Eugenio Kincaid was an American Baptist missionary who labored for two periods in Burma. In the first period, he served twelve years. In the second period, he served for another fifteen years, his mission work in Burma covered the whole range of the country, from the farthest north to the farthest south and from the farthest west to the farthest east. Between the two periods of his ministry, he had eight years of leave of absence during which he raised funds for the foreign missions, in addition, helped in the foundation of the University of Lewisburg. At the age of 33, Eugenio Kincaid was sent by Baptist Board of Foreign Missions to preach the gospel in Burma. Eugenio Kincaid was born on 10 January 1797 in Wethersfield, Connecticut to Noah Kincaid, a physician, Lydia Hough Kincaid. In 1822 he graduated from the Theological Institution at Hamilton. New York, he was inclined to preach for the salvation of the people in Burma after hearing a sermon from Luther Rice, a fellow missionary of Adoniram Judson. and applied to the Baptist Board of Missions for an appointment to serve in Burma, but was rejected.
He assumed the pastorate of the Baptist Church in Galway, New York. He was well liked by the congregation but he did not feel contented to remain there. After four years, he went to Susquehanna valley, a more destitute place, founded the First Baptist Church in Milton, Pennsylvania starting with nine members, he married Miss Almy Goff and had two sons: Eugenio Wade Kincaid and Judson Kincaid, who died eleven months later. In 1828, Eugenio was appointed as a travelling preacher by the Board of the Baptist General Association of Pennsylvania for Missionary Purposes. After serving in that position for two years, he was appointed by the Executive Committee of the Baptist Mission Union to be posted to Burma together with Francis Mason; the assignment for Eugenio and Francis was to continue the pioneering mission work of Adoniram Judson, started in 1813. Adoniram was pouring most of his labor towards completing the Burmese Bible; the Kincaids and the Masons sailed from Boston in 1830 and after four months they reached Moulmain, under British rule following the First Anglo-Burmese War.
While learning to acquire the Burmese language, Rev. Kincaid engaged himself by preaching in Moulmain to the English congregation, consisting of British soldiers. Within a year, one hundred soldiers were baptized. In December 1831, his wife Almy died of a tropical disease. In 1832, Eugenio Kincaid moved to Rangoon, still under Burmese control, he took charge of the mission schools and with the help of native missionary assistants he maintained many of the public services of the mission. During the year of his stay in Rangoon, he married Barbara McBain, daughter of an officer of the East India Company and was born in Madras, India; the following year, Rev. Kincaid took a river boat to the capital Ava, seven hundred miles up the Irrawaddy. Accompanying the Kincaids were Barbara's sister and two native missionary assistants, they escaped without any harm. They distributed a large quantity of religious portions of the New Testament; the trip took fifty four days and they visited three hundred villages and towns preaching the gospel in most of them.
The reception at the capital was chilly because the king had not forgiven Adoniram Judson for going over to the enemy after the war. A church was planted by the end of a year and Rev. Kincaid was permitted to preach to hundreds of thousands of people during the three years he was there. Rev. Kincaid met many Shan merchants in Ava and he made a plan to visit and learn the habits and characters of these people and other ethnic nationalities, but the government was opposed to him to travel to the frontiers of China border. By his persistence, he obtained at length the permission from the government. In January 1837, Rev. Kincaid and four of his native assistants went up the Irrawaddy with a boat provided by the British Resident, they stopped at many villages and distributed tracts and preached the gospel and they were warmly received. After 23 days and 350 miles from Ava, they arrived at Mogaung in Kachin state known for its jade mines, it was the northern most town of the country beneath the shadows of the Himalaya mountains.
