Niʻihau is the westernmost and seventh largest inhabited island in Hawaiʻi. It is 17.5 miles southwest of Kauaʻi across the Kaulakahi Channel. Its area is 69.5 square miles. Several intermittent playa lakes provide wetland habitats for the Hawaiian coot, the Hawaiian stilt, the Hawaiian duck; the island is designated as critical habitat for Brighamia insignis, an endemic and endangered species of Hawaiian lobelioid. The United States Census Bureau defines Niʻihau and the neighboring island and State Seabird Sanctuary of Lehua as Census Tract 410 of Kauai County, Hawaii, its 2000 census population was 160. Elizabeth Sinclair purchased Niʻihau in 1864 for $10,000 from the Kingdom of Hawaii and private ownership passed on to her descendants, the Robinson family. During World War II, the island was the site of the Niʻihau Incident: A Japanese navy fighter pilot crashed on the island and terrorized its residents for a week after the attack on Pearl Harbor; the people of Niʻihau are known for their gemlike lei pūpū craftsmanship, speak Hawaiian as a primary language.
The island is off-limits to all but the Robinson family and their relatives, U. S. Navy personnel, government officials, invited guests, giving it the nickname "The Forbidden Isle". Beginning in 1987, a limited number of supervised activity tours and hunting safaris have opened to tourists; the island is managed by brothers Bruce Robinson and Keith Robinson. Niʻihau is located about 18 miles west of Kauaʻi, the tiny, uninhabited island of Lehua lies 0.7 miles north of Niʻihau. Niʻihau's dimensions are 6.2 miles by 18.6 miles. The maximum elevation is 1,280 feet; the island is about 4.9 million years old, making it geologically younger than the 5-million-year-old neighboring island of Kauaʻi to the northeast. Niʻihau consists of one extinct volcano; the island is arid because it lies in the rain shadow of Kauaʻi, lacks the elevation needed to catch significant amounts of trade wind rainfall. Niʻihau therefore depends for its rain on winter Kona storms, when more northerly weather systems intrude into the region.
As such, the island is subject to long periods of drought. Historical droughts on Niʻihau have been recorded several times, one in 1792 by Captain James Cook's former junior officer, George Vancouver, told that the people of Niʻihau had abandoned the island because of a severe drought and had moved to Kauaʻi to escape famine; as an arid island, Niʻihau was barren of trees for centuries — Captain James Cook reported it treeless in 1778. Aubrey Robinson, grandfather of current owners Bruce Robinson and Keith Robinson, planted 10,000 trees per year during much of his ownership of the island. Island co-owner Keith Robinson, a noted conservationist and documented many of Niʻihau's natural plant resources; the island is designated as a critical habitat for the ʻōlulu, an endemic and endangered species of Hawaiian lobelioid. Aylmer robinsonii, a Pritchardia palm tree named for Keith Robinson's uncle Aylmer Robinson, is an endangered species native to Niʻihau. Several bird species thrive on Niʻihau; the largest lakes on the island are Halulu Lake and Nonopapa Lake.
These intermittent playa lakes on the island provide wetland habitats for the ʻalae keʻokeʻo, the āeʻo, the koloa maoli. The critically endangered Hawaiian monk seal is found in high numbers on Niʻihau's shores. Robinson states that Niʻihau's secluded shoreline offers them a safe haven from habitat encroachments. According to Robinson, conditions there are better than the government refuges of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands; when the Robinsons purchased Niʻihau, no monk seals were present, because they lived in the northwestern part of the Hawaiian island chain and Midway islands. They have been relocated to the main Hawaiian island chain by NOAA fisheries over the past thirty years, some have found homes on Niʻihau. Big game herds, imported from stock on Molokaʻi Ranch in recent years, roam Niʻihau's forests and flatlands. Eland and aoudad are abundant, along with wild boars and feral sheep; these big game herds provide income from hunting safari tourism. Prior to the unification of the Kingdom of Hawaii under Kamehameha I, Niʻihau was ruled by the aliʻi.
