropping in all directions; the north side is the steepest: there it rises over 3,200 metres above the K2 Glacier in only 3,000 metres of horizontal distance. In most directions, it achieves over 2,800 metres of vertical relief in less than 4,000 metres.

A 1986 expedition led by George Wallerstein made an inaccurate measurement incorrectly showing that K2 was taller than Mount Everest, therefore

Antiphonitis

Antiphonitis -- more the Church of Christ Antiphonitis -- is a domed church in Cyprus, in Kyrenia District, located in the mountains near the village of Kalograia. It is reached from the network of tracks and small roads in the area of the Herbarium and Agios Amvrosios, it is under the de facto control of Northern Cyprus. The name Christ Antiphonitis means "Christ who responds" and a number of Greek churches are so designated; the epithet appears to derive from a miraculous icon of some kind which responded to prayers, but no account of this icon in Cyprus is known. The name is testified in the late medieval period. Writing in the sixteenth century, Stefano Lusignan in his Description de toute l'isle de Cypre recalls that Antifoniti was a fief belonging to his family, that his maternal grandmother Isabella Perez Fabricius founded the monastery of Antifonite and that his brother John died there; the church—built on the site of a natural spring at the head of a valley—was constructed in the twelfth century and belonged to a Greek Orthodox monastery.

It consists of a single building with a spacious dome carried on eight pillars and is the only surviving example of this type in Cyprus. A ruined and restored example is in Saint Hilarion Castle and there was once a similar church at the centre of the Monastery of St. John Chrysostomos at Koutsovendis before the church there was rebuilt at the end of the nineteenth century; the narthex on the western side and the arcade on the south were added a time in the fifteenth century when the building was under the Latin church. The irregular shape of the dome is due to damaged sustained during the 1222 Cyprus earthquake; the Church of Christ Antiphonitis is notable for the array of frescoes on the walls and on the pillars. The oldest paintings belong to the end of the twelfth century and are thought to be a local interpretation of the style of the late Comnenian period as it appears at Panagia tou Arakou at Lagoudera; when first studied, the Virgin Mary and prelates in the apse were damaged, but the saints in the sanctuary were well preserved.

Early painting include decons and stylites. There was a Baptism on the south-west pillar of the nave; the remaining paintings are in date and belong to the 1400s. They are executed in a post-Byzantine local revival style. On the south wall was a Tree of Jesse, on the north an elaborate Last Judgement or Μέλλουσα Κρίση. In the dome is Christ Pantocrator surround by angels. A. and J. Stylianou report that the paintings of the dome were "badly damaged" at the time of their studies in the 1960s and 1970s; the paintings in the narthex are faded due to sunlight, but include a notably large depiction of St. George; some time after 1975, some of the fresco paintings were stolen and sold on the international art market. The Last Judgement has been badly damaged, the heads of the twelfth-century angels in the apse damaged and removed; the Tree of Jesse has been removed. Writing in the 1930s, Rupert Gunnis noted the iconostasis painted in blue and gold, the doors of which are dated 1650, thus during the reign of Mehmed IV when the tax burden appears to have been lightened.

The majority of the icons were of the seventeenth century with one of the Archangel Michael dated 1659. The iconostasis was removed after 1975 and some individual icons panels from it were found with a private collector in the Netherlands; the Government of Cyprus engaged in legal action to secure their restitution. Four icons were repatriated in September, 2013. Separately, an icon from the church showing the Virgin Mary and dating to the fifteenth century was located in Athens and returned to Cyprus on 14 September 1998; the church is notable for the graffiti and pilgrim records scratched into the lower frescoes during the eighteenth and twentieth centuries. They are predominantly in Greek but a few are in the Ottoman Turkish alphabet, they are unique documents of popular history, telling us about the ordinary Cypriots who visited the building. Among the dates visible are 1803, 1888, 1891, 1896, 1902, 1903, 1904, 1910, 1911, 1919, 1930 and 1958. In the 1930s, the Church of Christ Antiphonitis was the property of Kykkos Monastery.

Presently it appears in the List of museums in Northern Cyprus. Antiphonitis monastery is listed as monastery of Church of Cyprus on its official website. Inventory of Byzantine Churches on Cyprus

Solonzara Airfield

Solenzara Airfield is an abandoned World War II military airfield in France, located 31 km north-northeast of Porto-Vecchio on Corsica. It was a temporary airfield used by the United States Army Air Force Twelfth Air Force 415th Night Fighter Squadron between 9 July-1 September, flying Bristol Beaufighters; when the Americans pulled out the airfield was dismantled by engineers. Today the location of the airfield is a grass pasture; this article incorporates public domain material from the Air Force Historical Research Agency website http://www.afhra.af.mil/. Maurer, Maurer. Air Force Combat Units of World War II. Maxwell AFB, Alabama: Office of Air Force History, 1983. ISBN 0-89201-092-4. Maurer, Maurer, ed.. Combat Squadrons of the Air Force, World War II. Washington, DC: Office of Air Force History. ISBN 0-405-12194-6. LCCN 70605402. OCLC 72556