Since it was impossible to procure men and provisions needed for further excursion, Eugenio Kincaid decided to return to Ava. On the return trip, he was exposed to extreme perils and suffering because a civil war had broken out. Bands of robbers were overrunning the land and burning the villages. Eugenio Kincaid and his disciples were robbed but miraculously he was able to escape on foot through the mountains of the Shan State; the disciples managed to escape earlier. On his arrival in Ava, he found out King Bagyidaw was dethroned by his brother Prince Tharawaddy and many had lost their lives. Rev. Kincaid was received cordially. However, the king told him that as the defender of the faith, he had to forbid him from distributing any Christian literature in his realm. Under the threatening circumstances and fear of the approaching war, Rev. Kincaid decided to go to more promising fields of Tenasserim (now known as Tanintharyi, he made a long exploration trip through the mountains near Mergui. He saw countless number of tracks of rhinoceros, tiger, wild hog, deer.
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Latin or Roman script, is a set of graphic signs based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet. This is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet used by the Etruscans. Several Latin-script alphabets exist, which differ in graphemes and phonetic values from the classical Latin alphabet; the Latin script is the basis of the International Phonetic Alphabet and the 26 most widespread letters are the letters contained in the ISO basic Latin alphabet. Latin script is the basis for the largest number of alphabets of any writing system and is the most adopted writing system in the world. Latin script is used as the standard method of writing in most Western, Central, as well as in some Eastern European languages, as well as in many languages in other parts of the world; the script is either called Roman script or Latin script, in reference to its origin in ancient Rome. In the context of transliteration, the term "romanization" or "romanisation" is found. Unicode uses the term "Latin".
The numeral system is called the Roman numeral system. The numbers 1, 2, 3... are Latin/Roman script numbers for the Hindu–Arabic numeral system. The letter ⟨C⟩ was the western form of the Greek gamma, but it was used for the sounds /ɡ/ and /k/ alike under the influence of Etruscan, which might have lacked any voiced plosives. During the 3rd century BC, the letter ⟨Z⟩ – unneeded to write Latin properly – was replaced with the new letter ⟨G⟩, a ⟨C⟩ modified with a small vertical stroke, which took its place in the alphabet. From on, ⟨G⟩ represented the voiced plosive /ɡ/, while ⟨C⟩ was reserved for the voiceless plosive /k/; the letter ⟨K⟩ was used only in a small number of words such as Kalendae interchangeably with ⟨C⟩. After the Roman conquest of Greece in the 1st century BC, Latin adopted the Greek letters ⟨Y⟩ and ⟨Z⟩ to write Greek loanwords, placing them at the end of the alphabet. An attempt by the emperor Claudius to introduce three additional letters, thus it was during the classical Latin period that the Latin alphabet contained 23 letters: The use of the letters I and V for both consonants and vowels proved inconvenient as the Latin alphabet was adapted to Germanic and Romance languages.
W originated as a doubled V used to represent the sound found in Old English as early as the 7th century. It came into common use in the 11th century, replacing the runic Wynn letter, used for the same sound. In the Romance languages, the minuscule form of V was a rounded u. In the case of I, a word-final swash form, j, came to be used for the consonant, with the un-swashed form restricted to vowel use; such conventions were erratic for centuries. J was introduced into English for the consonant in the 17th century, but it was not universally considered a distinct letter in the alphabetic order until the 19th century. By the 1960s, it became apparent to the computer and telecommunications industries in the First World that a non-proprietary method of encoding characters was needed; the International Organization for Standardization encapsulated the Latin alphabet in their standard. To achieve widespread acceptance, this encapsulation was based on popular usage; as the United States held a preeminent position in both industries during the 1960s, the standard was based on the published American Standard Code for Information Interchange, better known as ASCII, which included in the character set the 26 × 2 letters of the English alphabet.
Standards issued by the ISO, for example ISO/IEC 10646, have continued to define the 26 × 2 letters of the English alphabet as the basic Latin alphabet with extensions to handle other letters in other languages. The Latin alphabet spread, along with Latin, from the Italian Peninsula to the lands surrounding the Mediterranean Sea with the expansion of the Roman Empire; the eastern half of the Empire, including Greece, the Levant, Egypt, continued to use Greek as a lingua franca, but Latin was spoken in the western half, as the western Romance languages evolved out of Latin, they continued to use and adapt the Latin alphabet. With the spread of Western Christianity during the Middle Ages, the Latin alphabet was adopted by the peoples of Northern Europe who spoke Celtic languages or Germanic languages or Baltic languages, as well as by the speakers of several Uralic languages, most notably Hungarian and Estonian; the Latin script came into use for writing the West Slavic languages and several South Slavic languages, as the people who spoke them adopted Roman Catholicism.
