Hopi Kachina figure
Hopi katsina figures known as kachina dolls, are figures carved from cottonwood root, by Hopi people to instruct young girls and new brides about katsinas or katsinam, the immortal beings that bring rain, control other aspects of the natural world and society, act as messengers between humans and the spirit world. Hopi people live on three mesas in northeastern Arizona, about 70 miles from Flagstaff. In Hopi cosmology, the majority of katsinas reside on the Humphreys Peak 60 miles west of the Hopi Reservation; each year, throughout the period from winter solstice to mid-July, these spirits, in the form of katsinas, come down to the villages to dance and sing, to bring rain for the upcoming harvest, to give gifts to the children. The katsinas are known to be the spirits of deities, natural elements or animals, or the deceased ancestors of the Hopi. Prior to each katsina ceremony, the men of the village will spend days studiously making figures in the likeness of the katsinam represented in that particular ceremony.
The figures are passed on to the daughters of the village by the Giver Kachina during the ceremony. Following the ceremony, the figures are hung on the walls of the pueblo and are meant to be studied in order to learn the characteristics of that certain Kachina. Edward Kennard, co-author of Hopi Kachinas, says concerning the purpose of the kachina figure, "Essentially it is a means of education. Except for major ceremonial figures, most katsina figures originated in the late 19th century; the oldest known surviving figure dates back from the 18th century—it was a flat object with an indistinguishable shape that suggested a head and contained minimal body paint. Kachina figures are separated into four stylistic periods: the Early Traditional, Late Traditional, Early Action, Late Action periods; the early forms of the kachina figure belonged to the Early Traditional Period. Only one piece of cottonwood root was used to carve the body, although facial features made from varying sources were glued on.
The figures were no longer than 8–10 inches and only somewhat resembled human proportions. Sandpaper and wood finishing tools were unavailable to the Hopi in this era. In order to smooth out the rough carved surfaces, the figures were rubbed smooth with sandstone and the flaws in the cottonwood root were coated with kaolin clay, their surfaces were not as smooth as in periods, the paint was made of non water-resistant mineral and vegetable pigments. The figures in this period only meant to be hung on the wall after ceremonies. Starting around 1900, the figures began to have a more naturalistic look to them as a result of the white man’s interest and trade; the price of dolls in this period was on average about $0.25. During the Late Traditional Period subtle changes began to take place towards the creation of more realistic–looking figures, they were more proportional and the carving and painting was much more detailed. Eastern tourist attraction to the Hopi reservation increased in popularity from 1910-1920 due to the increased interest in Native American culture.
The elders restricted the tourists from seeing the religious Kachina ceremonies, there was a notable decline in figures carving for commercial purposes. In the beginning of the 20th century, oppressive agents such as Charles Burton tried to restrict the Hopis' religious and cultural rights. However, in 1934, due to the Indian Reorganization Act, the Hopi people got back their religious freedom, this thus renewed their interest in kachina figures carving; the dolls began to have a different look than that of the stiff figures from earlier periods. The arms were starting to become separated from the body and the heads became overturned, putting the dolls in more of an action pose. Commercial and poster paints were used and the regalia became more organic, as some of the dolls were dressed in real clothing instead of clothing, painted on; the average price of a katcina figure during this period was about $1 an inch. The Late Action period of kachina figures contains the most variations of carvings than any other period.
Most figures of this period display realistic body proportions and show movement, which are distinguishing features of this period. The regalia in this period are more detailed and in the 1960s, carvers began to attach bases to the dolls in order to appeal to the tourists who didn’t want to hang the dolls on their walls. In the 1970s the Endangered Species Act and Migratory Bird Treaty banned the selling of kachina figures that carried any migratory, wild bird feathers from birds such as eagles; as a result, the feathers of the dolls would be carved into the wood, which led to a new brand of Hopi art—the katsina sculpture. As the dolls became more extravagant and the consumer demand went up, the prices of dolls rose significantly. Prices today range on average from $500 to $1,000, it is not unusual to see a carved figure up to $10,000. Most Hopi manufacturers today that sell dolls do it for trade and do not make dolls that reflect authentic kachinam. Kachina ceremonies are still held, but have to now be scheduled around the men’s jobs and businesses and are held on weekends.