Kahelelani was the first of the Niʻihau aliʻi. His name is now used to refer to the Niʻihau kahelelani, the puka shell of the wart turbans, used to make exquisite Niʻihau shell jewelry. Kāʻeokūlani was a ruler of northern Niʻihau who unified the island after defeating his rival, a chief named Kawaihoa. A stone wall across a quarter of the island's southern end marked the boundaries of the two chiefs: Kāʻeo's land was identified by black stones and Kawaihoa's by white stones. A great battle took place, known as Pali Kamakaui. Kāʻeo's two brothers from the island of Maui and his half-brother Kahekili II, the King of Maui, fought for Kāʻeo and Niʻihau was united under his rule. Kawaihoa was banished to the south end of the island and Kāʻeo moved to the middle of the island to govern. Kāʻeo married the Queen Kamakahelei and a future king of Niʻihau and Kauaʻi named Kaumualiʻi was born in 1790. Kauaʻi and Niʻihau are said to have carried the "highest blood lines" in the Hawaiian Islands. Kamehameha managed to unify all of the islands by 1795, except for Kauaʻi and Niʻihau: Two attempts to conquer those islands had failed, Kamehameha lost many men: bodies covered the beaches on Kauaʻi's eastern shores.
United States Navy
The United States Navy is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States. It is the largest and most capable navy in the world and it has been estimated that in terms of tonnage of its active battle fleet alone, it is larger than the next 13 navies combined, which includes 11 U. S. allies or partner nations. With the highest combined battle fleet tonnage and the world's largest aircraft carrier fleet, with eleven in service, two new carriers under construction. With 319,421 personnel on active duty and 99,616 in the Ready Reserve, the Navy is the third largest of the service branches, it has 282 deployable combat vessels and more than 3,700 operational aircraft as of March 2018, making it the second-largest air force in the world, after the United States Air Force. The U. S. Navy traces its origins to the Continental Navy, established during the American Revolutionary War and was disbanded as a separate entity shortly thereafter.
The U. S. Navy played a major role in the American Civil War by blockading the Confederacy and seizing control of its rivers, it played the central role in the World War II defeat of Imperial Japan. The US Navy emerged from World War II as the most powerful navy in the world; the 21st century U. S. Navy maintains a sizable global presence, deploying in strength in such areas as the Western Pacific, the Mediterranean, the Indian Ocean, it is a blue-water navy with the ability to project force onto the littoral regions of the world, engage in forward deployments during peacetime and respond to regional crises, making it a frequent actor in U. S. foreign and military policy. The Navy is administratively managed by the Department of the Navy, headed by the civilian Secretary of the Navy; the Department of the Navy is itself a division of the Department of Defense, headed by the Secretary of Defense. The Chief of Naval Operations is the most senior naval officer serving in the Department of the Navy.
The mission of the Navy is to maintain and equip combat-ready Naval forces capable of winning wars, deterring aggression and maintaining freedom of the seas. The U. S. Navy is a seaborne branch of the military of the United States; the Navy's three primary areas of responsibility: The preparation of naval forces necessary for the effective prosecution of war. The maintenance of naval aviation, including land-based naval aviation, air transport essential for naval operations, all air weapons and air techniques involved in the operations and activities of the Navy; the development of aircraft, tactics, technique and equipment of naval combat and service elements. U. S. Navy training manuals state that the mission of the U. S. Armed Forces is "to be prepared to conduct prompt and sustained combat operations in support of the national interest." As part of that establishment, the U. S. Navy's functions comprise sea control, power projection and nuclear deterrence, in addition to "sealift" duties, it follows as certain as that night succeeds the day, that without a decisive naval force we can do nothing definitive, with it, everything honorable and glorious.
Naval power... is the natural defense of the United States The Navy was rooted in the colonial seafaring tradition, which produced a large community of sailors and shipbuilders. In the early stages of the American Revolutionary War, Massachusetts had its own Massachusetts Naval Militia; the rationale for establishing a national navy was debated in the Second Continental Congress. Supporters argued that a navy would protect shipping, defend the coast, make it easier to seek out support from foreign countries. Detractors countered that challenging the British Royal Navy the world's preeminent naval power, was a foolish undertaking. Commander in Chief George Washington resolved the debate when he commissioned the ocean-going schooner USS Hannah to interdict British merchant ships and reported the captures to the Congress. On 13 October 1775, the Continental Congress authorized the purchase of two vessels to be armed for a cruise against British merchant ships. S. Navy; the Continental Navy achieved mixed results.