The speakers of East Slavic languages adopted Cyrillic along with Orthodox Christianity. The Serbian language uses both scripts, with Cyrillic predominating in official communication and Latin elsewhere, as determined by the Law on Official Use of the Language and Alphabet; as late as 1500, the Latin script was limited to the languages spoken in Western and Central Europe. The Orthodox Christian Slavs of Eastern and Southeastern Europe used Cyrillic, the Greek alphabet was in use by Greek-speakers around the eastern Mediterranean; the Arabic script was widespread within Islam, both among Arabs and non-Arab nations like the Iranians, Indonesians, M
China the People's Republic of China, is a country in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion. Covering 9,600,000 square kilometers, it is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area. Governed by the Communist Party of China, the state exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities, the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau. China emerged as one of the world's earliest civilizations, in the fertile basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain. For millennia, China's political system was based on hereditary monarchies, or dynasties, beginning with the semi-legendary Xia dynasty in 21st century BCE. Since China has expanded, re-unified numerous times. In the 3rd century BCE, the Qin established the first Chinese empire; the succeeding Han dynasty, which ruled from 206 BC until 220 AD, saw some of the most advanced technology at that time, including papermaking and the compass, along with agricultural and medical improvements.
The invention of gunpowder and movable type in the Tang dynasty and Northern Song completed the Four Great Inventions. Tang culture spread in Asia, as the new Silk Route brought traders to as far as Mesopotamia and Horn of Africa. Dynastic rule ended in 1912 with the Xinhai Revolution; the Chinese Civil War resulted in a division of territory in 1949, when the Communist Party of China established the People's Republic of China, a unitary one-party sovereign state on Mainland China, while the Kuomintang-led government retreated to the island of Taiwan. The political status of Taiwan remains disputed. Since the introduction of economic reforms in 1978, China's economy has been one of the world's fastest-growing with annual growth rates above 6 percent. According to the World Bank, China's GDP grew from $150 billion in 1978 to $12.24 trillion by 2017. Since 2010, China has been the world's second-largest economy by nominal GDP and since 2014, the largest economy in the world by purchasing power parity.
China is the world's largest exporter and second-largest importer of goods. China is a recognized nuclear weapons state and has the world's largest standing army and second-largest defense budget; the PRC is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council as it replaced the ROC in 1971, as well as an active global partner of ASEAN Plus mechanism. China is a leading member of numerous formal and informal multilateral organizations, including the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, WTO, APEC, BRICS, the BCIM, the G20. In recent times, scholars have argued that it will soon be a world superpower, rivaling the United States; the word "China" has been used in English since the 16th century. It is not a word used by the Chinese themselves, it has been traced through Portuguese and Persian back to the Sanskrit word Cīna, used in ancient India."China" appears in Richard Eden's 1555 translation of the 1516 journal of the Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa. Barbosa's usage was derived from Persian Chīn, in turn derived from Sanskrit Cīna.
Cīna was first used including the Mahābhārata and the Laws of Manu. In 1655, Martino Martini suggested that the word China is derived from the name of the Qin dynasty. Although this derivation is still given in various sources, it is complicated by the fact that the Sanskrit word appears in pre-Qin literature; the word may have referred to a state such as Yelang. The meaning transferred to China as a whole; the origin of the Sanskrit word is still a matter of debate, according to the Oxford English Dictionary. The official name of the modern state is the "People's Republic of China"; the shorter form is "China" Zhōngguó, from zhōng and guó, a term which developed under the Western Zhou dynasty in reference to its royal demesne. It was applied to the area around Luoyi during the Eastern Zhou and to China's Central Plain before being used as an occasional synonym for the state under the Qing, it was used as a cultural concept to distinguish the Huaxia people from perceived "barbarians". The name Zhongguo is translated as "Middle Kingdom" in English.
