The Mettur Dam is one of the largest dams in India and the largest in Tamilnadu located across the river Cauvery where it enters the plains. Built in 1934, it took 9 years to complete. Maximum height and width of the Dam are 171 feet respectively; the Dam receives inflows from its own catchment area, Kabini Dam and Krishna Raja Sagara Dams located in Karnataka. There is a park at the base of the dam called Ellis Park maintained by the Tamil Nadu Public Works Department, it provides irrigation and drinking water facilities for more than 12 districts of Tamilnadu and hence is revered as the life and livelihood-giving asset of Tamil Nadu As of 2011 India census, Mettur Town holding a population of 36926. Males constitute 57% of the population and females 43%. In Mettur, 11% of the population is under 6 years of age; the United Kingdom provided funds for the dam and evacuated the people of Nayambadi village where the dam was sited. When the water level of the reservoir recedes now age-old Hindu temples emerge from it as proof.
Those people who migrated from Nayambadi have settled down in Martalli and other nearby villages in the Kollegal taluk of Chamarajanagar district of the state of Karnataka. The total length of the dam is 1,700 metres; the dam creates Stanley Reservoir. The Mettur Hydro Electrical power project is quite large; the dam, the park, the major hydroelectric power stations, hills on all sides make Mettur a tourist attraction. Upstream from the dam is Hogenakkal Falls; the maximum level of the dam is 120 ft and the maximum capacity is 93.47 tmc ft. Its capacity of 93.4 billion cubic feet is nearly twice that of its Karnataka counterpart of KRS. The Mettur Dam has received public attention since the latter half of the 20th century, in the mid-1990s, due to the Kaveri River water dispute between the States of Tamil Nadu and Karnataka; because of subsequent dams constructed across the Cauvery and its tributaries in Karnataka, namely Harangi Dam, Hemavathi Dam, Kabini Dam, following the KRS Dam. As a result, the dam nearly goes dry during certain periods of the year when water is most needed by the farmers and the general public of Tamil Nadu.
This has created serious dispute and tension between the neighbouring states of Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. Governments of the respective states, the Supreme Court, the Cauvery Tribunal have so far not been successful in resolving the dispute; the tribunal has specified an annual release of 192 tmcft by Karnataka to Tamilnadu. In the years of deficit in realisation the dispute aggravates in both the states; the major reasons for the deficit are inadequate realisation of Southwest monsoon in the primary catchment areas of the river viz. Kodagu and Wayanad and the over reliance of the river water for irrigation and drinking water schemes in both the states. Banasura Sagar Dam Stanley Reservoir Krishna Raja Sagara Grand Anicut Metturdam. Com metturtravels.com Mettur. Com Ministry of Water Resources - Government of India Mettur dam touches 100-foot mark Water released from Mettur dam Photograph
Mananthavady Road is an agricultural suburb of Mysore district in the Indian state of Karnataka. The term Mananthavady Road is used for the 52 km stretch of road between Mysore and Heggadadevanakote town in Karnataka; some people use the term for the entire stretch up to Mananthavady town in Kerala province. The second stretch of the road passes through Nagarhole National Park; the second stretch is another 70 km long. Srirampur Handpost H. D. Kote Jayapura N. H. Palaya Kalavadi Kenchalagudu Kaliyugamane D. Salundi Doddundi D. B. Kuppe Machur Balle Elephant Camp Karapura Nisana Belathur Hemmankette Dommanakatete Anthare santhe Lakshmi pura Mahadeva Nagara Harohalli Kaliyuva ManeSchool Railway workshop Prakruthi apartment Nirmala highschool Poorna chethana school Queen Mary hospital Good Shepherd School Mount Litera Zee School StJosephs Prasada Public School Mysore Public School Sericuluture Institute National Institute of Engineering Ashokapuram, Mysore Jayaprakash Nagar Mysore H. D. Kote Nagarhole
Brahmagiri (hill), Karnataka
For other places with the same name, see Brahmagiri Brahmagiri, is a mountain range in the Western Ghats of south India. It is situated on the border between Kodagu district in Karnataka state in the north and Wayanad district of Kerala state on the south. Brahmagiri Hill, at 1608 m height, is a scenic tourist attraction; the top of Brahmagiri Hill has a lot of wildlife. Thirunelli Temple, dedicated to Lord Vishnu, lies on the Kerala side of Brahmagiri; this temple is known as the Kasi of the South. The temple includes 30 granite pillars. According to legend, the temple was constructed by Lord Brahma himself. Pakshipathalam at an altitude of 1740 m is another attraction on the Kerala side. Pakshipathalam has a cave, said to have been used by rishis in ancient times. On the Karnataka side it is known by the name of Munikal cave. Iruppu Falls of the Lakshmana Tirtha River lies on the Karnataka side of Brahmagiri. According to legend, when Rama and Lakshmana were searching for Sita, they became thirsty.