The dolls today are much more exquisite than those of the past and are expensive. Women carvers are becoming more common, making miniature dolls that are popular in the trade; the Heard Museum in Phoenix and the Southwest Museum in Los Angeles are now home to the major collections of Hopi kachina figures. There are four
The Heard Museum is a private, not-for-profit museum located in Phoenix, United States, dedicated to the advancement of American Indian art. The museum presents the stories of American Indian people from a first-person perspective, as well as exhibitions of traditional and contemporary art by American Indian artists and artists influenced by American Indian art; the Heard Museum collaborates with American Indian artists and tribal communities on providing visitors with a distinctive perspective about the art of Native people those from the Southwest. The mission of the Heard Museum is to be "the world's preeminent museum for the presentation and advancement of American Indian art, emphasizing its intersection with broader artistic and cultural themes." The main Phoenix location of the Heard Museum has been designated as a Phoenix Point of Pride. The museum operated the Heard Museum West branch in Surprise, closed in 2009; the museum formerly operated the Heard Museum North Scottsdale branch in Scottsdale, closed in May 2014.
The Heard Museum was founded in 1929 by Dwight B. and Maie Bartlett Heard to house their personal collection of art. Much of the archaeological material in the Heards' collection came from La Ciudad Indian ruin, which the Heards purchased in 1926 at 19th and Polk streets in Phoenix. Portions of the museum were designed by architect, Bennie Gonzales, who designed Scottsdale City Hall. From its start as a small museum in a small southwestern town, the Heard has grown in size and stature to where now it is recognized internationally for the quality of its collections, its educational programming and its festivals; the current collection of the Heard Museum consists of over 40,000 items including a library and archives with over 34,000 volumes. The museum has over 130,000 square feet of gallery and performance space; some exhibits include: Home: Native Peoples in the Southwest The Mareen Allen Nichols Collection containing 260 pieces of contemporary jewelry The Barry Goldwater Collection of 437 historic Hopi katsina dolls An exhibition on the 19th century boarding school experiences of Native Americans.
According to the New York Times, the exhibit admirably "captures the little-known experience of thousands of children bused, sometimes forcibly, from their reservations to government schools in order to erase their culture and "civilize" them. Haunting photographs, old uniforms, oral interviews and memorabilia offer a powerful look at this chapter in history."The Heard Museum now attracts about 250,000 visitors a year. The Heard is an affiliate in the Smithsonian Affiliations program; the director of the museum from January 2010 through July 2012 was Dr. Letitia Chambers, the first Heard director to be of American Indian descent. From August 5, 2013 to February 27, 2015, the museum was led by James Pepper Henry, a member of the Kaw Nation of Oklahoma and the Muscogee Creek Nation; the museum is now led by David M. Roche, who began his tenure January, 2016; the museum is a member of the North American Reciprocal Museums program. The Heard hosts the annual El Mercado de Las Artes in November, with strolling mariachis and artwork by Hispanic artists from Arizona and New Mexico including santos, colcha embroidery, furniture making, painting and silver and tinwork.