Archaeological evidence suggests that early hominids inhabited China between 2.24 million and 250,000 years ago. The hominid fossils of Peking Man, a Homo erectus who used fire, were discovered in a cave at Zhoukoudian near Beijing; the fossilized teeth of Homo sapiens have been discovered in Fuyan Cave in Hunan. Chinese proto-writing existed in Jiahu around 7000 BCE, Damaidi around 6000 BCE, Dadiwan from 5800–5400 BCE, Banpo dating from the 5th millennium BCE; some scholars have suggested. According to Chinese tradition, the first dynasty was the Xia, which emerged around 2100 BCE; the dynasty was considered mythical by historians until scientific excavations found early Bronze Age sites at Erlitou, Henan in 1959. It remains unclear whether these sites are the remains of the Xia dynasty or of another culture from the same period; the succeeding Shang dynasty is the earliest to be confirmed by contemporary records. The Shang ruled the plain of the Yellow River in eastern China from the 17th to the 11th century BCE.
Their oracle bone script
Myitkyina is the capital city of Kachin State in Myanmar, located 1,480 kilometers from Yangon, 785 kilometers from Mandalay. In Burmese it means "near the big river", Myitkyina is on the west bank of the Ayeyarwady River, just below 40 kilometers from Myit-son of its two headstreams, it is the northernmost river railway terminus in Myanmar. The city is served by Myitkyina Airport. Myitkyina has been an important trading town between Myanmar since ancient times. American Baptist missionary George J. Geis and his wife arrived in Myitkyina in the late 1890s and in 1900 they requested a permission to build a mansion there and the building was named Geis Memorial Church It is one of the Kachin Baptist Conventionchurches in Myitkyina. Japanese forces captured the town and nearby airbase during World War II in 1942. In August 1944, Myitkyina was recaptured by the Allied forces under General Joseph Stilwell after a prolonged siege and heavy fighting between Nationalist Chinese divisions, the Chindits, Merrill's Marauders of the Northern Combat Area Command and the besieged elements of the 33rd Imperial Japanese Army under General Masaki Honda.
The town was strategically important not only because of its rail and water links to the rest of Burma, but because it was on the planned route of the Ledo Road. Myitkyina Airport is the main airport serving the city, it connects the cities of Mandalay. And it connects Lashio Airport every Monday, it takes 24 hours Mandalay to Myitkyina by train. Railway has been used for 100 years; this railway is major transportation for most kinds of good for both traders. It connects Laiza, Bhamo and Sumprabum by car; the Myitkyina-Tanai-India road, known as Ledo road, was constructed by the British rules during the British Colonial period. In the downtown, the main transportation are three wheels motor cycle known as tone bain, three wheels bicycle, motor bike; as the capital of the state, it has government offices, a greater population than other cities in the state. The city has a population of 150,000, with a mix of Kachin, Bamar peoples and some Chinese and Indians; the Kachin language is the common language among the Kachin.
There are a lot of meaning for Jinghpo word. In Jinghpo language, Jinghpo means People; some people can speak English and Nepali while the town's people speak in Burmese, the national language of Myanmar. Foreigners are now free to visit Myitkyina without prior government permission. Major religions are Christianity, Theravada Buddhism and Other religions such as animism and Islam are practiced. Myitkyina has a humid subtropical climate bordering on a tropical savanna climate. Temperatures are warm throughout the year, although the winter months are milder. There is a summer wet season; the city is home to Myitkyina University, a Christian theological seminary, a college for teachers, a training school for nurses, a college for the study of computers and other rare type of colleges affiliated with several seminaries in the United States and Asia, notably Kachin Theological College-Nawng Nang. It is home to the branch I. L. B. C. A chain of private schools for English learners in the Myanmar, it has many non-government institutions such as Naushawng development institute, Pinnya Tagar and Kachinland School of Arts & Sciences, which has a University vision in 2024.
