KV38 is an ancient Egyptian tomb located in the Valley of the Kings in Egypt. It was used for the reburial of Pharaoh Thutmose I of the Eighteenth dynasty, was where his body was removed to by Thutmose III. Theban Mapping Project: KV38 - Includes detailed maps of most of the tombs
Tomb KV11 is the tomb of Ancient Egyptian Pharaoh Ramesses III. Located in the main valley of the Valley of the Kings, the tomb was started by Setnakhte, but abandoned when it broke into the earlier tomb of Amenmesse. Setnakhte was buried in KV14; the tomb KV11 was restarted and extended and on a different axis for Ramesses III. The tomb has been open since antiquity, has been known variously as Bruce's Tomb and The Harper's Tomb; the 188-metre-long tomb is beautifully decorated. The second corridor is decorated with the Litany of Re. At the end of this corridor the axis of the tomb shifts; this third corridor is decorated with the Book of Gates and the Book of Amduat, leads over a ritual shaft, into a four-pillared hall. This hall is again decorated with the Book of Gates. A fourth corridor (decorated with scenes of the opening of the mouth ceremony and leads into a vestibule, with scenes of the Book of the Dead, into the burial chamber proper; the burial chamber is an eight-pillared hall in. This chamber is decorated with Book of divine scenes and the Book of the Earth.
Beyond this is a further set of annexes, decorated with the Book of Gates. Reeves, N & Wilkinson, R. H; the Complete Valley of the Kings, 1996, Thames and Hudson, London. Siliotti, A. Guide to the Valley of the Kings and to the Theban Necropolises and Temples, 1996, A. A. Gaddis, Cairo. Theban Mapping Project: KV11 - Includes description and plans of the tomb. Images taken from 3d models showing the breakthrough into KV10 from KV11
KV4 is a tomb in the Valley of the Kings. The tomb was initiated for the burial of Ramesses XI but it is that its construction was abandoned and that it was never used for Ramesses's interment, it seems that Pinedjem I intended to usurp this tomb for his own burial, but that he too abandoned the plan. KV4 is notable for being the last royal tomb, quarried in the Valley and because it has been interpreted as being a workshop used during the official dismantling of the royal necropolis in the early Third Intermediate Period. Although KV4 has been open since antiquity and graffito from various ages attest to its popularity as an early tourist attraction it received little scholarly attention until John Romer's clearance in 1978-1980. KV4 is located in one of the valley's side wadis, next to KV46. Running back over 100 metres into the mountainside, it consists of a series of three sloping corridors leading towards the tomb's well chamber and two unfinished, pillared chambers; the latter of these chambers, the burial chamber, features a deep shaft cut into the centre of its floor, foundation deposits of Ramesses XI associated with it might indicate that its cutting was contemporary with the original plan of the tomb.
Decoration was only present on the lintel and jambs of the outer doorway and in the first corridor which has preliminary sketches in red ink on the plastered walls. Part of the decoration in the corridor was damaged in antiquity and was restored by Pinedjem I who replaced the king's names with his own in these restored scenes. Romer's excavation of KV4 brought to light five groups of objects Items originating from KV62: fragmentary items discovered amongst the rubble fill in the corridor of KV62 and sections of the blockings from the inner and outer doorways of that corridor; these include the Head of Nefertem. The presence of these items in KV4 date from the time of Howard Carter's clearance of KV62. Evidence of Coptic activities in the tomb: the remains of a beaten mud floor and a rough stone wall, together with shards of decorated pottery and a Byzantine copper mint. Remains of an intrusive 22nd dynasty burial: found in the shaft of the burial chamber and consisting of bones, fragments of cartonnage and a partial coffin.