The Heard hosts the annual World Championship Hoop Dance Contest held in early February. The Annual Heard Museum Guild Indian Fair and Market, a juried art fair and festival, has been held yearly since 1958; the Indian Fair and Market is held annually in March draws in 15,000 visitors and features over 600 Native American artists, includes a juried competition for the best artwork of the fair appropriately called "Best of Show." Approved artists compete in eight classifications: Lapidary Work. The judges of this competition come from a diverse range of occupations including experienced artists, museum curators, gallery directors, art collectors. All have in-depth experience in judging artwork, the majority of these judges come from American Indian tribes. Awards and cash prizes are given for Best of Show, Best of Division, an additional Conrad House award; the judges confer a Judge's Choice ribbon and an Honorable Mention ribbon. List of historic properties in Phoenix, Arizona Media related to Heard Museum at Wikimedia Commons Heard Museum
Indigenous peoples of Arizona
Native Americans have inhabited what is now Arizona for thousands of years. It remains a state with one of the largest percentages of Native Americans in the United States, has the second largest total Native American population of any state. In addition, the majority of the Navajo Nation, the largest Native American reservation in the US, the entire Tohono O'odham Nation, the second largest, are located in Arizona. Over a quarter of the area of the state is reservation land. Twenty tribes are members of the Inter-Tribal Council of Arizona. Chemehuevi Chiricahua Cocopa, or Xawitt Kwñchawaay Dilzhe'e Apache Havasupai, or Havasuw `Baaja Hopi Hualapai, or Hwal `Baaja Maricopa, or Piipaash Mohave, or Hamakhava Navajo, or Diné Southern Paiute Akimel O'odham Pima Quechan, or Yuma San Carlos Apache, Nné - Coyotero or Western Apaches Tewa Tohono O'odham Papago Southern Ute White Mountain Apache, Ndé - Coyotero or Western Apaches Xalychidom, or HalchidhomaYaqui people Yavapai, or Kwevkepaya,Wipukepa and Yavepé Zuni, or A:shiwi Ancestral Pueblo, Four Corners area Hohokam, or Ho:-ho:gam, as far north as the Valley of the Sun and as far south as Mexico.
Mogollon Patayan, western region Sinagua, area around present-day Flagstaff This is a list of all federally recognized tribes in Arizona registered with the Bureau of Indian Affairs. Links go to the ITCA's page for that tribe. Ak Chin Indian Community of the Maricopa Indian Reservation Cocopah Tribe of Arizona Colorado River Indian Tribes of the Colorado River Indian Reservation and California Fort McDowell Yavapai Nation Fort Mojave Indian Tribe of Arizona, California & Nevada Gila River Indian Community Havasupai Tribe of the Havasupai Reservation Hopi Tribe of Arizona Hualapai Indian Tribe of the Hualapai Indian Reservation Kaibab Band of Paiute Indians of the Kaibab Indian Reservation Navajo Nation, New Mexico & Utah Pascua Yaqui, Mexico Quechan Tribe of the Fort Yuma Indian Reservation, California & Arizona Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community of the Salt River Reservation San Carlos Apache Tribe of the San Carlos Reservation San Juan Southern Paiute Tribe of Arizona Tohono O'odham Nation of Arizona Tonto Apache Tribe of Arizona White Mountain Apache Tribe of the Fort Apache Reservation Yavapai-Apache Nation of the Camp Verde Indian Reservation Yavapai-Prescott Tribe of the Yavapai Reservation List of Indian reservations in Arizona Indigenous languages of Arizona U.
S. Department of the Interior Bureau of Indian Affairs Tribal Leaders Directory Spring/Summer 2005 Native Americans in Arizona - timeline, cultures
Little Colorado River
The Little Colorado River is a tributary of the Colorado River in the U. S. state of Arizona, providing the principal drainage from the Painted Desert region. Together with its major tributary, the Puerco River, it drains an area of about 26,500 square miles in eastern Arizona and western New Mexico. Although it stretches 340 miles, only the headwaters and the lowermost reaches flow year-round. Between St. Johns and Cameron, most of the river is a wide, braided wash, only containing water after heavy snowmelt or flash flooding; the lower 57.2 miles is known as the Little Colorado River Gorge and forms one of the largest arms of the Grand Canyon, at over 3,000 feet deep where it joins the Colorado near Desert View in Grand Canyon National Park. The river rises in Apache County; the West Fork starts in a valley on the north flank of Mount Baldy at an elevation of nearly 10,000 feet, while the East Fork starts nearby. The forks meet in a canyon near the town of Greer, it flows into River Reservoir leaves the canyon near Eagar.
The river turns north, meandering through Richville Valley, before emptying into Lyman Lake, impounded by an irrigation dam built in 1912. From there the river continues north, past the town of St. Johns. Shortly afterwards, the river transforms from a perennial stream to an ephemeral wash as it travels northwestwards through Hunt Valley, where it receives the Zuni River receiving Silver Creek and the Puerco River—its main tributaries—near the town of Holbrook as it flows into the Painted Desert; the Little Colorado passes Joseph City and crosses the Southern Transcon route of the BNSF Railway, now winding north into Coconino County. The river enters the Navajo Nation, drops over the 185-foot Grand Falls of the Little Colorado shortly after. Below Grand Falls, the river flows through a rugged canyon for about 15 miles. Emerging into the desert again, the Little Colorado skirts the eastern edge of Wupatki National Monument and passes the town of Cameron, where it is bridged by U. S. Highway 89.
