Court of Appeal (France)
In France, the cour d’appel of the ordre judiciaire is a juridiction de droit commun du second degré, a. It examines previously-judged litigation, for example from the correctional tribunal or a tribunal de grande instance; when one of the parties is not satisfied with the verdict, it can appeal. While communications from jurisdictions of first instance are termed "judgements", or judgments, a court of appeal renders an arrêt, which may either uphold or annul the initial judgment. A verdict of the court of appeal may be further appealed en cassation. If the appeal is admissible at the cour de cassation, that court does not re-judge the facts of the matter a third time, but may investigate and verify whether the rules of law were properly applied by the lower courts. French territories contain 36 courts of appeal, of which six are overseas, a tribunal supérieur d'appel on Saint-Pierre-et-Miquelon. In France itself, each court governs several départements or similar territories two to four; the courts are established in the same cities as the former Parlements, the court jurisdictions of the Ancien Régime.
These jurisdictions were created under the name of tribunal d'appel by the loi du 27 ventôse an VIII, which put an end to the "appel circulaire", put in place in 1790. The "appeal tribunals" became "courts of appeal" through the sénatus-consulte of 28 floréal an XII and took the name "imperial courts" in 1810, their name changed afterwards according to the régime: "imperial court" during the First and Second Empire, "royal court" during the Restoration and the July Monarchy, "court of appeal" during periods of republic, as they are still known. Until 1958, appeals of judgments by juges de paix, justices of the peace, labour courts were brought before the tribunal civil, while a tribunal d'arrondissement existed for appeals from tribunaux paritaires des baux ruraux and a regional commission of sécurité sociale to appeal the decisions of the first instance. Courts of appeal only recognize, in civil matters, recourse against the judgment of a civil tribunal or a commercial tribunal. In penal matters, courts of appeal accept police tribunal appeals.
With the reform of 1958, the court of appeal became the only appeal jurisdiction of the judiciary. The exceptions were re-created afterwards; the magistrates of the court of appeal are experienced jurists who began their careers in a first-degree jurisdiction. Each court of appeal is presided over by a "premier président"; the other magistrates du siège are chamber presidents and the counselors, names which recall the parlements of the Ancien Régime. At the court of appeal the vice-présidents and the judges assigned to the first president are affected and can exercise their functions either at the court of appeal or in any related tribunal in that scope; the first president, the chamber presidents and the counselors of the court of appeal are the only magistrates who can preside at assizes courts. The magistrates of the parquet général are a prosecutor-general, attorneys-general and substituts généraux. Le procureur général oversees the application of criminal law throughout the court of appeal's jurisdiction, within which it assures proper functioning of the parquets.
A procureur général or his substitut represent the ministère public before the cour d'assise sitting at the court of appealEach court is structured into a variable number of chambers, several of which may be specialized. A court of appeal at a minimum includes: a correctional appeal chamber, a chamber of"instruction", a chamber for penalty imposition, a social chamber, a special chamber for minors, Other chambers include at least one commercial chamber and one civil chamber. Courts of appeal include a clerk's office staffed with civil servants. Collegial judgments are composed by three magistrates the first president a president of chamber and a councillor in the usual formation; the solemn formation consists of five magistrates and is notably used n cases sent back down from the court of cassation In rare cases, the court of appeal meets in the form of an "assembly of chambers" which comprises the magistrates of two chambers. The court of appeal recognizes appeals of matters brought before the relevant tribunals, both civil and penal: tribunal d'instance police tribunals tribunal de grande instance juge d'instruction judge of freedoms and of detention correctional tribunal judge of penalty imposition commercial tribunal labour council joint agricultural land tribunal Social security tribunalIt is the venue for recourse against bar association elections and some bar association decisions, as well as the decisions of other professional associations of the French legal system.