In August 1785, after the Revolutionary War had drawn to a close, Congress had sold Alliance, the last ship remaining in the Continental Navy due to a lack of funds to maintain the ship or support a navy. In 1972, the Chief of Naval Operations, Admiral Elmo Zumwalt, authorized the Navy to celebrate its birthday on 13 October to honor the establishment of the Continental Navy in 1775; the United States was without a navy for nearly a decade, a state of affairs that exposed U. S. maritime merchant ships to a series of attacks by the Barbary pirates. The sole armed maritime presence between 1790 and the launching of the U. S. Navy's first warships in 1797 was the U. S. Revenue-Marine, the primary predecessor of the U. S. Coast Guard. Although the USRCS conducted operations against the pirates, their depredations far outstripped its abilities and Congress passed the Naval Act of 1794 that established a permanent standing navy on 27 March 1794; the Naval Act ordered the construction and manning of six frigates and, by October 1797, the first three were brought into service: USS United States, USS Constellation, USS Constitution.
Due to his strong posture on having a strong standing Navy during this period, John Adams is "often called the father of the American Navy". In 1798–99 the Navy was involved in an undeclared Quasi-War with France. From 18
Unexploded ordnance, unexploded bombs, or explosive remnants of war are explosive weapons that did not explode when they were employed and still pose a risk of detonation, sometimes many decades after they were used or discarded. UXO does not always originate from wars. UXO from World War I continue to be a hazard, with poisonous gas filled munitions still a problem; when unwanted munitions are found, they are sometimes destroyed in controlled explosions, but accidental detonation of very old explosives occurs, sometimes with fatal results. Seventy-eight countries are contaminated by land mines, which kill 15,000–20,000 people every year while maiming countless more. 80% of casualties are civilian, with children as the most affected age group. An estimated average of 50% of deaths occurs within hours of the blast. In recent years, mines have been used as weapons of terror against local civilian populations specifically. In addition to the obvious danger of explosion, buried UXO can cause environmental contamination.
In some used military training areas, munitions-related chemicals such as explosives and perchlorate can enter soil and groundwater. Unexploded ordnance, however old, may explode. If it does not explode, environmental pollutants are released as it degrades. Recovery of deeply-buried projectiles, is difficult and hazardous—jarring may detonate the charge. Once recovered, explosives must either be detonated in place—sometimes requiring hundreds of homes to be evacuated—or transported safely to a site where they can be destroyed. Unexploded ordnance from at least as far back as the mid-19th century still poses a hazard worldwide, both in current and former combat areas and on military firing ranges. A major problem with unexploded ordnance is that over the years the detonator and main charge deteriorate making them more sensitive to disturbance, therefore more dangerous to handle. Construction work may disturb unsuspected unexploded bombs, which may explode. There are countless examples of people tampering with unexploded ordnance, many years old with fatal results.
For this reason it is universally recommended that unexploded ordnance should not be touched or handled by unqualified persons. Instead, the location should be reported to the local police so that bomb disposal or Explosive Ordnance Disposal professionals can render it safe. Although professional EOD personnel have expert knowledge and equipment, they are not immune to misfortune because of the inherent dangers: in June 2010, construction workers in Göttingen, Germany discovered an Allied 500-kilogram bomb dating from World War II buried 7 metres below the ground. German EOD experts attended the scene. Whilst residents living nearby were being evacuated and the EOD personnel were preparing to disarm the bomb, it detonated, killing three of them and injuring 6 others; the dead and injured each had over 20 years of hands-on experience, had rendered safe between 600 and 700 unexploded bombs. The bomb which killed and injured the EOD personnel was of a dangerous type because it was fitted with a delayed-action chemical fuze which had not operated as designed, but had become unstable after over 65 years underground.
The type of delayed-action fuze in the Göttingen bomb was used: a glass vial containing acetone was smashed after the bomb was released. These bombs, when striking soft earth at an angle ended their trajectory not pointing downwards, so that the acetone did not drip onto and weaken the celluloid. In November 2013 four US Marines were killed by an explosion whilst clearing unexploded ordnance from a firing range at Camp Pendleton; the exact cause is not known, but the Marines had been handing grenades they were collecting to each other, permitted but discouraged, it is thought that a grenade may have exploded after being kicked or bumped, setting off hundreds of other grenades and shells. A dramatic example of munitions and explosives of concern threat is the wreck of the SS Richard Montgomery, sunk in shallow water about 1.5 miles from the town of Sheerness and 5 miles from Southend, which still contains 1,400 tons of explosives. When the deeper World War II wreck of the Kielce, carrying a much smaller load of explosives, exploded in 1967, it produced an earth tremor measuring 4.5 on the Richter scale.