From Cameron, the Little Colorado River carves an steep and narrow gorge into the Colorado Plateau achieving a maximum depth of about 3,200 feet. The depth of the canyon is such that groundwater is forced to the surface, forming numerous springs that restore a perennial river flow, it joins the Colorado deep inside miles from any major settlement. The confluence marks the end of the Marble Canyon segment of the Grand Canyon and the beginning of Upper Granite Gorge; the Little Colorado River is one of the two major tributaries of the Colorado River in Arizona, the other being the Gila River. Runoff peaks twice a year, first in the early spring from snow melt and highland rain; the annual runoff is variable with the possibility of no flow occurring due to a weak snow pack or lack of summer rain. Conversely, years such as 1949, 1973, 1979, 1983 and 1993 have seen massive volumes of spring snowmelt while large monsoon runoff has occurred in 1955, 1964, 1984 and 2006. Monthly average flows in the springtime average several hundred cfs and can reach 2,000 to 3,000 cubic feet per second.
Only the upper reaches of the river above St. Johns, the lowermost stretch below Cameron, flow year round. According to a streamflow gauge near Cameron, before the river enters the Grand Canyon, the river's average annual flow was 367.2 cubic feet per second from 1948 to present. The highest annual average was 1,127 cubic feet per second in 1973, the lowest was 14.1 cubic feet per second in 2000. The river's peak flows can be far higher than its average flow, because of quick desert runoff from cloudbursts. At the same gauge, peak flows were recorded from 1923 to 2008, with spotty data from 1924 to 1947; the highest recorded peak was 120,000 cubic feet per second on September 20, 1923, while the lowest was 1,590 cubic feet per second in 1974. Human activity in the Little Colorado River watershed dates back to the early Holocene epoch, in the last glacial period. Nomadic hunter-gatherers inhabited the water-rich and diverse upper basin of the Little Colorado for 8,000 years before the Navajo and Hopi tribes populated the area.
Many of these people practiced small-scale irrigation in riverside villages, located in sheltered canyons and cliffs that provided defense. Early Spanish explorers exploring the Grand Canyon area were most the first Europeans to see the Little Colorado River, they called it the Little Colorado. Other than fur trappers and mountain men, one of the first organized expeditions into the area of the Little Colorado River was led by Amiel Weeks Whipple in 1853–54 during one of the expeditions to map out a route for a transcontinental railroad. Called The Great Railroad Expeditions, or Pacific Railroad Surveys, Whipple's expedition consisted of several teams going along the 35th parallel from Albuquerque to the Pacific, following the Santa Fe Trail route; the Little Colorado River known as the Flax River, the first Rio Chiquito, is depicted and labelled as such on a map compiled by Lt. Joseph C. Ives and published in the official volumes of those expeditions. Ives would again return to the area in 1858 after navigating a steamboat named the Explorer up the Colorado from south of Yuma northwards to Black Canyon, at which point his party went
The Brooklyn Museum is an art museum located in the New York City borough of Brooklyn. At 560,000 square feet, the museum is New York City's third largest in physical size and holds an art collection with 1.5 million works. Located near the Prospect Heights, Crown Heights and Park Slope neighborhoods of Brooklyn and founded in 1895, the Beaux-Arts building, designed by McKim and White, was planned to be the largest art museum in the world; the museum struggled to maintain its building and collection, only to be revitalized in the late 20th century, thanks to major renovations. Significant areas of the collection include antiquities their collection of Egyptian antiquities spanning over 3,000 years. European, African and Japanese art make for notable antiquities collections as well. American art is represented, starting at the Colonial period. Artists represented in the collection include Mark Rothko, Edward Hopper, Norman Rockwell, Winslow Homer, Edgar Degas, Georgia O'Keeffe, Max Weber; the museum has a "Memorial Sculpture Garden" which features salvaged architectural elements from throughout New York City.