Lakshmana shot an arrow into the Brahmagiri from. Rama is said to have dedicated a Shiva Kshethra known as Rajeshwara Temple on the banks of river Lakshmana Tirtha; the Lakshmana Tirtha river flows into the Kaveri River. One Jain Temple is present here built by Kadamba dynasty. Nishani Motte is a peak in Brahmagiri range of hills. Brahmagiri can be reached from Kutta. From Karnataka side, trek to Brahmagiri from Irupu Falls is 9 km and to Munikal Caves is 7 km. Trekkers need to seek the permission of Range Forest Officer at Srimangala. Brahmagiri is about 11 km from Tirunelli; the Periya ghat road connects Mananthavady to Thalassery. The Thamarassery mountain road connects Calicut with Kalpetta; the Kuttiady mountain road connects Vatakara with Mananthavady. The Palchuram mountain road connects Iritty with Mananthavady; the road from Nilambur to Ooty is connected to Wayanad through the village of Meppadi. The nearest railway station is at Mysore and the nearest airports are Kozhikode International Airport-120 km, Bengaluru International Airport-290 km, Kannur International Airport, 58 km.
Pakshi Pathalam is a trekking site some seven kilometers from Thirunelli temple near Kattikkkulam. There is an ancient cave on the hillock with plenty of birds. Brahmagiri Explore and Download GPS track of Irpu - Narimale - Munikal Caves - Brahmagiri Trek
Heggadadevana kote or H. D. Kote is a taluk headquarters in Mysore district in the Indian state of Karnataka. Kakana kote forest lies in Heggadadevana kote taluk; as of 2001 India census, Heggadadevanakote had a population of 12,043. Males constitute 51% of the population and females 49%. Heggadadevanakote has an average literacy rate of 66%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 72%, female literacy is 60%. In Heggadadevanakote, 12% of the population is under 6 years of age. H D Kote has four reservoirs: the Kabini, Nugu and Taraka reservoirs. However, agriculture in this taluk is rain-fed because the government has failed to harness the capacity of the reservoirs. Barring the Kabini reservoir, the other reservoirs are always dry; as a result, farmers who could otherwise raise three crops are able to hardly raise one and are perennially in debt. This is one of the main reasons for the economic backwardness of the taluk and distress migration to cities is common; the Taraka Lift Irrigation Project was envisaged with a view to alleviating the miseries of the farmers of this taluk.
The project entails pumping water 6 km from the Kabini reservoir into the Taraka reservoir. Cauvery Neeravari Nigam Limited is in charge of this project and claims that 80% of the project is complete; the lift irrigation project was expected to be completed by January 2007. The Taraka reservoir was in the news in October 2006 as one of the crest gates of the reservoirs breached leading to a major flooding of the villages downstream; this resulted in a major loss of animal life, agricultural produce and property though no human lives were lost. Handpost Junction or Yerahalli is an important road junction of Heggadevana Kote connecting Mysore and Kerala state; this is a separate township attached to H. D. Kote main town. D. B. Kuppe Mananthavady Road
Hunting is the practice of killing or trapping animals, or pursuing or tracking them with the intent of doing so. Hunting wildlife or feral animals is most done by humans for food, recreation, to remove predators that can be dangerous to humans or domestic animals, or for trade. Lawful hunting is distinguished from poaching, the illegal killing, trapping or capture of the hunted species; the species that are hunted are referred to as game or prey and are mammals and birds. Hunting has long been a practice used to procure meat for human consumption; the meat from a healthy wild animal that has lived its life and on a natural diet of plants has a higher nutritional quality than that of a domestic animal, raised in an unnatural way. Hunting an animal for its meat can be seen as a more natural way to obtain animal protein since regulated hunting does not cause the same environmental issues as raising domestic animals for meat on factory farms. Hunting can be a means of pest control. Hunting advocates state that hunting can be a necessary component of modern wildlife management, for example, to help maintain a population of healthy animals within an environment's ecological carrying capacity when natural checks such as predators are absent or rare.