Technological University, Myitkyina Computer University, Myitkyina Myitkyina University Myitkyina Education College Myitkyina is a business center of Kachin State. Resources are jade, gold and forestry products, agricultural products. Due to short term contract of jade, gold mines, Kachin State was good in business field for Chinese; as per government data US$2 billion in jade were exported yearly in 2010, 2011. Now, due to fighting between Kachin KIA rebels and government army, all business have gone down. Most of Kachin State business trades are done in Myitkyina. Myitkyina General Hospital Myitkyina Narcotic Hospital Northern SOC Nanpong Air Base headquarters Satellite Map of Myitkyina from Google Map Kachin State map Asterism http://www.kachinstate.com http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/world/A0834638.html
Myanmar the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and known as Burma, is a country in Southeast Asia. Myanmar is bordered by India and Bangladesh to its west and Laos to its east and China to its north and northeast. To its south, about one third of Myanmar's total perimeter of 5,876 km forms an uninterrupted coastline of 1,930 km along the Bay of Bengal and the Andaman Sea; the country's 2014 census counted the population to be 51 million people. As of 2017, the population is about 54 million. Myanmar is 676,578 square kilometres in size, its capital city is Naypyidaw, its largest city and former capital is Yangon. Myanmar has been a member of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations since 1997. Early civilisations in Myanmar included the Tibeto-Burman-speaking Pyu city-states in Upper Burma and the Mon kingdoms in Lower Burma. In the 9th century, the Bamar people entered the upper Irrawaddy valley and, following the establishment of the Pagan Kingdom in the 1050s, the Burmese language and Theravada Buddhism became dominant in the country.
The Pagan Kingdom fell. In the 16th century, reunified by the Taungoo dynasty, the country was for a brief period the largest empire in the history of Mainland Southeast Asia; the early 19th century Konbaung dynasty ruled over an area that included modern Myanmar and controlled Manipur and Assam as well. The British took over the administration of Myanmar after three Anglo-Burmese Wars in the 19th century and the country became a British colony. Myanmar was granted independence as a democratic nation. Following a coup d'état in 1962, it became a military dictatorship under the Burma Socialist Programme Party. For most of its independent years, the country has been engrossed in rampant ethnic strife and its myriad ethnic groups have been involved in one of the world's longest-running ongoing civil wars. During this time, the United Nations and several other organisations have reported consistent and systematic human rights violations in the country. In 2011, the military junta was dissolved following a 2010 general election, a nominally civilian government was installed.
This, along with the release of Aung San Suu Kyi and political prisoners, has improved the country's human rights record and foreign relations, has led to the easing of trade and other economic sanctions. There is, continuing criticism of the government's treatment of ethnic minorities, its response to the ethnic insurgency, religious clashes. In the landmark 2015 election, Aung San Suu Kyi's party won a majority in both houses. However, the Burmese military remains a powerful force in politics. Myanmar is a country rich in jade and gems, natural gas and other mineral resources. In 2013, its GDP stood at its GDP at US$221.5 billion. The income gap in Myanmar is among the widest in the world, as a large proportion of the economy is controlled by supporters of the former military government; as of 2016, Myanmar ranks 145 out of 188 countries in human development, according to the Human Development Index. Both the names Myanmar and Burma derive from the earlier Burmese Mranma, an ethnonym for the majority Bamar ethnic group, of uncertain etymology.
The terms are popularly thought to derive from "Brahma Desha" after Brahma. In 1989, the military government changed the English translations of many names dating back to Burma's colonial period or earlier, including that of the country itself: "Burma" became "Myanmar"; the renaming remains a contested issue. Many political and ethnic opposition groups and countries continue to use "Burma" because they do not recognise the legitimacy of the ruling military government or its authority to rename the country. In April 2016, soon after taking office, Aung San Suu Kyi clarified that foreigners are free to use either name, "because there is nothing in the constitution of our country that says that you must use any term in particular"; the country's official full name is the "Republic of the Union of Myanmar". Countries that do not recognise that name use the long form "Union of Burma" instead. In English, the country is popularly known as either "Burma" or "Myanmar". Both these names are derived from the name of the majority Burmese Bamar ethnic group.