The roots of the Brooklyn Museum extend back to the 1823 founding by Augustus Graham of the Brooklyn Apprentices' Library in Brooklyn Heights. The Library moved into the Brooklyn Lyceum building on Washington Street in 1841. Two years the institutions merged to form the Brooklyn Institute, which offered exhibitions of painting and sculpture and lectures on diverse subjects. In 1890, under its director Franklin Hooper, Institute leaders reorganized as the Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences and began planning the Brooklyn Museum; the museum remained a subdivision of the Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences, along with the Brooklyn Academy of Music, the Brooklyn Botanic Garden, the Brooklyn Children's Museum until the 1970s when all became independent. Opened in 1897, the Brooklyn Museum building is a steel frame structure encased in classical masonry, designed by the famous architectural firm of McKim and White and built by the Carlin Construction Company; the initial design for the Brooklyn Museum was four times as large as the actualized version.
Daniel Chester French, the noted sculptor of the Lincoln Memorial, was the principal designer of the pediment sculptures and the monolithic 12.5-foot figures along the cornice. The figures were carved by the Piccirilli Brothers. French designed the two allegorical figures Brooklyn and Manhattan flanking the museum's entrance, created in 1916 for the Brooklyn approach to the Manhattan Bridge, relocated to the museum in 1963. By 1920, the New York City Subway reached the museum with a subway station; the Brooklyn Institute's director Franklin Hooper was the museum's first director, succeeded by William Henry Fox who served from 1914 to 1934. He was followed by Philip Newell Youtz, Laurance Page Roberts, Isabel Spaulding Roberts, Charles Nagel, Jr. and Edgar Craig Schenck. Thomas S. Buechner became the museum's director in 1960, making him one of the youngest directors in the country. Buechner oversaw a major transformation in the way the museum displayed art and brought some one thousand works that had languished in the museum's archives and put them on display.
Buechner played a pivotal role in rescuing the Daniel Chester French sculptures from destruction due to an expansion project at the Manhattan Bridge in the 1960s. Duncan F. Cameron held the post from 1971 to 1973, with Michael Botwinick succeeding him and Linda S. Ferber acting director for part of 1983 until Robert T. Buck became director in 1983 and served until 1996; the Brooklyn Museum changed its name to Brooklyn Museum of Art in 1997, shortly before the start of Arnold L. Lehman's term as director. On March 12, 2004, the museum announced. In April 2004, the museum opened the James Polshek-designed entrance pavilion on the Eastern Parkway façade. In September 2014, Lehman announced that he was planning to retire around June 2015. In May 2015, Creative Time president and artistic director Anne Pasternak was named the museum's next director; the Brooklyn Museum, along with numerous other New York institutions, including the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the American Museum of Natural History, the Brooklyn Botanic Garden, is part of the Cultural Institutions Group.
Member institutions occupy land or buildings owned by the City of New York and derive part of their yearly funding from the City. The Brooklyn Museum supplements its earned income with funding from Federal and State governments, as well as with donations by individuals and organizations. In 1999, the museum hosted the Charles Saatchi exhibition Sensation, resulting in a court battle over New York City's municipal funding of institutions exhibiting controversial art decided in favor of the museum on First Amendment grounds. In 2005, the museum was among 406 New York City arts and social service institutions to receive part of a $20 million grant from the Carnegie Corporation, made possible through a donation by New York City mayor Michael Bloomberg. Major benefactors include Frank Lusk Babbott; the museum is the site of the annual Brooklyn Artists Ball which has included celebrity hosts such as Sarah Jessica Parker and Liv Tyler. The Brooklyn Museum exhibits collections that seek to embody the rich artistic heritage of world cultures.