However, excessive hunting has heavily contributed to the endangerment and extinction of many animals. The pursuit and release, or capture for food of fish is called fishing, not categorised as a form of hunting, it is not considered hunting to pursue animals without intent to kill them, as in wildlife photography, birdwatching, or scientific research activities which involve tranquilizing or tagging of animals or birds. The practice of foraging or gathering materials from plants and mushrooms is considered separate from hunting. Skillful tracking and acquisition of an elusive target has caused the word hunt to be used in the vernacular as a metaphor, as in treasure hunting, "bargain hunting", "hunting down" corruption and waste. Animal rights activists argue that hunting is cruel and unethical; the word hunt serves as a verb. The noun has been dated to the early 12th century, "act of chasing game," from the verb hunt. Old English had huntung, huntoþ; the meaning of "a body of persons associated for the purpose of hunting with a pack of hounds" is first recorded in the 1570s.
Meaning "the act of searching for someone or something" is from about 1600. The verb, Old English huntian "to chase game" developed from hunta "hunter," is related to hentan "to seize," from Proto-Germanic huntojan, of uncertain origin; the general sense of "search diligently" is first recorded c. 1200. Hunting has a long history, it pre-dates the emergence of Homo sapiens and may predate genus Homo. The oldest undisputed evidence for hunting dates to the Early Pleistocene, consistent with the emergence and early dispersal of Homo erectus, about 1.7 million years ago. While it is undisputed that Homo erectus were hunters, the importance of this for the emergence of Homo erectus from its australopithecine ancestors, including the production of stone tools and the control of fire, is emphasised in the so-called "hunting hypothesis" and de-emphasised in scenarios that stress omnivory and social interaction. There is no direct evidence for hunting predating Homo erectus, in either Homo habilis or in Australopithecus.
The early hominid ancestors of humans were frugivores or omnivores, with a carnivore diet from scavenging rather than hunting. Evidence for australopithecine meat consumption was presented in the 1990s, it has often been assumed that at least occasional hunting behavior may have been present well before the emergence of Homo. This can be argued on the basis of comparison with chimpanzees, the closest extant relatives of humans, who engage in hunting, indicating that the behavioral trait may have been present in the Chimpanzee–human last common ancestor as early as 5 million years ago; the common chimpanzee engages in troop predation behaviour where bands of beta males are led by an alpha male. Bonobos have been observed to engage in group hunting, although more than Pan troglodytes subsisting on a frugivorous diet. Indirect evidence for Oldowan era hunting, by early Homo or late Australopithecus, has been presented in a 2009 study based on an Oldowan site in southwestern Kenya. Louis Binford criticised the idea that early humans were hunters.
On the basis of the analysis of the skeletal remains of the consumed animals, he concluded that hominids and early humans were scavengers, not hunters, Blumenschine proposed the idea of confrontational scavenging, which involves challenging and scaring off other predators after they have made a kill, which he suggests could have been the leading method of obtaining protein-rich meat by early humans. Stone spearheads dated as early as 500,000 years ago were found in South Africa. Wood does not preserve well and Craig Stanford, a primatologist and professor of anthropology at the University of Southern California, has suggested that the discovery of spear use by chimpanzees means that early humans used wooden spears as well five million years ago; the earliest dated find of surviving wooden hunting spears dates to the end of the Lower Paleolithic, just before 300,000 years ago. The Schöningen spears, found in 1976 in Germany, are
Bangalore known as Bengaluru, is the capital city of the Indian state of Karnataka. It has a population of over ten million, making it a megacity and the third most populous city and fifth most populous urban agglomeration in India, it is located in southern India on the Deccan Plateau at an elevation of over 900 m above sea level, the highest among India's major cities. It reflects its multireligious and cosmopolitan character by its more than 1000 temples, 400 mosques, 100 churches, 40 Jain derasars, three Sikh gurdwaras, two Buddhist viharas and one Parsi fire temple located in an area of 741 km² of the metropolis; the religious places are further represented to include the few members of the Jewish community who are making their presence known through the Chabad that they propose to establish in Bengaluru and the large number of Bahá'ís whose presence is registered with a society called the Bahá'í Centre. In 1537 CE, Kempé Gowdā – a feudal ruler under the Vijayanagara Empire – established a mud fort considered to be the foundation of modern Bengaluru and its oldest areas Or Petes which exist to the present day.
