Southampton Airport is an international airport in Southampton, Hampshire in the United Kingdom. The airport borders the Borough of Eastleigh and is 3.5 nautical miles north-north-east of central Southampton. The airport handled nearly two million passengers during 2016, an 8.8% increase compared with 2015, making it the 18th busiest airport in the UK. Southampton Airport has a CAA Public Use Aerodrome Licence that allows flights for the public transport of passengers or for flying instruction; the airport is owned and operated by AGS Airports which owns and operates Aberdeen and Glasgow Airports. It was owned and operated by Heathrow Airport Holdings; the airport's runway is built over the remains of a Roman villa. It was excavated in May 1925 but the villa had been robbed of much of its material; the site's connection with aviation began in 1910 when pioneer pilot Edwin Rowland Moon used the meadows belonging to North Stoneham Farm as a take-off and landing spot for his monoplane, Moonbeam Mk II.
During the World War I, when forces from the United States Navy arrived in 1917, work on the building of hangars began. At the peak of the American presence, some 4,000 officers and men were billeted in tents and huts along the adjacent London to Southampton railway line. After that war, the site became a transit camp for refugees Russian, who wished to sail to America from the port of Southampton. Shipping companies Cunard and White Star Line, together with the Canadian Pacific Railway, formed the Atlantic Park Hostel Company to house them temporarily. In 1921 the hangars were converted into dormitories and dining rooms; the hostel was intended to be a short-term clearing house for those trans-migrants changing ships, but following changes to United States immigration law which restricted entry under national origins quotas, some residents were forced to stay much longer. In 1924 about 980 Ukrainian Jewish would-be emigrants were cared for at the hostel; some of them were still there seven years stranded between the US and UK which would not accept them, unable to return the countries they had fled.
Atlantic Park had a school and synagogue. At the height of its use 20,000 passed through Atlantic Park in 1928 but numbers started to fall away, leading to the closure of the hostel in 1931. In 1932 Southampton Corporation purchased the site and it became Southampton Municipal Airport. By 1935, part of the site was being used by the RAF and was known as RAF Eastleigh before it became RAF Southampton in 1936; the military site was transferred to naval command in 1939 and renamed HMS Raven, spent most of the war in a ground and air training role for the Royal Navy. It passed back into civilian ownership in April 1946. During the 1950s a mainstay of business for the airport was the cross-channel car ferry service operated by Silver City Airways using Bristol Freighters and Superfreighters. In 1959 Southampton Airport was purchased by racing pilot J. N.'Nat' Somers, who laid the foundation for the regional airport that exists today by building the concrete runway in 1963 and negotiating with British Rail to build Southampton Airport Parkway railway station next to the airport.
Somers worked with the Department of Transport to plan for the then-new M27 motorway to pass through the airport just south of the runway and north of Ford's plant, at the same time installing a major roundabout outside the airport. This forward-thinking programme encouraged most of the airlines at Bournemouth Hurn to move to Southampton in the mid-1960s. Somers' company sold the airport to Peter de Savary in 1988, who a few years sold it to the owners of London Heathrow. In 1936 Supermarine opened a test flight facility on the site, followed shortly thereafter by the opening of the Cunliffe-Owen Aircraft factory on the southern end of the runway. Both companies closed their Southampton operations, Supermarine moving flying activities to Chilbolton, the Cunliffe-Owen factory being acquired by Briggs Motor Bodies during 1949–1951 who were taken over by Ford in 1953; the Cierva Autogiro Company rented portions of the Cunliffe-Owen plants from 1946, had to move to another location on the field when it was acquired by Briggs.