North Africa, in particular the desert areas of The Sahara, is mined and with serious consequences for the local population. Egypt is the most mined country in the world with as much as 19.7 million mines as of 2000. Land mines and other explosive remnants of war are not limited to North Africa, however. In the Tropics and floods displace and spread landmines, further aggravating the problem. In Mozambique, as much as 70% of the country is
Wailua, Kauai County, Hawaii
Wailua is a census-designated place in Kauaʻi County, Hawaiʻi, United States. The population was 2,254 at the 2010 census, up from 2,083 at the 2000 census. Wailua is located at 22°3′31″N 159°20′30″W, on the east side of the island of Kauai, it is bordered to the north by Kapaa, to the west by the Wailua Homesteads CDP, to the south by the Wailua River, to the east by the Pacific Ocean. Nounou Mountain known as the "Sleeping Giant", is about 1,200 feet tall and divides coastal Wailua from inland Wailua. Inland Wailua is referred to as a bedroom community, since it is home to many, but lacks any commercial or government facilities. Coastal Wailua is a significant commercial center, with many condominiums for visitors; the Wailua River is the only navigable river in the state of Hawaiʻi and is a center of activity for locals and visitors. According to the United States Census Bureau, the Wailua CDP has a total area of 1.8 square miles, of which 1.5 square miles are land and 0.3 square miles, or 17.27%, are water.
As of the census of 2000, there were 2,083 people, 781 households, 549 families residing in the CDP. The population density was 1,618.6 people per square mile. There were 1,211 housing units at an average density of 941.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the CDP was 29.7% White, 0.8% African American, 0.5% Native American, 34.8% Asian, 8.5% Pacific Islander, 0.6% from other races, 25.1% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 7.1% of the population. There were 781 households out of which 30.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.1% were married couples living together, 12.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.7% were non-families. 23.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.67 and the average family size was 3.16. In the CDP the population was spread out with 25.4% under the age of 18, 6.2% from 18 to 24, 25.3% from 25 to 44, 25.6% from 45 to 64, 17.4% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females, there were 102.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.2 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $45,875, the median income for a family was $52,083. Males had a median income of $34,615 versus $25,380 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $20,231. About 8.7% of families and 8.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 9.5% of those under age 18 and none of those age 65 or over
Hanalei is a census-designated place in Kauaʻi County, Hawaiʻi, United States. The population was 450 at the 2010 census. Hanalei means "lei making" in Hawaiian. Alternatively, the name Hanalei means "crescent bay" and may be indicative of the shape of Hanalei Bay. Hanalei is located at 22°12′24″N 159°30′3″W, near the mouth of the Hanalei River on the north shore of the island of Kauai, it is bordered to the east by Princeville. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 0.71 square miles, of which 0.65 square miles are land and 0.058 square miles are water. The total area is 8.17% water. In the early 19th century Russians were present here. In 1815 the German physician and agent of the Russian-American Company, Georg Anton Schäffer, came to the Hawaiian islands to retrieve goods seized by Kaumualiʻi, chief of Kauai island. On arrival he became involved with internal Hawaiian politics, Kaumualiʻi planning and manipulating to reclaim his own kingdom of Kauai from Kamehameha I with the help of the Russian Empire.
Kaumualiʻi signed a "treaty" granting Tsar Alexander. In 1817, Fort Elizabeth, near the Waimea River, two other Russian forts near Hanalei were part of the tsarist Russian America. At the 2000 census, there were 478 people, 193 households and 115 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 736.7 per square mile. There were 303 housing units at an average density of 467.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the CDP was 57% White, 18% Asian, 3% Pacific Islander, <1% from other races, 21% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.81% of the population. There were 193 households of which 25% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40% were married couples living together, 10% had a female householder with no husband present, 40% were non-families. 31% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.48 and the average family size is 3.10. 24% of the population were under the age of 18, 7% from 18 to 24, 27% from 25 to 44, 30% from 45 to 64, 12% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 99.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 102.8 males. The median household income was $34,375, the median family income was $55,750. Males had a median income of $31,500 versus $28,500 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $21,241. About 22% of families and 25% of the population were below the poverty line, including 33% of those under the age of 18 and none of those 65 and older. Hanalei was the backdrop such as the 1958 musical film South Pacific. Scenes were filmed at Lumahai Beach to the west of Hanalei. A spurious interpretation of the Peter Paul & Mary song "Puff, the Magic Dragon" as a marijuana metaphor claims that Puff's homeland "Hanah Lee" is the town of Hanalei, according to the interpretation, is renowned for its marijuana; the cliffs on the side of the beach are said to look like a dragon. This interpretation was rejected by the song's authors; the beach at Hanalei Bay was selected No. 1 on "Dr. Beach" Stephen Leatherman's 2009 list of top 10 beaches.