After the fall of Vijayanagar empire in 16th Century, the Mughals sold Bangalore to Chikkadevaraja Wodeyar, the ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore for three lakh rupees. When Haider Ali seized control of the Kingdom of Mysore, the administration of Bangalore passed into his hands, it was captured by the British East India Company after victory in the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War, who returned administrative control of the city to the Maharaja of Mysore. The old city developed in the dominions of the Maharaja of Mysore and was made capital of the Princely State of Mysore, which existed as a nominally sovereign entity of the British Raj. In 1809, the British shifted their cantonment to Bangalore, outside the old city, a town grew up around it, governed as part of British India. Following India's independence in 1947, Bangalore became the capital of Mysore State, remained capital when the new Indian state of Karnataka was formed in 1956; the two urban settlements of Bangalore – city and cantonment – which had developed as independent entities merged into a single urban centre in 1949.
The existing Kannada name, Bengalūru, was declared the official name of the city in 2006. Bengaluru is sometimes referred to as the "Silicon Valley of India" because of its role as the nation's leading information technology exporter. Indian technological organisations ISRO, Wipro and HAL are headquartered in the city. A demographically diverse city, Bangalore is the second fastest-growing major metropolis in India. Bengaluru has one of the most educated workforces in the world, it is home to many educational and research institutions in India, such as Indian Institute of Science, Indian Institute of Management, International Institute of Information Technology, National Institute of Fashion Technology, National Institute of Design, National Law School of India University and National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences. Numerous state-owned aerospace and defence organisations, such as Bharat Electronics, Hindustan Aeronautics and National Aerospace Laboratories are located in the city.
The city houses the Kannada film industry. The name "Bangalore" represents an anglicised version of the Kannada language name and its original name, "Bengalūru" ಬೆಂಗಳೂರು, it is the name of a village near Kodigehalli in Bangalore city today and was used by Kempegowda to christen the city as Bangalore at the time of its foundation. The earliest reference to the name "Bengalūru" was found in a ninth-century Western Ganga Dynasty stone inscription on a "vīra gallu". In this inscription found in Begur, "Bengalūrū" is referred to as a place in which a battle was fought in 890 CE, it states that the place was part of the Ganga Kingdom until 1004 and was known as "Bengaval-uru", the "City of Guards" in Halegannada. An apocryphal story recounts that the 12th century Hoysala king Veera Ballala II, while on a hunting expedition, lost his way in the forest. Tired and hungry, he came across a poor old woman; the grateful king named the place "benda-kaal-uru", which evolved into "Bengalūru". Suryanath Kamath has put forward an explanation of a possible floral origin of the name, being derived from benga, the Kannada term for Pterocarpus marsupium, a species of dry and moist deciduous trees, that grew abundantly in the region.
On 11 December 2005, the Government of Karnataka announced that it had accepted a proposal by Jnanpith Award winner U. R. Ananthamurthy to rename Bangalore to Bengalūru. On 27 September 2006, the Bruhat Bengaluru Mahanagara Palike passed a resolution to implement the proposed name change; the government of Karnataka accepted the proposal, it was decided to implement the name change from 1 November 2006. The Union government approved this request, along with name changes for 11 other Karnataka cities, in October 2014, hence Bangalore was renamed to "Bengaluru" on 1 November 2014. A discovery of Stone Age artefacts during the 2001 census of India at Jalahalli and Jadigenahalli, all of which are located on Bangalore's outskirts today, suggest probable human settlement around 4,000 BCE. Around 1,000 BCE, burial grounds were established at Koramangala and Chikkajala on the outskirts of Bangalore. Coins of the Roman emperors Augustus and Claudius found at Yeswanthpur and H
Hydrography is the branch of applied sciences which deals with the measurement and description of the physical features of oceans, coastal areas and rivers, as well as with the prediction of their change over time, for the primary purpose of safety of navigation and in support of all other marine activities, including economic development and defence, scientific research, environmental protection. The origins of hydrography lay in the making of charts to aid navigation, by individual mariners as they navigated into new waters; these were the private property closely held secrets, of individuals who used them for commercial or military advantage. As transoceanic trade and exploration increased, hydrographic surveys started to be carried out as an exercise in their own right, the commissioning of surveys was done by governments and special hydrographic offices. National organizations navies, realized that the collection and distribution of this knowledge gave it great organizational and military advantages.