Myanmar is considered to be the literary form of the name of the group, while Burma is derived from "Bamar", the colloquial form of the group's name. Depending on the register used, the pronunciation would be Myamah; the name Burma has been in use in English since the 18th century. Burma continues to be used in English by the governments of countries such as the United Kingdom. Official United States policy retains Burma as the country's name, although the State Department's website lists the country as "Burma" and Barack Obama has referred to the country by both names; the government of Canada has in the past used Burma, such as in its 2007 legislation imposing sanctions, but as of the mid-2010s uses Myanmar. The Czech Republic uses Myanmar, although its Ministry of Foreign Affairs mentions both Myanmar and Burma on its website; the United Nations uses Myanmar, as do the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, Russia, China, Bangladesh, Norway and Switzerland. Most English-speaking international news media refer to the country by the name Myanmar, including the BBC, CNN, Al Jazeera and the Australian Broadcasting Corporation /Ra
India known as the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh largest country by area and with more than 1.3 billion people, it is the second most populous country as well as the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, while its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia; the Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE. In the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, Buddhism and Jainism arose. Early political consolidations took place under the Gupta empires. In the medieval era, Zoroastrianism and Islam arrived, Sikhism emerged, all adding to the region's diverse culture.
Much of the north fell to the Delhi Sultanate. The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal Empire. In the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, in the mid-19th under British Crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance and led to India's independence in 1947. In 2017, the Indian economy was the world's sixth largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the fastest-growing major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption and inadequate public healthcare. A nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the second largest standing army in the world and ranks fifth in military expenditure among nations. India is a federal republic governed under a parliamentary system and consists of 29 states and 7 union territories.
A pluralistic and multi-ethnic society, it is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindush, equivalent to the Sanskrit word Sindhu, the historical local appellation for the Indus River; the ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as "The people of the Indus". The geographical term Bharat, recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations, it is a modernisation of the historical name Bharatavarsha, which traditionally referred to the Indian subcontinent and gained increasing currency from the mid-19th century as a native name for India. Hindustan is a Middle Persian name for India, it was introduced into India by the Mughals and used since then. Its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety; the name may refer to either the northern part of India or the entire country.
The earliest known human remains in South Asia date to about 30,000 years ago. Nearly contemporaneous human rock art sites have been found in many parts of the Indian subcontinent, including at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh. After 6500 BCE, evidence for domestication of food crops and animals, construction of permanent structures, storage of agricultural surplus, appeared in Mehrgarh and other sites in what is now Balochistan; these developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation, the first urban culture in South Asia, which flourished during 2500–1900 BCE in what is now Pakistan and western India. Centred around cities such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and Kalibangan, relying on varied forms of subsistence, the civilization engaged robustly in crafts production and wide-ranging trade. During the period 2000–500 BCE, many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic cultures to the Iron Age ones; the Vedas, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism, were composed during this period, historians have analysed these to posit a Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain.
Most historians consider this period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent from the north-west. The caste system, which created a hierarchy of priests and free peasants, but which excluded indigenous peoples by labeling their occupations impure, arose during this period. On the Deccan Plateau, archaeological evidence from this period suggests the existence of a chiefdom stage of political organisation. In South India, a progression to sedentary life is indicated by the large number of megalithic monuments dating from this period, as well as by nearby traces of agriculture, irrigation tanks, craft traditions. In the late Vedic period, around the 6th century BCE, the small states and chiefdoms of the Ganges Plain and the north-western regions had consolidated into 16 major oligarchies and monarchies that were known as the mahajanapadas; the emerging urbanisation gave rise to non-Vedic religious movements, two of which became independent religions. Jainism came into prominence during the life of Mahavira.
Buddhism, based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha, attracted followers from all social classes excepting the middle