Hanalei was mentioned in the TV series Twin Peaks as a place of residence for the town psychiatrist and his wife. Scenes for the movie The Descendants starring George Clooney were filmed in and around Hanalei, on the beach at Hanalei Bay and in nearby Princeville. A song titled "Hanalei" was a part of the I'm with You Sessions by the Red Hot Chili Peppers in 2013. Hanalei is served by the Hawaiʻi Department of Education. Hanalei Elementary School is located in the community
A lighthouse is a tower, building, or other type of structure designed to emit light from a system of lamps and lenses and to serve as a navigational aid for maritime pilots at sea or on inland waterways. Lighthouses mark dangerous coastlines, hazardous shoals, reefs and safe entries to harbors. Once used, the number of operational lighthouses has declined due to the expense of maintenance and use of electronic navigational systems. Before the development of defined ports, mariners were guided by fires built on hilltops. Since raising the fire would improve the visibility, placing the fire on a platform became a practice that led to the development of the lighthouse. In antiquity, the lighthouse functioned more as an entrance marker to ports than as a warning signal for reefs and promontories, unlike many modern lighthouses; the most famous lighthouse structure from antiquity was the Pharos of Alexandria, which collapsed following a series of earthquakes between 956 and 1323. The intact Tower of Hercules at A Coruña, Spain gives insight into ancient lighthouse construction.
Coins from Alexandria and Laodicea in Syria exist. The modern era of lighthouses began at the turn of the 18th century, as lighthouse construction boomed in lockstep with burgeoning levels of transatlantic commerce. Advances in structural engineering and new and efficient lighting equipment allowed for the creation of larger and more powerful lighthouses, including ones exposed to the sea; the function of lighthouses shifted toward the provision of a visible warning against shipping hazards, such as rocks or reefs. The Eddystone Rocks were a major shipwreck hazard for mariners sailing through the English Channel; the first lighthouse built there was an octagonal wooden structure, anchored by 12 iron stanchions secured in the rock, was built by Henry Winstanley from 1696 to 1698. His lighthouse was the first tower in the world to have been exposed to the open sea; the civil engineer, John Smeaton, rebuilt the lighthouse from 1756–59. He modelled the shape of his lighthouse on that of an oak tree.
He rediscovered and used "hydraulic lime," a form of concrete that will set under water used by the Romans, developed a technique of securing the granite blocks together using dovetail joints and marble dowels. The dovetailing feature served to improve the structural stability, although Smeaton had to taper the thickness of the tower towards the top, for which he curved the tower inwards on a gentle gradient; this profile had the added advantage of allowing some of the energy of the waves to dissipate on impact with the walls. His lighthouse influenced all subsequent engineers. One such influence was Robert Stevenson, himself a seminal figure in the development of lighthouse design and construction, his greatest achievement was the construction of the Bell Rock Lighthouse in 1810, one of the most impressive feats of engineering of the age. This structure was based upon Smeaton's design, but with several improved features, such as the incorporation of rotating lights, alternating between red and white.
Stevenson worked for the Northern Lighthouse Board for nearly fifty years during which time he designed and oversaw the construction and improvement of numerous lighthouses. He innovated in the choice of light sources, reflector design, the use of Fresnel lenses, in rotation and shuttering systems providing lighthouses with individual signatures allowing them to be identified by seafarers, he invented the movable jib and the balance crane as a necessary part for lighthouse construction. Alexander Mitchell designed the first screw-pile lighthouse – his lighthouse was built on piles that were screwed into the sandy or muddy seabed. Construction of his design began in 1838 at the mouth of the Thames and was known as the Maplin Sands lighthouse, first lit in 1841. Although its construction began the Wyre Light in Fleetwood, was the first to be lit; the source of illumination had been wood pyres or burning coal. The Argand lamp, invented in 1782 by the Swiss scientist, Aimé Argand, revolutionized lighthouse illumination with its steady smokeless flame.