Thus were born dedicated national hydrographic organizations for the collection, organization and distribution of hydrography incorporated into charts and sailing directions. Prior to the establishment of the United Kingdom Hydrographic Office, Royal Navy captains were responsible for the provision of their own charts. In practice this meant that ships sailed with inadequate information for safe navigation, that when new areas were surveyed, the data reached all those who needed it; the Admiralty appointed Alexander Dalrymple as Hydrographer in 1795, with a remit to gather and distribute charts to HM Ships. Within a year existing charts from the previous two centuries had been collated, the first catalogue published; the first chart produced under the direction of the Admiralty, was a chart of Quiberon Bay in Brittany, it appeared in 1800. Under Captain Thomas Hurd the department received its first professional guidelines, the first catalogues were published and made available to the public and to other nations as well.
In 1829, Rear-Admiral Sir Francis Beaufort, as Hydrographer, developed the eponymous Scale, introduced the first official tide tables in 1833 and the first "Notices to Mariners" in 1834. The Hydrographic Office underwent steady expansion throughout the 19th century; the word hydrography comes from the Ancient Greek ὕδωρ, "water" and γράφω, "to write". Large-scale hydrography is undertaken by national or international organizations which sponsor data collection through precise surveys and publish charts and descriptive material for navigational purposes; the science of oceanography is, in part, an outgrowth of classical hydrography. In many respects the data are interchangeable, but marine hydrographic data will be directed toward marine navigation and safety of that navigation. Marine resource exploration and exploitation is a significant application of hydrography, principally focused on the search for hydrocarbons. Hydrographical measurements include the tidal and wave information of physical oceanography.
They include bottom measurements, with particular emphasis on those marine geographical features that pose a hazard to navigation such as rocks, shoals and other features that obstruct ship passage. Bottom measurements include collection of the nature of the bottom as it pertains to effective anchoring. Unlike oceanography, hydrography will include shore features and manmade, that aid in navigation. Therefore, a hydrographic survey may include the accurate positions and representations of hills and lights and towers that will aid in fixing a ship's position, as well as the physical aspects of the sea and seabed. Hydrography for reasons of safety, adopted a number of conventions that have affected its portrayal of the data on nautical charts. For example, hydrographic charts are designed to portray what is safe for navigation, therefore will tend to maintain least depths and de-emphasize the actual submarine topography that would be portrayed on bathymetric charts; the former are the mariner's tools to avoid accident.
The latter are best representations of the actual seabed, as in a topographic map, for scientific and other purposes. Trends in hydrographic practice since c. 2003–2005 have led to a narrowing of this difference, with many more hydrographic offices maintaining "best observed" databases, making navigationally "safe" products as required. This has been coupled with a preference for multi-use surveys, so that the same data collected for nautical charting purposes can be used for bathymetric portrayal. Though, in places, hydrographic survey data may be collected in sufficient detail to portray bottom topography in some areas, hydrographic charts only show depth information relevant for safe navigation and should not be considered as a product that portrays the actual shape of the bottom; the soundings selected from the raw source depth data for placement on the nautical chart are selected for safe navigation and are biased to show predominately the shallowest depths that relate to safe navigation.
For instance, if there is a deep area that can not be reached because it is surrounded by shallow water, the deep area may not be shown. The color filled areas that show different ranges of shallow water are not the equivalent of contours on a topographic map since they are drawn seaward of the actual shallowest depth portrayed. A bathymetric chart does show marine topology accurately. Details covering the ab