The museum is well known for its expansive collections of E
Flagstaff is a city in and the county seat of Coconino County in northern Arizona, in the southwestern United States. In 2015, the city's estimated population was 70,320. Flagstaff's combined metropolitan area has an estimated population of 139,097; the city is named after a ponderosa pine flagpole made by a scouting party from Boston to celebrate the United States Centennial on July 4, 1876. Flagstaff lies near the southwestern edge of the Colorado Plateau, along the western side of the largest contiguous ponderosa pine forest in the continental United States. Flagstaff is next to Mount Elden, just south of the San Francisco Peaks, the highest mountain range in the state of Arizona. Humphreys Peak, the highest point in Arizona at 12,633 feet, is about 10 miles north of Flagstaff in Kachina Peaks Wilderness. Flagstaff's early economy was based on the lumber and ranching industries. Today, the city remains an important distribution hub for companies such as Nestlé Purina PetCare, is home to Lowell Observatory, The U.
S. Naval Observatory, the United States Geological Survey Flagstaff Station, Northern Arizona University. Flagstaff has a strong tourism sector, due to its proximity to Grand Canyon National Park, Oak Creek Canyon, the Arizona Snowbowl, Meteor Crater, historic Route 66; the city is a growing center for medical and biotechnology manufacturing, home to corporations such as SenesTech and W. L. Gore and Associates. There are several legends about the origin of the city's name. Surveyors and investors had traveled through the area in the mid- to late-19th century, the act of stripping a pine tree to fly an American flag has been attributed to several individuals over a twenty-year span, it is said that, because of the flag, raised, the area surrounding it became known as Flagstaff. The first permanent settlement was in 1876, when Thomas F. McMillan built a cabin at the base of Mars Hill on the west side of town. During the 1880s, Flagstaff began to grow, opening its first post office and attracting the railroad industry.
The early economy was based on timber and cattle. The Arizona Lumber and Timber Company was prominent. By 1886, Flagstaff was the largest city on the railroad line between Albuquerque and the west coast of the United States. A circa 1900 diary entry by journalist Sharlot Hall described the houses in the city as a "third rate mining camp", with unkempt air and high prices of available goods. In 1894, Massachusetts astronomer Percival Lowell hired A. E. Douglass to scout an ideal site for a new observatory. Douglass, impressed by Flagstaff's elevation, named it as an ideal location for the now famous Lowell Observatory, saying: "other things being equal, the higher we can get the better". Two years the specially designed 24-inch Clark telescope that Lowell had ordered was installed. In 1930, Pluto was discovered using one of the observatory's telescopes. In 1955 the U. S. Naval Observatory joined the growing astronomical presence, established the United States Naval Observatory Flagstaff Station, where Pluto's satellite, was discovered in 1978.
During the Apollo program in the 1960s, the Clark Telescope was used to map the moon for the lunar expeditions, enabling the mission planners to choose a safe landing site for the lunar modules. In homage to the city's importance in the field of astronomy, asteroid 2118 Flagstaff is named for the city, 6582 Flagsymphony for the Flagstaff Symphony Orchestra; the Northern Arizona Normal School was established in 1899, renamed Northern Arizona University in 1966. Flagstaff's cultural history received a significant boost on April 11, 1899, when the Flagstaff Symphony made its concert debut at Babbitt's Opera House; the orchestra continues today as the Flagstaff Symphony Orchestra, with its primary venue at the Ardrey Auditorium on the campus of Northern Arizona University. The city grew primarily due to its location along the east–west transcontinental railroad line in the United States. In the 1880s, the railroads purchased land in the west from the federal government, sold to individuals to help finance the railroad projects.
By the 1890s, Flagstaff found itself along one of the busiest railroad corridors in the U. S. with 80–100 trains travelling through the city every day, destined for Chicago, Los Angeles, elsewhere. Route 66 ran through Flagstaff. Flagstaff was incorporated as a city in 1928, in 1929, the city's first motel, the Motel Du Beau, was built at the intersection of Beaver Street and Phoenix Avenue; the Daily Sun described the motel as "a hotel with garages for the better class of motorists." The units rented for $2.60 to $5.00 each, with baths, double beds and furniture. Flagstaff went on to become a popular tourist stop along Route 66 due to its proximity to the Grand Canyon. Flagstaff prospered through the 1960s. During the 1970s and 1980s, many businesses started to move from the city center, the downtown area entered an economic and social decline. Sears and J. C. Penney left the downtown area in 1979 to open up as anchor stores in the new Flagstaff Mall, joined in 1986 by Dillard's. By 1987, the Babbitt Brothers Trading Company, a retail fixture in Flagstaff since 1891, closed its doors at Aspen Avenue and San Francisco Street.