This material showed signs of burning and it is that this burial was desecrated during the time of the Coptic presence in the tomb. Fragmentary remains of several New Kingdom royal burials: found in the burial chamber and in the lower levels of the shaft which seems to have been undisturbed since the late New Kingdom; these include fragments of gilded gesso, fragments of wooden panels that are linked stylistically with objects found in KV20 and KV35, fragments of at least one anthropoid coffin from a mid-18th dynasty female ruler, a faience vessel bearing the Horus name shared by Thutmose I and Ramesses II, wooden statue bases, fragments of a foot which matches with a wooden goose found in KV34 and shabtis belonging to Ramesses IV. Foundation deposits of Ramesses XI: these were associated with the shaft in the burial chamber That KV4 was quarried for the burial of Ramesses XI is evident from the decoration in the corridor and the foundation deposits associated with the shaft, it appears however that this plan was abandoned in favour of a burial elsewhere The most explanation for Pinudjem's restoration and the insertion of his cartouche would be that he intended to usurp the tomb at the beginning of his kingship, but this plan too was abandoned for an interment elsewhere in the tomb of Inhapi a tomb, subsequently used to rebury royal mummies from the seventeenth dynasty and the New Kingdom.
These abandoned burial plans are to be associated with the apparent general abandonment of the valley as a royal necropolis and the start of the restoration and reburial of earlier pharaohs during the Wehem Mesut period. After Pinudjem's abandoned usurpation of KV4 it appears the tomb was used as a workshop to process funerary equipment from other royal tombs, most notably the burials of Thutmose I, Thutmose III and Hatshepsut. In this context a link is made between the gilded gesso fragments found in KV4 and the coffin of Thutmose III, found in the DB320 cache; this coffin had been stripped of the major portions of its gilded surface in antiquity and it has been suggested that this stripping was done in KV4. The fact that the individuals involved in these activities went through the time consuming procedure of scraping of the coffin's surface without impairing its basic function as a container for the king's mummy, suggests this was not the work of common tomb robbers; the material recovered from KV4 has therefore been interpreted as evidence for a changed official policy towards the burials in the valley in which they were stripped of valuable commodities in an attempt to safeguard them from tomb robbers by making them less attractive, while at the same time the recovered valuables were used to refill the depleted treasuries of the period.
During the Byzantine period the open tomb was used by Copts as a residence and stable, while during the clearance of KV62 by Howard Carter in the 1920s it was used as a dining area and a storeroom, the latter during the early stages of that clearance before KV15 was made available for that purpose. Theban Mapping Project: KV4 - Includes description and plans of the tomb
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Tomb KV60 in Egypt's Valley of the Kings is one of the more perplexing tombs of the Theban Necropolis, due to the uncertainty over the identity of one female mummy found there, thought by some, such as the noted Egyptologist Elizabeth Thomas, to be that of the Eighteenth Dynasty pharaoh Hatshepsut. This identification has been advocated by Egyptologist Zahi Hawass; when the tomb was discovered by Howard Carter in 1903, it was found to have been ransacked and desecrated in antiquity, but still held two mummies, along with some badly damaged grave goods. In 1906 Edward R. Ayrton reopened it, removed one mummy, KV60B, together with the coffin it was in, to the Egyptian Museum; the coffin was inscribed with the title royal nurse, In. This personage has been identified with Sit-Ra, called In, the royal nurse of Hatshepsut. Since neither Carter nor Ayrton drew plans or maps indicating the location of the tomb, the whereabouts of the tomb became forgotten. Elizabeth Thomas speculated that the second mummy was that of Hatshepsut, relocated there by Thutmose III, as part of his campaign of official hostility towards her.
In 1990 the tomb was rediscovered and properly excavated by a team led by Donald P. Ryan and Mark Papworth; this produced evidence both in favour of, casting doubt on, Thomas' theory. On the supporting side, the mummy proved to be that of a elderly lady, with her left arm flexed in the pose thought to mark a royal mummy. On the other hand, none of the pottery fragments recovered during the excavation could be dated to the 18th Dynasty. A wooden face-piece from a coffin destined for a male was found – but the tomb contained only females, Hatshepsut is known to have used the false beard; the mummy was placed in a new wooden coffin, left in the tomb, resealed. In early 2007, the tomb was reopened and the second mummy, KV60A, removed for testing. On 27 June 2007, Supreme Council of Antiquities director Zahi Hawass offered what he considered to be definitive proof that this "corpulent, elderly" body was indeed Hatshepsut; the mummy was found by CT scan to have one root of a missing molar. An unopened canopic box bearing the royal name of Hapshetsut was found by CT scan to contain a molar with one root missing.
