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Kabbalah

Kabbalah is an esoteric method and school of thought in Jewish mysticism. A traditional Kabbalist in Judaism is called a Mequbbāl; the definition of Kabbalah varies according to the tradition and aims of those following it, from its religious origin as an integral part of Judaism, to its adaptations in Western esotericism. Jewish Kabbalah is a set of esoteric teachings meant to explain the relationship between God, the unchanging and mysterious Ein Sof, the mortal and finite universe, it forms the foundation of mystical religious interpretations within Judaism. Jewish Kabbalists developed their own transmission of sacred texts within the realm of Jewish tradition, use classical Jewish scriptures to explain and demonstrate its mystical teachings; these teachings are held by followers in Judaism to define the inner meaning of both the Hebrew Bible and traditional rabbinic literature and their concealed transmitted dimension, as well as to explain the significance of Jewish religious observances.

One of the fundamental kabbalistic texts, the Zohar, was first published in the 13th century, the universal form adhered to in modern Judaism is Lurianic Kabbalah. Traditional practitioners believe its earliest origins pre-date world religions, forming the primordial blueprint for Creation's philosophies, sciences and political systems. Kabbalah emerged after earlier forms of Jewish mysticism, in 12th- to 13th-century Spain and Southern France, was reinterpreted during the Jewish mystical renaissance of 16th-century Ottoman Palestine. Isaac Luria is considered the father of contemporary Kabbalah. During the 20th-century, academic interest in Kabbalistic texts led by the Jewish historian Gershom Scholem has inspired the development of historical research on Kabbalah in the field of Judaic studies. According to the Zohar, a foundational text for kabbalistic thought, Torah study can proceed along four levels of interpretation; these four levels are called pardes from their initial letters. Peshat: the direct interpretations of meaning.

Remez: the allegoric meanings. Derash: midrashic meanings with imaginative comparisons with similar words or verses. Sod: the inner, esoteric meanings, expressed in kabbalah. Kabbalah is considered by its followers as a necessary part of the study of Torah – the study of Torah being an inherent duty of observant Jews. Modern academic-historical study of Jewish mysticism reserves the term "kabbalah" to designate the particular, distinctive doctrines that textually emerged expressed in the Middle Ages, as distinct from the earlier Merkabah mystical concepts and methods. According to this descriptive categorisation, both versions of Kabbalistic theory, the medieval-Zoharic and the early-modern Lurianic Kabbalah together comprise the Theosophical tradition in Kabbalah, while the Meditative-Ecstatic Kabbalah incorporates a parallel inter-related Medieval tradition. A third tradition, related but more shunned, involves the magical aims of Practical Kabbalah. Moshe Idel, for example, writes that these 3 basic models can be discerned operating and competing throughout the whole history of Jewish mysticism, beyond the particular Kabbalistic background of the Middle Ages.

They can be distinguished by their basic intent with respect to God: The Theosophical or Theosophical-Theurgic tradition of Theoretical Kabbalah seeks to understand and describe the divine realm using the imaginative and mythic symbols of human psychological experience. As an intuitive conceptual alternative to rationalist Jewish philosophy Maimonides' Aristotelianism, this speculation became the central stream of Kabbalah, the usual reference of the term "kabbalah", its theosophy implies the innate, centrally important theurgic influence of human conduct on redeeming or damaging the spiritual realms, as man is a divine microcosm, the spiritual realms the divine macrocosm. The purpose of traditional theosophical kabbalah was to give the whole of normative Jewish religious practice this mystical metaphysical meaning The Meditative tradition of Ecstatic Kabbalah strives to achieve a mystical union with God, or nullification of the meditator in God's Active intellect. Abraham Abulafia's "Prophetic Kabbalah" was the supreme example of this, though marginal in Kabbalistic development, his alternative to the program of theosophical Kabbalah.

Abulafian meditation built upon the philosophy of Maimonides, whose following remained the rationalist threat to theosophical kabbalists The Magico-Talismanic tradition of Practical Kabbalah endeavours to alter both the Divine realms and the World using practical methods. While theosophical interpretations of worship see its redemptive role as harmonising heavenly forces, Practical Kabbalah properly involved white-magical acts, was censored by kabbalists for only those pure of intent, as it relates to lower realms where purity and impurity are mixed, it formed a separate minor tradition shunned from Kabbalah. Practical Kabbalah was prohibited by the Arizal until the Temple in Jerusalem is rebuilt and the required sta

9th Congress of the Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks)

The 9th Congress of the Russian Communist Party took place from 29 March 1920 till 5 April 1920. The Congress opened in the Bolshoi Theatre with an introductory speech by Vladimir Lenin; the following meetings of the Congress took place in one of the buildings of the Kremlin. Present at the Congress were 715 delegates, of whom 553 had the right to vote and 162 were delegates with voice but no vote; the congress elected the 9th Central Committee. The agenda included: The report of the Central Committee. V. I. Lenin's speeches on the Ninth Congress of the R. C. P. Collected Works, 4th English Edition, Progress Publishers, Moscow, 1965, Volume 30, pages 439-490 Communist Party of the USSR in resolutions and decisions Ninth Congress of the Russian Communist Party The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition. "On the relations between the Russian Communist Party, the soviets, production unions.".