In 1951 Saunders-Roe took over the interests of Cierva Autogyro and built a rotor testing building on the eastern side of the airfield, now derelict. They continued operations on the field until about 1960. Southampton Airport has one main ground handler, who took over from Aviance, they handle all passenger services and ramp operations for all airlines except for Aurigny Air services who operate their own ground handling. In 2010, the airport arranged a series of events to commemorate the 100th anniversary of the first flight at the airport. In October 2014, Heathrow Airport Holdings reached an agreement to sell the airport, together with those at Glasgow and Aberdeen, for £1 billion to AGS Airports, a consortium of Ferrovial and Macquarie Group. In 2016 the airport won the Airport of the Year award of the European Regional Airlines Association, having demonstrated extraordinary involvement with the local community and reducing its carbon footprint, whilst growing and expanding in a competitive market.
The first test flight of the Supermarine Spitfire took place at the airport on 5 March 1936, an event commemorated in 2004 by the erection of a near-full size sculpture of K5054, the prototype Spitfire, at the road entrance. On 5 March 2006, five restored Spitfires took off from Southampton Airport to commemorate the 70th anniversary of the f
The Fokker 50 is a turboprop-powered airliner, designed as a refinement of and successor to the successful Fokker F27 Friendship. The Fokker 60 is a stretched freighter version of the Fokker 50. Both aircraft were supported by Dutch aircraft manufacturer Fokker; the Fokker 50 was developed during the early 1980s following a decline in the sales of the company's earlier F27 Friendship. It was decided that the new airliner would be a derivative of its predecessor, sharing much of its airframe and design features, while incorporating new advances and several improvements, such as the adoption of Pratt & Whitney Canada PW127B turboprop engines, in order to produce a successor that had a 30 per cent reduction in fuel consumption over the F27; the Fokker 50 performed its maiden flight on 28 December 1985, entered revenue service during 1987. The Fokker 60 has been operated by the Royal Netherlands Air Force, ex-RNLAF aircraft are in service with the Peruvian Naval Aviation and the Republic of China's Air Force.
By the early 1980s, the Dutch aircraft manufacturer Fokker, who had identified that sales of the Fokker F27 Friendship, a turboprop-powered airliner, in continual production since 1958, were beginning to decline. Accordingly, the company decided to conduct a series of design studies for follow-up products to the key elements of their existing product line, these being the centered around the F27 and the Fokker F28 Fellowship jet airliner. In November 1983, Fokker decided to commence simultaneous work on two development projects to develop a pair of new airliners - these being the Fokker 100, to succeed the F28, the Fokker 50, the successor to the F27; the Fokker 50 programme suffered some delays, leading to the first aircraft being delivered more than a year following the final F27 delivery. The Fokker 50 was an amalgamation of various refinements and improvements, made to the design of the F27 Friendship; as a result of these modifications, such as the adoption of Pratt & Whitney Canada PW127B turboprop engines, Fokker was able to progressively reduce the F27's fuel consumption by 30 per cent.
Various different propeller designs were adopted over timespan of the aircraft's production, while an increasing proportion of composite materials were used in the airframe, adjustments to the wing design, a higher degree of cockpit automation were areas of major advances of the Fokker 50 over its predecessor. Fokker partnered with several companies to manufacture portions of the Fokker 50. A pair of prototypes, derived from F27 airframes, were produced. In 1987, certification of the Fokker 50 by the Dutch aviation authority RLD was completed, the first production aircraft was subsequently delivered to German airline DLT Luftverkehrsgesellschaft mbH. DLT and Ansett Airlines of Australia served as the airliner's launch customers. During 1994, Fokker had been incurring sizable losses on its operations, which led to cuts in the output of the Fokker 50 and threatened its long term viability. During early 1995, the firm embarked upon a major restructuring programme, including efforts to renegotiate prices with its suppliers, in what was viewed by aerospace publication Flight International as a last-ditch effort to save the company in its current form.