Early models used ground glass, sometimes tinted around the wick. Models used a mantle of thorium dioxide suspended over the flame, creating a bright, steady light; the Argand lamp used whale oil, olive oil or other vegetable oil as fuel, supplied by a gravity feed from a reservoir mounted above the burner. The lamp was first produced by Matthew Boulton, in partnership with Argand, in 1784 and became the standard for lighthouses for over a century. South Foreland Lighthouse was the first tower to use an electric light in 1875; the lighthouse's carbon arc lamps were powered by a steam-driven magneto. John Richardson Wigham was the first to develop a system for gas illumination of lighthouses, his improved gas'crocus' burner at the Baily Lighthouse near Dublin was 13 times more powerful than the most brilliant light known. The vaporized oil burner was invented in 1901 by Arthur Kitson, improved by David Hood at Trinity House; the fuel was vaporized at high pressure and burned to heat the mantle, giving an output of over six times the luminosity of traditional oil lights.
The use of gas as illuminant became available with the invention of the Dalén light by Swedish engineer, Gustaf Dalén. He used Agamassan, a substrate, to absorb the gas allowing safe storage and hence
Kekaha is a census-designated place in Kauaʻi County, Hawaiʻi, United States. The population was 3,537 at the 2010 census, up from 3,175 at the 2000 census. For most of the 20th century, the Kekaha Sugar Mill was the centerpiece of agriculture on Kauaʻi's west side; the sugar mill had a major influence in Kekaha's development, including banking, transportation and utilities such as water and electricity. The mill employed several generations of local families, it closed in 2000. The mill was purchased in 2005 by mainland investors who sold off its heavy machinery to other mills as far away as Africa. Hawaiʻi's first train robbery occurred here in February 1920, when a masked gunman stopped a slow-moving sugar train and escaped with the locomotive and $11,000 taken from the labor paymaster on board. Police recovered the money in a swamp near the home of a local fisherman, whose suspicious behavior soon resulted in his arrest and conviction; the fisherman was a big fan of Western movies, was thought to have been inspired by some of the films he had seen.
Kekaha is located on the southwest side of the island of Kauai at 21°58′18″N 159°42′59″W. It is bordered to the south by the Pacific Ocean. Hawaii Route 50 passes through the community, leading northwest 7 miles to its end at the Pacific Missile Range Facility and east 15 miles to Kalaheo. According to the United States Census Bureau, the Kekaha CDP has a total area of 1.3 square miles, of which 1.0 square mile are land and 0.31 square miles, or 22.48%, are water. As of the census of 2000, there were 3,175 people, 1,073 households, 799 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 3,178.2 people per square mile. There were 1,162 housing units at an average density of 1,163.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the CDP was 15.9% White, 0.2% African American, 0.5% Native American, 43.6% Asian, 12.4% Pacific Islander, 1.0% from other races, 26.4% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 8.7% of the population. There were 1,073 households out of which 30.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.9% were married couples living together, 13.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 25.5% were non-families.
21.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.96 and the average family size was 3.44. In the CDP the population was spread out with 25.1% under the age of 18, 7.5% from 18 to 24, 24.4% from 25 to 44, 27.4% from 45 to 64, 15.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 98.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.2 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $41,103, the median income for a family was $48,629. Males had a median income of $32,969 versus $26,739 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $17,117. About 10.9% of families and 11.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.8% of those under age 18 and 11.1% of those age 65 or over. Located near Kekaha is the U. S. Navy Pacific Missile Range Facility. Within PMRF's property is located WWVH, the U. S.'s Pacific-region short-wave station operated by NIST broadcasting time signals from an atomic clock.
The station broadcasts weather alerts for portions of the Pacific Ocean. Kekaha Beach Park offers splendid views of Hawaiʻi's Forbidden Island. Circa 1962, the Army Radio Station a few miles west of Kekaha provided ionospheric and tropospheric scatter communications as part of a line of stations from California to Vietnam, sending TTY traffic back and forth during the Vietnam War