The Railroad Addition Historic District was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1983. In 1987, the city drafted a new master plan known as the Growth Management Guide 2000, which would transform downtown Flagstaff from a shopping and trade center into a regional center for finance, office use, government; the city built a new city hall and the Coconino County Admin
Bureau of American Ethnology
The Bureau of American Ethnology was established in 1879 by an act of Congress for the purpose of transferring archives and materials relating to the Indians of North America from the Interior Department to the Smithsonian Institution. But from the start, the bureau's visionary founding director, John Wesley Powell, promoted a broader mission: "to organize anthropologic research in America." Under Powell, the bureau organized research-intensive multi-year projects. It prepared exhibits for expositions and collected anthropological artifacts for the Smithsonian United States National Museum. In addition, the BAE was the official repository of documents concerning American Indians collected by the various US geological surveys the Geographical and Geological Survey of the Rocky Mountain Region and the Geological Survey of the Territories, it developed a manuscript repository and illustrations section that included photographic work and the collection of photographs. In 1897, the Bureau of Ethnology's name changed to the Bureau of American Ethnology to emphasize the geographic limit of its interests, although its staff conducted research in US possessions such as Hawaii and the Philippines.
In 1965, the BAE merged with the Smithsonian's Department of Anthropology to form the Smithsonian Office of Anthropology within the United States National Museum. In 1968, the SOA archives became the National Anthropological Archives; the BAE's staff included some of America's earliest field anthropologists, including Frank Hamilton Cushing, James Owen Dorsey, Jesse Walter Fewkes, Alice Cunningham Fletcher, John N. B. Hewitt, Francis LaFlesche and Victor Mindeleff, James Mooney, William Henry Holmes, Edward Palmer, James Stevenson, Matilda Coxe Stevenson. In the 20th century, the BAE's staff included such anthropologists as Neil Judd, John Peabody Harrington, Matthew Stirling, William C. Sturtevant; the BAE supported the work of many non-Smithsonian researchers, most notably Franz Boas, Frances Densmore, Garrick Mallery, Washington Matthews, Paul Radin, Cyrus Thomas and T. T. Waterman; the BAE had three subunits: the Mounds Survey. At the time the BAE was founded, there was intense controversy over the identity of the Mound Builders, the term for the prehistoric people who had built complex, monumental earthwork mounds.
Archaeologists, both amateur and professional, were divided between believing the mounds were built by passing groups of people who settled in various places elsewhere, or believing they could have been built by Native Americans. Cyrus Thomas, the Bureau's appointed head of the Division of Mound Exploration published his conclusions on the origins of the mounds in the Bureau's Annual Report of 1894, it is considered to be the last word in the controversy over the Mound builders' identities. After Thomas' publication, scholars accepted that varying cultures of prehistoric indigenous peoples, Native Americans, were the Mound builders. History of indigenous peoples of North America Native American history Moon eyed people National Anthropological Archives Fagan, Brian M. Ancient North America. Thames & Hudson. New York, 2005 Hinsley, Curtis M. 1994. The Smithsonian and the American Indian: making a moral anthropology in Victorian America. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press. Hodge, Frederick Webb, Corinne L. Gilb.
1956. Frederick Webb Hodge, ethnologist. Berkeley, Calif: University of California. Judd, Neil Merton; the Bureau of American Ethnology. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1967. Thomas, Cyrus. Report on the mound explorations of the Bureau of Ethnology. Pp. 3–730. Twelfth annual report of the Bureau of Ethnology to the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, 1890–91, by J. W. Powell, Director. XLVIII+742 pp. 42 pls. 344 figs. 1894. List of Publications of the Bureau of American Ethnology National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution Department of Anthropology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution A History of the Department of Anthropology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, 1897–1997 Digitized copies of the BAE Annual Reports at Gallica Digitized copies of BAE Bulletins No. 1 – 24 Digitized copies of BAE Bulletins No. 25 – 200 Register to the Records of the Bureau of American Ethnology, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution