The KGB, translated in English as Committee for State Security, was the main security agency for the Soviet Union from 1954 until its break-up in 1991. As a direct successor of preceding agencies such as the Cheka, NKGB, NKVD and MGB, the committee was attached to the Council of Ministers, it was the chief government agency of "union-republican jurisdiction", acting as internal security and secret police. Similar agencies were constituted in each of the republics of the Soviet Union aside from Russian SFSR, consisted of many ministries, state committees and state commissions; the agency was a military service governed by army laws and regulations, in the same fashion as the Soviet Army or MVD Internal Troops. While most of the KGB archives remain classified, two online documentary sources are available, its main functions were foreign intelligence, counter-intelligence, operative-investigatory activities, guarding the State Border of the USSR, guarding the leadership of the Central Committee of the Communist Party and the Soviet Government and ensuring of government communications as well as combating nationalism and anti-Soviet activities.
In 1991, after the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the KGB was split into the Federal Security Service and the Foreign Intelligence Service of the Russian Federation. After breaking away from Georgia in the early 1990s with Russian help, the self-proclaimed Republic of South Ossetia established its own KGB. In addition, the Republic of Belarus has established its own national security agency, the State Security Committee of the Republic of Belarus, the name and acronym of, identical to the former Soviet KGB. A Time magazine article in 1983 reported that the KGB was the world's most effective information-gathering organization, it operated legal and illegal espionage residencies in target countries where a legal resident gathered intelligence while based at the Soviet embassy or consulate, and, if caught, was protected from prosecution by diplomatic immunity. At best, the compromised spy was either returned to the Soviet Union or was declared persona non grata and expelled by the government of the target country.
The illegal resident spied, unprotected by diplomatic immunity, worked independently of Soviet diplomatic and trade missions. In its early history, the KGB valued illegal spies more than legal spies, because illegal spies infiltrated their targets with greater ease; the KGB residency executed four types of espionage: political, military-strategic, disinformation, effected with "active measures", counter-intelligence and security, scientific–technological intelligence. The KGB classified its spies as controllers; the false-identity or legend assumed by a USSR-born illegal spy was elaborate, using the life of either a "live double" or a "dead double". The agent substantiated his or her legend by living it in a foreign country, before emigrating to the target country, thus the sending of US-bound illegal residents via the Soviet embassy in Ottawa, Canada. Tradecraft included stealing and photographing documents, code-names, contacts and dead letter boxes, working as a "friend of the cause" or as agents provocateurs, who would infiltrate the target group to sow dissension, influence policy, arrange kidnappings and assassinations.
Mindful of ambitious spy chiefs—and after deposing Premier Nikita Khrushchev—Secretary Leonid Brezhnev and the CPSU knew to manage the next over-ambitious KGB Chairman, Aleksandr Shelepin, who facilitated Brezhnev's palace coup d'état against Khrushchev in 1964. With political reassignments, Shelepin protégé Vladimir Semichastny was sacked as KGB Chairman, Shelepin himself was demoted from chairman of the Committee of Party and State Control to Trade Union Council chairman. In the 1980s, the glasnost liberalisation of Soviet society provoked KGB Chairman Vladimir Kryuchkov to lead the August 1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt to depose President Mikhail Gorbachev; the thwarted coup d'état ended the KGB on 6 November 1991. The KGB's main successors are the FSB and the SVR; the GRU recruited the ideological agent Julian Wadleigh, who became a State Department diplomat in 1936. The NKVD's first US operation was establishing the legal residency of Boris Bazarov and the illegal residency of Iskhak Akhmerov in 1934.
Throughout, the Communist Party USA and its General Secretary Earl Browder, helped NKVD recruit Americans, working in government and industry. Other important, low-level and high-level ideological agents were the diplomats Laurence Duggan and Michael Whitney Straight in the State Department, the statistician Harry Dexter White in the Treasury Department, the economist Lauchlin Currie, the "Silvermaster Group", headed by statistician Greg Silvermaster, in the Farm Security Administration and the Board of Economic Warfare. Moreover, when Whittaker Chambers Alger Hiss's courier, approached the Roosevelt Government—to identify the Soviet spies Duggan and others—he was ignored. Hence, during the Second World War —at the Tehran and Potsdam conferences—Big Three Ally J
El is a letter of the Cyrillic script. El represents the alveolar lateral approximant /l/. In Slavic languages it may be either palatalized or velarized. In some typefaces the Cyrillic letter El has a grapheme which may be confused with the Cyrillic letter Pe. Note that Pe has a straight left leg, without the hook. An alternative form of El is more common in Bulgarian and Serbian; the Cyrillic letter El was derived from the Greek letter lambda. In the Early Cyrillic alphabet its name was людиѥ, meaning "people". In the Cyrillic numeral system, Л had a value of 30; as used in the alphabets of various languages, El represents the following sounds: alveolar lateral approximant /l/, like the pronunciation of ⟨l⟩ in "lip" palatalized alveolar lateral approximant /lʲ/ velarized alveolar lateral approximant /ɫ/, like the pronunciation of ⟨l⟩ in "bell" and "milk" voiced alveolar lateral fricative /ɮ/ and its palatalized equivalent /ɮʲ/The /l/ phoneme in Slavic languages has two realizations: hard and soft – see palatalization for details.
Serbian and Macedonian orthographies use a separate letter Љ for the soft /l/ – it looks as a ligature of El with the soft sign. In these languages, ⟨Л⟩ denotes only hard /l/. Pronunciation of hard /l/ is sometimes given as, but it is always more velar than in French or German. Slavic languages except Serbian and Macedonian use another orthographic convention to distinguish between hard and soft /l/, so ⟨Л⟩ can denote either variant depending on the subsequent letter; the pronunciations shown in the table are the primary ones for each language. In addition, л was used in Chukchi to represent the voiceless alveolar lateral fricative /ɬ/ but has since been replaced by ԓ. Λ λ: Greek letter Lambda Љ Ӆ ӆ: Cyrillic letter El with tail Ԓ ԓ: Cyrillic letter El with hook Ԯ ԯ: Cyrillic letter El with descender L l: Latin letter L Ł ł: Latin letter L with stroke The dictionary definition of Л at Wiktionary The dictionary definition of л at Wiktionary
Artz Pedregal is a mixed-use development opened on March 9, 2018 and is located along the Anillo Periférico ring road in the Pedregal de San Ángel area of southwestern Mexico City. The shopping mall focuses on luxury retailers; the project is 400,000 square metres in area of which 100,000 square metres of office space, 65,000 square metres of commercial space and 5,000 square metres of park space, on a lot of 50,500 square metres. It features a gallery of large-scale installations of public art, was designed by Sordo Madaleno Arquitectos. Tenants include luxury retailers Louis Vuitton, Hermes, Prada and Cartier, as well as Hamley's toys, Roche Bobois West Elm, Cinemex multicinemas, Mexico's first Starbucks Reserve Bar. No major department stores anchor the mall. On July 12, 2018, a constituent building of the mall collapsed. Public art featured includes Forever by Ai Weiwei, De la rotonda a la fuente. 5 colores para México, trabajo in situ. México 2018. Homenaje al Arquitecto Manuel Tolsá by Daniel Buren, Quisco sonoro by Tania Candiani