The Court of Appeal of Paris is competent to hear matters of recourse against the decisions of certain independent administrative authorities. In the court of assizes, since the 2000 law on the presumption of innocence, an assize appeal court is not a second degree court but a different assize, in another département and with nine jurors instead of six. Not all matters can be appealed and thus some cannot be re-judged on appeal, for example the least important litigation. In this case the p
Morocco the Kingdom of Morocco, is a country located in the Maghreb region of North West Africa with an area of 710,850 km2. Its capital is the largest city Casablanca, it overlooks the Mediterranean Sea to the Atlantic Ocean to the west. Morocco claims the areas of Ceuta, Melilla and Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera, all of them under Spanish jurisdiction. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid and Almohad dynasties, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa; the Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, allowing Morocco to remain the only northwest African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, which rules to this day, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, it regained its independence in 1956, has since remained comparatively stable and prosperous by regional standards.
Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco occupies two thirds of the territory, peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock; the unitary sovereign state of Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors; the king can issue decrees called dahirs. He can dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court.
Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, its official languages are Arabic and Berber. E; the Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, French are widely spoken. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Sephardi Jews, West African and European influences. Morocco is a member of the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union, it has the fifth largest economy of Africa. The full Arabic name al-Mamlakah al-Maghribiyyah translates to "Kingdom of the West". For historical references, medieval Arab historians and geographers sometimes referred to Morocco as al-Maghrib al-Aqṣá to distinguish it from neighbouring historical regions called al-Maghrib al-Awsaṭ and al-Maghrib al-Adná; the basis of Morocco's English name is Marrakesh, its capital under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad Caliphate. The origin of the name Marrakesh is disputed, but is most from the Berber words amur akush or "Land of God"; the modern Berber name for Marrakesh is Mṛṛakc. In Turkish, Morocco is known as a name derived from its ancient capital of Fes.
However, this was not the case in other parts of the Islamic world: until the middle of the 20th century, the common name of Morocco in Egyptian and Middle Eastern Arabic literature was Marrakesh. The English name Morocco is an anglicisation of the Spanish "Marruecos", from which derives the Tuscan "Morrocco", the origin of the Italian "Marocco"; the area of present-day Morocco has been inhabited since Paleolithic times, sometime between 190,000 and 90,000 BC. A recent publication may demonstrate an earlier habitation period, as Homo sapiens fossils discovered in the late 2000s near the Atlantic coast in Jebel Irhoud were dated to 315,000 years before present. During the Upper Paleolithic, the Maghreb was more fertile than it is today, resembling a savanna more than today's arid landscape. Twenty-two thousand years ago, the Aterian was succeeded by the Iberomaurusian culture, which shared similarities with Iberian cultures. Skeletal similarities have been suggested between the Iberomaurusian "Mechta-Afalou" burials and European Cro-Magnon remains.
The Iberomaurusian was succeeded by the Beaker culture in Morocco. Mitochondrial DNA studies have discovered the Saami of Scandinavia; this supports theories that the Franco-Cantabrian refuge area of southwestern Europe was the source of late-glacial expansions of hunter-gatherers who repopulated northern Europe after the last ice age. Northwest Africa and Morocco were drawn into the wider emerging Mediterranean world by the Phoenicians, who established trading colonies and settlements in the early Classical period. Substantial Phoenician settlements were at Chellah and Mogador. Mogador was a Phoenician colony as early as the early 6th century BC. Morocco became a realm of the Northwest African civilisation of ancie
Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro, or Rio, is anchor to the Rio de Janeiro metropolitan area and the second-most populous municipality in Brazil and the sixth-most populous in the Americas. Rio de Janeiro is the capital of the state of Brazil's third-most populous state. Part of the city has been designated as a World Heritage Site, named "Rio de Janeiro: Carioca Landscapes between the Mountain and the Sea", by UNESCO on 1 July 2012 as a Cultural Landscape. Founded in 1565 by the Portuguese, the city was the seat of the Captaincy of Rio de Janeiro, a domain of the Portuguese Empire. In 1763, it became the capital of the State of Brazil, a state of the Portuguese Empire. In 1808, when the Portuguese Royal Court transferred itself from Portugal to Brazil, Rio de Janeiro became the chosen seat of the court of Queen Maria I of Portugal, who subsequently, in 1815, under the leadership of her son, the Prince Regent, future King João VI of Portugal, raised Brazil to the dignity of a kingdom, within the United Kingdom of Portugal and Algarves.