By July 1995, Fokker was in negotiations with the Dutch government over the terms for a potential bailout of the company as losses continued to mount. Fokker's owner, Daimler-Benz Aerospace AG, had agreed to provide a rescue deal for the company, but this was contingent upon Dutch government participation. In March 1996, production of the Fokker 50 was terminated as a consequence of Fokker itself having been forced into a state of bankruptcy; the financial difficulties suffered by the firm had been in part caused by the massive cost overruns, incurred on both the Fokker 50 and Fokker 100, as well as due to intense competition within the regional airliner sector that Fokker had designed and marketed these aircraft towards, which had not been helped by delays to the program in the face of multiple modern competitors in the form of the Saab 340, ATR 42 and Bombardier Dash 8. Despite repeated increases cost-efficiency of production realised within the final 12 months of production, these did not prove enough to save the company.
During 1997, as a result of the company having entered into liquidation, the final Fokker 50 aircraft was delivered that year. By the end of the program, a total of 213 Fokker 50s had been completed; as early as May 1996, proposals for the partial or complete restart of production of the type were mooted, amongst these being interest from Indian aerospace firm Hindustan Aeronautics Limited in establishing a Fokker 50 assembly line in India, however these did not come about. In 1996, Fokker Services was established. By August 2006, a total of 171 Fokker 50 aircraft remained within airline service; some 27 other airlines including Air Astana operated smaller numbers of the type. Between March 2013 and September 2014, a pair of F
SkyTeam is an airline alliance. Founded in June 2000, SkyTeam was the last of the three major airline alliances to be formed, the first two being Star Alliance and Oneworld; as of January 2019, SkyTeam consists of 19 carriers from five continents and operates with the slogan "Caring more about you". It operates a cargo alliance named SkyTeam Cargo, which partners ten carriers, all of them SkyTeam members, its centralised management team, SkyTeam Central, is based at the World Trade Center Schiphol Airport on the grounds of Amsterdam Airport Schiphol in Haarlemmermeer, Netherlands. In 2004, the alliance had its biggest expansion when Continental Airlines, Northwest Airlines and KLM joined as full members. In 2010, the alliance celebrated its 10th anniversary with the introduction of a special livery, the joining or upgrading status of four airlines, followed by the announcements of Aerolíneas Argentinas, China Airlines, Garuda Indonesia to become full members. In January 2011, incorporated both Saudi Arabian Airlines and Middle East Airlines during 2012.
Garuda Indonesia entered the alliance in March 2014. As of November 2018, SkyTeam flies to more than 1,000 destinations in more than 170 countries and operates more than 17,000 daily flights; the alliance and its members have 750 lounges worldwide. On 22 June 2000, representatives of Aeroméxico, Air France, Delta Air Lines and Korean Air held a meeting in New York to found a third airline alliance; these became the four founding carriers of SkyTeam. Upon its formation, SkyTeam would offer its customers a total of 6,402 daily flights to 451 destinations in 98 countries. In September 2000, the alliance established SkyTeam Cargo; the group's inaugural members were Aeromexpress, Air France Cargo, Delta Air Logistics and Korean Air Cargo. The following month, the newly established airline alliance announced its intentions to incorporate CSA Czech Airlines as the 5th member in April the following year; the alliance saw the joining of CSA Czech Airlines on 25 March 2001. On 30 September 2001, the alliance received KLM's application for membership, following the airline's plans to create a leading airline group with Air France.
In 2003, Delta's subsidiary, Delta Express, was replaced by Song. That same year, SkyTeam launched an improved website focused on providing passengers with more information, increased interactivity and other resources. On 24 May 2004, the flag carrier and principal airline of Russia, signed a Memorandum of Understanding with SkyTeam as it intended to become a full member; the event took place in Kremlin following the airline's application earlier in the year for membership. SkyTeam expressed that Aeroflot has not met the consortium's standards, but that the airline's large hub networks made it ideal for the alliance, made up for its deficiencies. On 28 August, China Southern Airlines, the largest carrier in the People's Republic of China, signed a preliminary agreement in Guangzhou in its bid to become a full member. In the presence of a number of Chinese and airline officials, Yan Zhiqing, the chairman of China Southern Airlines, said, "This agreement-signing event is an important step forward into the future for China Southern Airlines to adapt itself to the need of further reforms and opening to the international community, as it will strengthen the airline's international cooperation and global competitiveness."