St. Blaise (horse)

St. Blaise was a British Thoroughbred racehorse and sire. In a career that lasted from 1882 to 1884 he ran twelve time and won seven races, although three of these wins were walk-overs, his most important success came in 1883. At the end of the season he was sold and exported to the United States to stand as a stallion where he had some success. St. Blaise was killed in a fire in 1909. St. Blaise was a “big, slashing” chestnut horse standing just under 16 hands high, with a white blaze and three white feet, he was bred at Crichel in Dorset by Henry Sturt, 1st Baron Alington who owned him during his racing career in partnership with Sir Frederick Johnstone. The colt was first sent into training with Lord Alington’s private trainer H. Percy in Dorset, but was moved at the end of his two-year-old season to the stables of John Porter at Kingsclere. St. Blaise’s sire Hermit won the Derby in 1867 and became an outstandingly successful stallion, being Champion Sire for seven successive years. In addition to St. Blaise, he sired the Classic winners Shotover, St. Marguerite and Thebais.

His dam, Fusee made little impact as a racehorse, was close to being destroyed after her career was ended by injury. She survived however, to become a good broodmare, producing, in addition to St. Blaise, good winners such as Candlemas and Friar Rush. St. Blaise began his racing career at Stockbridge Racecourse in June 1882, he won a Biennial Stakes and walked over in the Troy Stakes, before finishing second to Macheath in the Hurstbourne Stakes. In the season Macheath won the July Stakes and the Middle Park Plate. St. Blaise was sent to Goodwood for the Molecomb Stakes in which he dead-heated for first place when attempting to give seven pounds Elzevir, a horse who went on to win the Royal Hunt Cup. On 27 October he was sent to Newmarket to run in the Dewhurst Stakes for which he started 3/1 second favourite, he started but dropped away in the closing stages and finished unplaced behind Ladislas. On the following day on the same course he won a weakly contested race for the Troy Stakes in which he beat Pebble by a neck.

Following the race he was described in The Sportsman as a "nice colt" and a "thorough stayer", but below Derby class. St. Blaise grew and made good physical progress during the winter and in mid-April he appeared for the first time in the Derby betting lists at 33/1, he made his seasonal debut on 25 April in the 2000 Guineas at Newmarket, for which he started at odds of 25/1 in a field of fifteen and was ridden by George Barrett. He was not fit but produced a promising performance to finish fourth behind Galliard, doing the best of the colts who had raced on the far side of the course. After the race he was offered at odds of 11/1 for the Derby. St. Blaise was trained more vigorously and ran impressively in a private trial race on the Friday before the Derby; the Prince of Wales was visiting Kingsclere at the time and was impressed enough with St. Blaise to place a large bet on the colt for the Derby. Shortly before the Derby, St. Blaise and his connections travelled to Epsom and stayed nearby at an inn called the Sheepshearer's Arms at Burgh Heath.

This was interpreted as a good omen at the original St. Blaise was the patron saint of the wool trade. At Epsom on 23 May St. Blaise started at odds of 5/1 in a field of fifteen; the race took place in fine weather in front of an "immense" crowd which included the Prince and Princess of Wales and other members of the Royal Family. Galliard, ridden by Fred Archer started favourite on 9/2 while one of the outsiders was Highland Chief; the potential conflict of interest for Fred Archer, believed to have a strong interest in his brother's stable had been highlighted as a cause for concern. St. Blaise, ridden by Charles Wood, was held up in the early stages as the pacemaker Bonjour made the running but moved into contention at Tattenham Corner. Wood sent St. Blaise through a gap on the inside on the home turn to take the lead as the field entered the straight. St Blaise was challenged by Beau Brummel and Galliard before Highland Chief emerged with a powerful late run. In the final furlong St Blaise ran on gamely to win a "most exciting race" by a neck from Highland Chief with Galliard half a length further back in third.

The Prince of Wales, who had won a reported £5,000 on the race, was among the first to congratulate his owners and hosted a "brilliant party" to celebrate St Blaise's victory. There were allegations that Fred Archer had “pulled” Galliard to allow Highland Chief to win. One version of the conspiracy theory claimed that Highland Chief crossed the line in front, but that the racecourse judge awarded the race to St. Blaise because he wanted to frustrate the plans of the Archer brothers. St. Blaise was sent to France for the Grand Prix de Paris over 3000m at Longchamp on 5 June. Ridden by Archer, he started favourite at 4/5 against five French opponents, he was held up in the early stages before making his challenge just as Frontin, ridden by Tom Cannon, took the lead in the straight. St Blaise and the French colt had a "splendid race" in the closing stages, but although the Derby winner reduced the margin between them he could not overhaul the leader and was beaten by a head; the French celebrations which followed, involving hat-throwing and flag-waving were described as "disgusting" by a British observer.

Only three days after his run in France, St. Blaise was sent to Royal Ascot for the Ascot Derby, a race now known as the King Edward VII Stakes, he was made 5/4 favourite, but