Rio stayed the capital of the pluricontinental Lusitanian monarchy until 1822, when the War of Brazilian Independence began. This is one of the few instances in history that the capital of a colonising country shifted to a city in one of its colonies. Rio de Janeiro subsequently served as the capital of the independent monarchy, the Empire of Brazil, until 1889, the capital of a republican Brazil until 1960 when the capital was transferred to Brasília. Rio de Janeiro has the second largest municipal GDP in the country, 30th largest in the world in 2008, estimated at about R$343 billion, it is headquarters to Brazilian oil and telecommunications companies, including two of the country's major corporations – Petrobras and Vale – and Latin America's largest telemedia conglomerate, Grupo Globo. The home of many universities and institutes, it is the second-largest center of research and development in Brazil, accounting for 17% of national scientific output according to 2005 data. Despite the high perception of crime, the city has a lower incidence of crime than Northeast Brazil, but it is far more criminalized than the south region of Brazil, considered the safest in the country.
Rio de Janeiro is one of the most visited cities in the Southern Hemisphere and is known for its natural settings, samba, bossa nova, balneario beaches such as Barra da Tijuca, Copacabana and Leblon. In addition to the beaches, some of the most famous landmarks include the giant statue of Christ the Redeemer atop Corcovado mountain, named one of the New Seven Wonders of the World. Rio de Janeiro was the host of the 2016 Summer Olympics and the 2016 Summer Paralympics, making the city the first South American and Portuguese-speaking city to host the events, the third time the Olympics were held in a Southern Hemisphere city; the Maracanã Stadium held the finals of the 1950 and 2014 FIFA World Cups, the 2013 FIFA Confederations Cup, the XV Pan American Games. Europeans first encountered Guanabara Bay on 1 January 1502, by a Portuguese expedition under explorer Gaspar de Lemos, captain of a ship in Pedro Álvares Cabral's fleet, or under Gonçalo Coelho; the Florentine explorer Amerigo Vespucci participated as observer at the invitation of King Manuel I in the same expedition.
The region of Rio was inhabited by the Tupi, Puri and Maxakalí peoples. In 1555, one of the islands of Guanabara Bay, now called Villegagnon Island, was occupied by 500 French colonists under the French admiral Nicolas Durand de Villegaignon. Villegagnon built Fort Coligny on the island when attempting to establish the France Antarctique colony; the city of Rio de Janeiro proper was founded by the Portuguese on 1 March 1565 and was named São Sebastião do Rio de Janeiro, in honour of St. Sebastian, the saint, the namesake and patron of the Portuguese then-monarch Sebastião. Rio de Janeiro was the name of Guanabara Bay; until early in the 18th century, the city was threatened or invaded by several French pirates and buccaneers, such as Jean-François Duclerc and René Duguay-Trouin. In the late 17th century, still during the Sugar Era, the Bandeirantes discovered gold and diamonds in the neighbouring captaincy of Minas Gerais, thus Rio de Janeiro became a much more practical port for exporting wealth than Salvador, much farther northeast.
On 27 January 1763, the colonial administration in Portuguese America was moved from Salvador to Rio de Janeiro. The city remained a colonial capital until 1808, when the Portuguese royal family and most of the associated Lisbon nobles, fleeing from Napoleon's invasion of Portugal, moved to Rio de Janeiro; the kingdom's capital was transferred to the city, thus, became the only European capital outside of Europe. As there was no physical space or urban structure to accommodate hundreds of noblemen who arrived many inhabitants were evicted from their homes. In the first decades, several educational establishments were created, such as the Military Academy, the Royal School of Sciences and Crafts and the Imperial Academy of Fine Arts, as well as the National Library of Brazil – with the largest collection in Latin America – and The Botanical Garden; the first printed newspaper in Brazil, the Gazeta do Rio de Janeiro, came into circulation during this period. When Brazil was elevated to Kingdom in 1815, it
Canoe slalom is a competitive sport with the aim to navigate a decked canoe or kayak through a course of hanging downstream or upstream gates on river rapids in the fastest time possible. It is one of the two kayak and canoeing disciplines at the Summer Olympics, is referred to by the International Olympic Committee as Canoe/Kayak Slalom; the other Olympic canoeing discipline is canoe sprint. Wildwater canoeing is a non-Olympic paddlesport. Canoe slalom racing started in Europe and in the 1940s, the International Canoe Federation was formed to govern the sport; the first World Championships were held in 1949 in Switzerland. From 1949 to 1999, the championships were held every odd-numbered year and have been held annually in non-Summer Olympic years since 2002. Folding kayaks were used from 1949 to 1963. Boats were heavy over 65 pounds. With the advent of kevlar and carbon fiber being used in the 1970s, the widths of the boats were reduced by the ICF, the boats were reduced in volume to pass the gates, boats have become much lighter and faster.
From 1949 to 1977, all World Championships were held in Europe. The first World Championship held in North America was held at Jonquière, in Québec, Canada, in 1979, it has been a regular Olympic sport since 1992. In 2020 during the Tokyo Olympics, C2 men loses its status as an official olympic event and is to be replaced by C1 women; each gate consists of two poles hanging from a wire strung across the river. There are 18-25 numbered gates in a course, of which 6-7 must be upstream gates, they are colored as either green or red, indicating the direction they must be negotiated. Upstream gates are always placed in eddies, where the water is flat or moving upstream. Downstream gates may be placed in eddies, to increase the difficulty, downstream gates in the current can be offset to alternating sides of the current, requiring rapid turns in fast-moving water. Most slalom courses take 80 to 120 seconds to complete for the fastest paddlers. Depending on the level of competition, difficulty of the course, degree of water turbulence.
And ability of the other paddlers, times can go up to 200 seconds. In international competitions each competitor does two runs in the qualification round, called the "heats". Depending on the number of participants in the event, 10 to 40 boats make it through to the semi-final; the fastest semi-final boats, the number determined by the number of participants, make it through to the final, where they navigate the semi-final course once more. Their ranking within the final group is based on the time of that last run alone. If the competitor's boat, paddle or body touches either pole of the gate, a time penalty of two seconds is added. If the competitor misses a gate deliberately pushes the gate to pass through, goes through the gate in the wrong direction or upside-down, or goes through it in the wrong order, a 50-second penalty is given. Only one penalty can be incurred on each gate, this will be taken as the highest one. There are four Olympic Medal events: C1 Men C1 Women C2 Men K1 Men K1 Women In the 1960s and early 1970s, boats were made of heavy fiberglass and nylon.
The boats were high volume and weighed over 30 pounds. In the early 1970s Kevlar was used and the boats became lighter as well as the volume of the boats was being reduced every year as new designs were made. A minimum boat weight was introduced to equalize competition when super light materials began to affect race results; the ICF reduced the width of the boats in the early 1970s. The gates were hung about 10 cm above the water; when racers began making lower-volume boats, the gates were raised in response to fears that new boats would be of such low volume as to create a hazard to the paddler. Their low-volume sterns allow the boat to slice through the water in a quick turn, or "pivot". New racing boats cost between $1,200 and $2,500. Boats are made with carbon fiber and fiberglass cloth, using epoxy or polyester resin to hold the layers together. Foam sandwich construction in between layers of carbon, Kevlar, or Aramid is another technique in use to increase the stiffness of slalom boats. In 2005 the minimum length of these boats was reduced from 4 meters down to 3.5 meters, causing a flurry of new, faster boat designs which are able to navigate courses with more speed and precision.
The shorter length allows for easier navigation and less boat damage in the smaller manmade river beds that are prevalent in current elite competitions. Boat design progression is rather limited year to year. Directly from the 2017 ICF Canoe Slalom Rules: 7.1.1 Measurements All types of K1 Minimum length 3.50 m minimum width 0.60 m All types of C1 Minimum length 3.50 m minimum width 0.60 m All types of C2 Minimum length 4.10 m minimum width 0.75 m 7.1.2 Minimum Weight of Boats All types of K1 9 kg.. All types of C1 9 kg.. All types of C2 15 kg. 7.1.3 All boats must have a minimum radius at each end of 2 cm horizontally and 1 cm vertically. 7.1.4 Rudders are prohibited on all boats 7.1.5 Boats must be
Danone S. A. is a French multinational food-products corporation based in Paris and founded in Barcelona, Spain. The company is listed on Euronext Paris; some of the company’s products are branded Dannon in the United States. As of 2018, Danone sold products in 120 markets, had sales in 2017 of €24.7 billion. In the first half of 2018, 29% of sales came from specialized nutrition, 19% came from waters, 52% came from dairy and plant-based products. Danone was founded by Isaac Carasso, a Sephardic Jewish doctor, who began producing yogurt in Barcelona, Spain in 1919; the brand was named Danone, which translates after his son Daniel Carasso. In 1929, Isaac Carasso moved the company from Spain to France. In 1942, Daniel Carasso moved the company to New York. In the United States, Daniel Carasso partnered with the Swiss-born Spaniard Juan Metzger and changed the brand name to Dannon to sound more American. In 1951, Daniel Carasso returned to Paris to manage the family's businesses in France and Spain, the American business was sold to Beatrice Foods in 1959.
In Europe in 1967, Danone merged with Gervais, the leading fresh cheese producer in France, became Gervais Danone. In 1973, the company merged with bottle maker BSN; the company changed its name to Groupe Danone in 1983. The acquisitions took the shape of vertical integration, acquiring Alsatian brewer Kronenbourg and Evian mineral water who were the glassmaker's largest customers; this move provided content with. In 1973, the company began to expand internationally. In 1979, the company abandoned glassmaking by disposing of Verreries Boussois. In 1987, Gervais Danone acquired European biscuit manufacturer Général Biscuit, owners of the LU brand, and, in 1989, it bought out the European biscuit operations of Nabisco. In 1994, BSN changed its name to Groupe Danone, adopting the name of the group's best-known international brand. Franck Riboud succeeded his father, Antoine, as the company's chairman and chief executive officer in 1996 when Riboud senior retired. Under Riboud junior, the company continued to pursue its focus on three product groups and divested itself of several activities which had become non-core.
In 1999 and 2003, the group sold 56% and 44% of its glass-containers business. In 2000, the group sold most of its European beer activities (the brand Kronenbourg and the brand 1664 were sold to Scottish & Newcastle for £1.7 billion. The company's British and Irish biscuit operations were sold to United Biscuits in September 2004. In August 2005, the Group sold its sauces business in the United Kingdom and in the United States, in January 2006, its sauces business in Asia was sold to Ajinomoto. Despite these divestitures, Danone continues to expand internationally in its three core business units, emphasising health and well-being products. In July 2007, it was announced that Danone had reached agreement with Kraft Foods Inc to sell its biscuits division, including the LU and Prince brands, for around €5.3 billion. In July 2007, a €12.3 billion cash offer by Danone for the Dutch baby food and clinical nutrition company Numico was agreed to by both boards, creating the world's second-largest manufacturer of baby food.
In 2009, the company changed its name from Groupe Danone to Danone. Danone acquired the Unimilk group's companies in Russia in 2010 and the Wockhardt group's nutrition activities in India in 2012. In mid-February 2013 Danone announced their intention to cut 900 jobs or about 3.3 percent of their 27,000 person European workforce. Since 2013, Danone has accelerated its development on the African continent, notably with the acquisition of a controlling interest in Centrale Danone in Morocco and equity interests in Fan Milk in West Africa and Brookside in Kenya. In 2014, Emmanuel Faber became CEO. Danone was present in 130 markets and generated sales of US$25.7 billion in 2016, with more than half in emerging countries. In 2015, fresh dairy products represented 50% of the group's total sales, early life nutrition 22%, water 21% and medical nutrition 7%. In 2017, Franck Riboud became honorary chairman and Faber became chairman as well as retaining his CEO position. In 2018, Danone rebranded its DanoneWave subsidiary, formed after the 2017 acquisition of WhiteWave Foods, into Danone North America.
Danone's head office has been located in the 9th arrondissement of Paris since 2002. Danone is led by Chairman as well as a Board of Directors; as of April 26, 2018 the 16 members of the Board of Directors are: Emmanuel Faber – Chairman and CEO Franck Riboud – Honorary Chairman Guido Barilla Frédéric Boutebba Cécile Cabanis Gregg L. Engles Clara Gaymard Michel Landel Gaëlle Olivier Benoît Potier Isabelle Seillier Jean-Michel Severino Virginia A. Stallings Bettina Theissig Serpil Timuray Lionel Zinsou-DerlinAs of 2018 the members of the Executive Committee are as follows: Emmanuel Faber Bertrand Austruy Cécile Cabanis Véronique Penchienati-Bosetta Henri Bruxelles Francisco Camacho Bridgette Heller Danone's brand portfolio includes both international brands and local brands. In 2018, Danone's international brands include: Activia, Alpro, Danette, Dannon, Evian, Nutrilon, Volvic. Local or regional brands include: AQUA, Blédina, Cow & Gate, Horizon Organic, Oikos, Prostokvashino and Vega (
60 metres, or 60-meter dash, is a sprint event in track and field. It is a championship event for indoor championships dominated by the best outdoor 100 metres runners. At outdoor venues it is a rare distance, at least for senior athletes; the 60 metres was an Olympic event in the 1900 and 1904 Summer Games but was removed from the schedule thereafter. American Christian Coleman holds the men's world record in the 60 metres with a time of 6.34 seconds, while Russian Irina Privalova holds the women's world record at 6.92. In the past, it was common for athletes to compete in the 60 yards race; this is the predecessor of the 55 metres race. 60 metres is 65.6168 yards. Updated 4 January 2019. Indoor results only Updated February 2019. Note: The following athletes have had their performances annulled because of doping offense: Below is a list of other times equal or superior to 6.47 seconds: Christian Coleman ran 6.37, 6.42 A, 6.45, 6.46, 6.47. Maurice Greene ran 6.40, 6.41, 6.42, 6.43, 6.45, 6.46, 6.47.
Su Bingtian ran 6.43, 6.47. Ronnie Baker ran 6.44, 6.45 A, 6.46, 6.47. Tim Harden ran 6.44, 6.47. Andre Cason ran 6.45, 6.46. Bruny Surin ran 6.46. Jon Drummond ran 6.46, 6.47. Jason Gardener ran 6.46. Terrence Trammell ran 6.46. Justin Gatlin ran 6.46, 6.47. Marcus Brunson ran 6.46. Dwain Chambers ran 6.46. + = en route to 100m mark Updated February 2019. Note: The following athletes have had their performances annulled because of doping offense: Below is a list of other times equal or superior to 6.99 seconds: Irina Privalova ran 6.93, 6.94, 6.95, 6.96, 6.97, 6.98, 6.99. Merlene Ottey ran 6.97, 6.99. Gail Devers ran 6.98, 6.99. Ekaterini Thanou ran 6.99. Murielle Ahouré ran 6.99. + = en route to 100m mark Notes: A Known as the World Indoor Games The original winner in 1987 was Ben Johnson, disqualified in 1989 after admitting long term drug use. Notes: A Known as the World Indoor Games The original silver medal winner in 1987 was Angella Issajenko, disqualified in 1989 after admitting long term drug use.
The original winner in 2003 was Zhanna Block, disqualified in 2011, had her results from November 2002 onwards annulled. All-time men's best 60 metres from alltime-athletics.com All-time women's best 60 metres from alltime-athletics.com
Marrakesh is a major city of the Kingdom of Morocco. It is the fourth largest city in the country, after Casablanca and Tangier, it is the capital city of the mid-southwestern region of Marrakesh-Safi. Located to the north of the foothills of the snow-capped Atlas Mountains, Marrakesh is situated 580 km southwest of Tangier, 327 km southwest of the Moroccan capital of Rabat, 239 km south of Casablanca, 246 km northeast of Agadir. Marrakesh is the second most important of Morocco's four former imperial cities after Fez; the region has been inhabited by Berber farmers since Neolithic times, but the actual city was founded in 1062, by Abu Bakr ibn Umar and cousin of Almoravid king Yusuf ibn Tashfin. In the 12th century, the Almoravids built many madrasas and mosques in Marrakesh that bear Andalusian influences; the red walls of the city, built by Ali ibn Yusuf in 1122–1123, various buildings constructed in red sandstone during this period, have given the city the nickname of the "Red City" or "Ochre City".
Marrakesh grew and established itself as a cultural and trading center for the Maghreb and sub-Saharan Africa. After a period of decline, the city was surpassed by Fez, but in the early 16th century, Marrakesh again became the capital of the kingdom; the city regained its preeminence under wealthy Saadian sultans Abu Abdallah al-Qaim and Ahmad al-Mansur, who embellished the city with sumptuous palaces such as the El Badi Palace and restored many ruined monuments. Beginning in the 17th century, the city became popular among Sufi pilgrims for Morocco's seven patron saints, who are entombed here. In 1912 the French Protectorate in Morocco was established and T'hami El Glaoui became Pasha of Marrakesh and held this position nearly throughout the protectorate until the role was dissolved upon the independence of Morocco and the reestablishment of the monarchy in 1956. In 2009, Marrakesh mayor Fatima Zahra Mansouri became the second woman to be elected mayor in Morocco. Like many Moroccan cities, Marrakesh comprises an old fortified city packed with vendors and their stalls, bordered by modern neighbourhoods, the most prominent of, Gueliz.
Today it is one of the busiest cities in Africa and serves as a major economic center and tourist destination. Tourism is advocated by the reigning Moroccan monarch, Mohammed VI, with the goal of doubling the number of tourists visiting Morocco to 20 million by 2020. Despite the economic recession, real estate and hotel development in Marrakesh have grown in the 21st century. Marrakesh is popular with the French, numerous French celebrities own property in the city. Marrakesh has the largest traditional market in Morocco, with some 18 souks selling wares ranging from traditional Berber carpets to modern consumer electronics. Crafts employ a significant percentage of the population, who sell their products to tourists. Marrakesh is one of North Africa’s largest centers of wildlife trade, despite the illegality of much of this trade. Much of this trade can be found in adjacent squares. Tortoises are popular for sale as pets, but Barbary macaques and snakes can be seen. Marrakesh is served by Ménara International Airport and the Marrakesh railway station, which connects the city to Casablanca and northern Morocco.
Marrakesh has several schools, including Cadi Ayyad University. A number of Moroccan football clubs are located here, including Najm de Marrakech, KAC Marrakech, Mouloudia de Marrakech and Chez Ali Club de Marrakech; the Marrakesh Street Circuit hosts the World Touring Car Championship, Auto GP and FIA Formula Two Championship races. The exact meaning of the name is debated. One possible origin of the name Marrakesh is from the Berber words amur akush, which means "Land of God". According to historian Susan Searight, the town's name was first documented in an 11th-century manuscript in the Qarawiyyin library in Fez, where its meaning was given as "country of the sons of Kush"; the word mur is used now in Berber in the feminine form tamurt. The same word "mur" appears in Mauretania, the North African kingdom from antiquity, although the link remains controversial as this name originates from μαύρος mavros, the ancient Greek word for black; the common English spelling is "Marrakesh", although "Marrakech" is widely used.
The name is spelt Mṛṛakc in the Berber Latin alphabet, Marraquexe in Portuguese, Marraquech in Spanish, "Mer-raksh" in Moroccan Arabic. From medieval times until around the beginning of the 20th century, the entire country of Morocco was known as the "Kingdom of Marrakesh", as the kingdom's historic capital city was Marrakesh; the name for Morocco is still "Marrakesh" to this day in Persian and Urdu as well as many other South Asian languages. Various European names for Morocco are directly derived from the Berber word Murakush. Conversely, the city itself was in earlier times called Marocco City by travelers from abroad; the name of the city and the country diverged after the Treaty of Fez divided Morocco into a French protectorate in Morocco and Spanish protectorate in Morocco, but the old interchangeable usage lasted until about the interregnum of Mohammed Ben Aarafa. The latter episode set in motion the country's return to independence, when Morocco became al-Mamlaka al-Maġribiyya, its name no longer refer