On 13 September, KLM and Northwest Airlines joined the alliance. Their simultaneous entry was the largest expansion event in airline alliance history; as a result of the three new members, SkyTeam surpassed Oneworld to become the second largest airline alliance, serving more than 341 million customers with 14,320 daily flights to 658 destinations in 130 countries. Though member CSA Czech Airlines pledged to help Malév Hungarian Airlines become an associate member of the alliance, Malév Hungarian Airlines opted to join the Oneworld airline alliance, signing a Memorandum of Understanding late in May. A few days SkyTeam announced four new associate members due to join by 2006, each one being "sponsored" by an existing member: Madrid-based Air Europa, Panama-based Copa Airlines, Kenya Airways and Romania's TAROM; every associate adopted a frequent-flyer program of a full member: Copa Airlines used Continental's OnePass. Following a 23-month joining process since May 2004, Aeroflot joined on 14 April 2006.
It was the first Russian airline to be associated with any airline alliance. Aeroflot has increased its operational standards, passing International Air Transport Association's Operational Safety Audit. Delta's subsidiary Song continued to operate as Delta Air Lines. In June, it was announced that Portugália would become the alliance's next associate member candidate. However, in November, rival airline and Star Alliance member TAP Air Portugal, purchased 99.81% of the airline, bringing a sudden end to its candidacy. On 4 September 2007, Air Europa and Copa Airlines, Kenya Airways became members of SkyTeam's Associate program, launched to serve airlines in strategic regions which intended to become affiliated with the alliance. China Southern Airlines jo
The Fokker 70 is a narrow-body, twin-engined, medium-range, turbofan regional airliner produced by Fokker as a smaller version of the Fokker 100. Both the F70 and F100 were preceded by the first jet airliner manufactured by Fokker, the Fokker F28 Fellowship. Since its first flight in 1993, 47 aircraft, plus one prototype, have been manufactured and 23 are still in active service with airlines around the world; the Fokker company of the Netherlands started to develop the airliner in November 1992 with an aim to replace its aging Fokker F28 airliner, with a more modern and fuel efficient aircraft. The Fokker 70's first flight occurred on 4 April 1993, at the company's base at Woensdrecht in southern Netherlands, had a duration of three hours. Following its first flight, the Fokker 70 was flown to Granada and Spain, where many hours were logged in order to obtain the certification at the end of 1994; the first production aircraft first flew in July 1994. Certification was granted on 14 October 1994, while the first delivery of a Fokker 70 to a customer, Ford Motor Company, occurred in the same month.
The launch customer of this aircraft by an airline was the now-defunct Indonesian airline, Sempati Air. The development of the Fokker 70 was based on the requirements of some airlines, for which the Fokker 50 or ATR 42 were too small and the Boeing 737 or MD-80 too large; the development consisted in cutting various sections of the fuselage of the Fokker 100, removing 4.62 metres of the plane's total length but keeping the wings and tail. With these specifications, total capacity is 80 passengers, 70 in the U. S. due more to meet "scope clause" requirements than any Federal Aviation Administration certification. The Fokker 70 is powered by two Rolls-Royce Tay 620 turbofans placed at the back of the fuselage, with 61.6 kN of thrust. The weight varies from 22,673 kilograms. An airbrake on the 70's tail section – similar to that found on the BAe 146 – allows it to conform with the 5.5° glide slope at London City Airport. Its avionics suite is similar to the Fokker 100. Most Fokker 70 aircraft were delivered for service in Europe, but in 1995 two aircraft were delivered to Mesa Air subsidiary Desert Sun Airlines and were operated as America West Express flights as part of an effort to try to introduce the Fokker 70 to the United States.
Although the earlier Fokker 100 did moderately well in the United States with orders from American Airlines and USAir, only two aircraft of the Fokker 70 variant were delivered for service in the United States. Fokker's March 1996 bankruptcy ended any hopes of further production for the U. S. market. The last Fokker 70 was delivered in April 1997, when the production line closed following Fokker's bankruptcy the previous year. Over the 70's short production life, 47 were built. Although official production of the Fokker 70 is completed, Rekkof has, since 1999, tried to negotiate the re-opening of both the Fokker 100 and Fokker 70 lines; as of July 2018, 26 aircraft are in service with 7 airlines and 2 governments: Air Niugini Alliance Airlines Fly All Ways TransNusa Air Services Tus Airways Wayraperú PNG AIR Government of Kenya Myanmar Air Force Data from airliners.net, aer.ita.br, flyfokker.com, flugzeuginfo.netGeneral characteristics Crew: two Capacity: 85 79 72 Length: 30.91 m Wingspan: 28.08 m Width: 3.30 m Height: 8.5 m Empty weight: 22.673 kg Powerplant: 2 × Rolls-Royce Tay 620, 61.6 kN thrust eachPerformance Cruising speed: 845 km/h Range: 3,410 km Service ceiling: 11,000 m Armament On 5 January 2004 at 08:17 local time, an Austrian Airlines Fokker 70 crash-landed in a snow-covered field near Munich Airport.
The aircraft had been operating Flight 111 from Vienna to Munich with 28 passengers and four crew on board, when its engines failed during landing descent due to icing. The aircraft was damaged, however only three passengers suffered minor injuries. Related development Fokker F28 Fellowship Fokker 100Aircraft of comparable role and era Antonov An-148 BAe 146 Bombardier CRJ700/900 Embraer E-170/175 Fairchild Dornier 728 family Related lists List of jet airliners List of civil aircraft Fokker Services homepage Netherlands Aircraft Company Fokker 130 Project
Kristiansand Airport, Kjevik
Kristiansand Airport, Kjevik is an international airport serving the city of Kristiansand in Vest-Agder county, Norway. The airport is located in the district of Tveit in the Oddernes borough, about 16 kilometers by road and 8 kilometers by air from the city center of Kristiansand. Operated by the state-owned Avinor, it is the sole airport in Southern Norway with scheduled flights. Kjevik has a 2,035-meter runway aligned 03/21 and served 1,065,615 passengers in 2013. Scheduled flights are provided by Scandinavian Airlines, Norwegian Air Shuttle, Widerøe, KLM Cityhopper and Wizz Air; the Royal Norwegian Air Force has a training center at the airport. Kjevik opened on 1 June 1939, as the joint second airport in the country. During the Second World War it was occupied and expanded by the Luftwaffe. Kristiansand's southerly location caused the airport to receive several international routes during the early years, as well as domestic services. Braathens SAFE served domestic services from 1955 to its demise in 2004.
KLM flew until 1971. The terminal received major extensions in 1955, 1979, 1994 and 2015. New control towers were built in 1966 and 2013. Kjevik was the base for Sørfly from 1946 to 1962, for Agderfly from 1969 to 2004, for FlyNonstop in 2013; the first airport in Kristiansand was a water aerodrome situated in the city center. It was built by the Royal Norwegian Navy Air Service in 1918. A government commission recommended on 21 October 1920 that Kristiansand receive a water airport as part of a nationwide investment program. However, nothing came of the plans for more than a decade. Moving of the military water aerodrome was proposed several times, although this was never carried out before the construction of Kjevik. Locally the initiative for an airport in Kristiansand was launched by Mayor Andreas Kjær in 1933; the city council sent a formal application to the government in August 1934 asking for an airport. That summer Widerøe commenced flights to Kristiansand along a coastal route from Oslo to Haugesund.
Norwegian Air Lines commenced a coastal seaplane route along the southern coast from Oslo to Bergen via Kristiansand on 9 June 1935. This service used an aerodrome at Kongsgårdbukta; the government stated in 1935 that it planned on building a main airport for Agder – Kristiansand and Arendal were all proposed as suitable hosts. The government concluded that Kristiansand was the most suitable, based on traffic and financial considerations. Several locations were considered. Kongsgårdbakken was selected; the municipality and the state formalized construction in April 1936, where the former would provide the land and the construction costs of NOK 2.4 million would be split. Construction commenced soon afterwards. Meanwhile, a group started looking at Kjevik as a suitable site, led by aviator Bernt Balchen, industrialist Rolf Petersen and Lawyer Hartmann, they agreed prices for purchase of lands. Based on this Kristiansand Municipal Council accepted on 5 August 1936 to reconsider Kjevik. Kjevik was passed in the council on 30 September 1937 with 34 against 26 votes.
Construction was contracted to Høyer-Ellefsen. The same year the Norwegian Army Air Service used the fields at Kjevik for training; the airport consisted of a 1,000-by-40-meter concrete runway connected to the apron with a 12-meter wide taxiway. A small, wooden terminal building was built of a shed and a nearby residential house was used as a restaurant. Seaplanes were served with a slipway. Kjevik opened on the same day as Oslo Airport, Fornebu; the first aircraft to land was a Douglas DC-2 of KLM. They started an international route from Oslo via Kristiansand to Amsterdam, while Danish Air Lines operated to Copenhagen. DNL opened a domestic seaplane route from Oslo via Kristiansand to Sola. Kjevik was captured by the Luftwaffe during the German invasion on 9 April 1940; the first aircraft landed at Kjevik as an emergency landing on the first day of the invasion. It was used by Junkers Ju 52 transport aircraft, flying in troops. From 11 April a squadron of Messerschmitt Bf 109s were stationed at Kjevik.
Luftwaffe started upgrading the aerodrome. They began followed by an extension of the runway. Tveit was transformed with military structures built throughout the village. In the east a minefield was laid and several fuel tanks were built around the airfield. Two large hangars were built, along with a large number of sheds. In the course of the war the runway was extended to 1,580 meters; the German military planned a large expansion of the airport from 1945, which would have included new aprons and would have obliterated the village. These plans were halted by the end of the war. Kjevik was taken over by the Royal Air Force in May 1945, they started the work of mine sweeping and disarming the armaments and general clean-up of the aerodrome. It was transferred to civilian use; the Air Force's Aircraft-Technical School and the Weapon-Technical School moved to Kjevik in February 1946. The latter moved to Lista Air Station two years later; the upgraded facilities resulted in Kristiansand Municipality wanted to rid itself of the responsibility and cost of running the airport.
The city council passed a resolution of 9 December 1946 offering the airport free of charge to the state. This was approved by Parliament on 20 June 1947; the same year the aviation club Kjevik Flyklubb was established. On 6 March 1946 KLM resumed its route, flying from Oslo via Kristiansand to Amst
The Boeing 737 is an American short- to medium-range twinjet narrow-body airliner developed and manufactured by Boeing Commercial Airplanes. Developed as a shorter, lower-cost twin-engine airliner derived from the 707 and 727, the 737 has developed into a family of thirteen passenger models with capacities from 85 to 215 passengers; the 737 is Boeing's only narrow-body airliner in production, with the 737 Next Generation and the re-engined and updated 737 MAX variants. The 737 was envisioned in 1964; the initial 737-100 made its first flight in April 1967, entered airline service in February 1968 with Lufthansa. Next, the lengthened 737-200 entered service in April 1968. In the 1980s Boeing launched the longer 737-300, -400, -500 variants featuring CFM56 turbofan engines and wing improvements; the Boeing 737 Next Generation was introduced in the 1990s, with a redesigned, increased span wing, upgraded "glass" cockpit, new interior. The 737 NG comprises the 737-600, -700, -800, -900 variants, with lengths ranging from 31.09 to 42.06 m.