The size and shape of the root remaining in the mummy is claimed to fit the molar in the canopic box. Doubts have been cast by, for example, Egyptology writer Dylan Bickerstaffe, he wrote about the molar, soon after the attribution was made, that "it is important that the join with the root in the mouth of the mummy is physically corroborated. DNA tests should also be able to confirm that the tooth and KV60A are one and the same person." In a 2013 book, science journalist Jo Marchant reported:Most Egyptologists I’ve spoken to are skeptical that this mummy has anything to do with Hatshepsut, say they would like to study the team’s evidence. Neither the CT scans nor the DNA results have yet been published in a scientific journal. Notes Further reading Nicholas Reeves and Richard H. Wilkinson, The Complete Valley of the Kings pp. 186–187. Donald P. Ryan, "Who is buried in KV60", KMT 1:1, 1990. Siliotti, A. Guide to the Valley of the Kings and to the Theban Necropolises and Temples, 1996, A. A. Gaddis, Cairo.
Theban Mapping Project: KV60 – Plans of the tomb and other details. Donald Ryan's site – Contains photos of the mummy he found in KV60. Unidentified Mummies – More pictures and information on the mummies
Tomb KV3, located in Egypt's Valley of the Kings, was intended for the burial of an unidentified son of Pharaoh Ramesses III during the early part of the Twentieth Dynasty. It is similar in design to the "straight axis" tombs typical of this dynasty, an ostracon written in hieratic script from the time of Ramesses III mentions the founding of a tomb for a royal prince this tomb; the unfinished state of a couple of rooms in the tomb along with scant archeological evidence suggests that the tomb was never used. Some have suggested that it was intended for use by the prince regent who would succeed as Ramesses IV, who started building his own tomb soon after he came to the throne. In terms of its design it follows that used for tombs in the Valley of the Queens, its size reflects the effort that would have gone into burying a member of the royal family. Past the entrance to the tomb KV3 descends any further, a particular feature for other tombs built for other sons of Ramesses III in the Valley of the Queens.
There are two corridors which lead from the opening to the tomb, with the second passage flanked near the end by two chambers. Of these two chambers, only the one facing south was finished, the other one being only just begun when work on the tomb was abandoned. Past the second corridor is a larger room containing four pillars, flanked by two smaller rooms; the tomb is located on the main path, close to the entrance to the Valley. Only the side chamber to the north was finished, with work on the second one only just begun when work stopped. Past this room and running along the same axis as the corridor are three further rooms, the first two of which have vaulted ceilings. One of these two final vaulted chambers was intended as a burial chamber; the tomb is located on the main path, close to the entrance to the Valley. What tomb decoration that survives can be found only along the length and flanking gates on either end of corridor B; these show Rameses III attended by various gods and goddesses.
It is thought that more decoration once existed, since Karl Lepsius noted traces of paint on the vaulted chambers and mentions cartouches and images of Ramesses III in the first corridor when he visited the tomb in the 1840s. There is evidence. Though open since Ancient times, the tomb was only properly excavated in 1912 by archeologist Harry Burton, funded by the wealthy American lawyer Theodore M. Davis, it was one of the last excavations funded by Davis, no report of this excavation work was published. Reeves, N & Wilkinson, R. H; the Complete Valley of the Kings, 1996, Thames and Hudson, London Siliotti, A. Guide to the Valley of the Kings and to the Theban Necropolises and Temples, 1996, A. A. Gaddis, Cairo Theban Mapping Project: KV3 - Includes description and plan of the tomb
Tomb KV43 is the tomb of Pharaoh Thutmose IV in the Valley of the Kings in Luxor, Egypt. It has typical of the layout of early 18th Dynasty tombs. KV43 was rediscovered in 1903 by Howard Carter. Located high in the cliffs above the valley floor, it had been spared the extensive flood-water damage suffered by other tombs, its wall decorations are very well preserved; the pharaoh's outer stone sarcophagus is still in place in the burial chamber. Two of the pharaoh's children, Prince Amenemhat and Princess Tentamun were buried here. Theban Mapping Project: KV43 - Includes detailed maps of the tomb