Boeing Business Jet versions of the 737 NG are produced. The 737 was revised again in the 2010s for greater efficiency, with the 737 MAX series featuring CFM LEAP-1B engines and improved winglets; the 737 MAX entered service in 2017 but, after a successful start, was grounded worldwide in March 2019 following two fatal crashes. The 737 series is the highest-selling commercial jetliner in history; the 737 has been continuously manufactured since 1967. Assembly of the 737 is performed at the Boeing Renton Factory in Washington. Many 737s serve markets filled by 707, 727, 757, DC-9, MD-80/MD-90 airliners, the aircraft competes with the Airbus A320 family; as of 2006, there were an average of 1,250 Boeing 737s airborne at any given time, with two either departing or landing somewhere every five seconds. Boeing had been studying short-haul jet aircraft designs, wanted to produce another aircraft to supplement the 727 on short and thin routes. Preliminary design work began on May 11, 1964, Boeing's intense market research yielded plans for a 50- to 60-passenger airliner for routes 50 to 1,000 mi long.
Initial design featured podded engines on the aft fuselage and a T-tail like the 727, five-abreast seating, but engineer Joe Sutter instead placed the engines under the wings to lighten the structure, enabling fuselage widening for six-abreast seating. The 737 design was presented in October 1964 at the Air Transport Association maintenance and engineering conference by chief project engineer Jack Steiner, where its elaborate high-lift devices raised concerns about maintenance costs and dispatch reliability; the launch decision for the $150 million development was made by the board on February 1, 1965. Lufthansa became the launch customer on February 19, 1965, with an order for 21 aircraft, worth $67 million in 1965, after the airline received assurances from Boeing that the 737 project would not be canceled. Consultation with Lufthansa over the previous winter resulted in an increase in capacity to 100 seats. On April 5, 1965, Boeing announced an order by United Airlines for 40 737s. United wanted a larger airplane than the original 737, so Boeing stretched the fuselage 36 in ahead of, 40 in behind the wing.
The longer version was designated 737-200, with the original short-body aircraft becoming the 737-100. Detailed design work continued on both variants at the same time. Boeing was far behind its competitors. To expedite development, Boeing used 60% of the structure and systems of the existing 727, the most notable being the fuselage cross-section; this fuselage permitted six-abreast seating compared to the rival BAC-111 and DC-9's five-abreast layout. Design engineers decided to mount the nacelles directly to the underside of the wings to reduce the landing gear length and kept the engines low to the ground for easy ramp inspection and servicing. Many thickness variations for the engine attachment strut were tested in the wind tunnel and the most desirable shape for high speed was found to be one, thick, filling the narrow channels formed between the wing and the top of the nacelle on the outboard side; the span arrangement of the airfoil sections of the 737 wing was planned to be similar to that of the 707 and 727, but somewhat thicker.
A substantial improvement in drag at high Mach numbers was achieved by altering these sections near the nacelle. The engine chosen was the Pratt & Whitney JT8D-1 low-bypass ratio turbofan engine, delivering 14,500 lbf thrust. With the wing-mounted engines, Boeing decided to mount the horizontal stabilizer on the fuselage rather than the T-tail style of the Boeing 727; the initial assembly of the Boeing 737 was adjacent to Boeing Field because the factory in Renton was filled to capacity with the production of the 707 and 727. After 271 of the Boeing 737 aircraft were built, production was moved to Renton in late 1970. A significant portion of fuselage assembly—previously done by Boeing in Wichita, Kansas—is now performed by Spirit AeroSystems, which purchased some of Boeing's assets in Wichita. Key to increasing production efficiencies, the entire fuselage is shipped since the 737 Next Generation while it was sent in two pieces before; the fuselage is joined with the wings and landing gear and moves down the assembly line for the engine