A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c
A town is a human settlement. Towns are larger than villages but smaller than cities, though the criteria to distinguish them vary between different parts of the world; the word town shares an origin with the German word Zaun, the Dutch word tuin, the Old Norse tun. The German word Zaun comes closest to the original meaning of the word: a fence of any material. An early borrowing from Celtic *dunom. In English and Dutch, the meaning of the word took on the sense of the space which these fences enclosed. In England, a town was a small community that could not afford or was not allowed to build walls or other larger fortifications, built a palisade or stockade instead. In the Netherlands, this space was a garden, more those of the wealthy, which had a high fence or a wall around them. In Old Norse tun means a place between farmhouses, the word is still used in a similar meaning in modern Norwegian. In Old English and Early and Middle Scots, the words ton, etc. could refer to diverse kinds of settlements from agricultural estates and holdings picking up the Norse sense at one end of the scale, to fortified municipalities.
If there was any distinction between toun and burgh as claimed by some, it did not last in practice as burghs and touns developed. For example, "Edina Burgh" or "Edinburgh" was built around a fort and came to have a defensive wall. In some cases, "town" is an alternative name for "city" or "village". Sometimes, the word "town" is short for "township". In general, today towns can be differentiated from townships, villages, or hamlets on the basis of their economic character, in that most of a town's population will tend to derive their living from manufacturing industry and public services rather than primary industry such as agriculture or related activities. A place's population size is not a reliable determinant of urban character. In many areas of the world, e.g. in India at least until recent times, a large village might contain several times as many people as a small town. In the United Kingdom, there are historical cities; the modern phenomenon of extensive suburban growth, satellite urban development, migration of city dwellers to villages has further complicated the definition of towns, creating communities urban in their economic and cultural characteristics but lacking other characteristics of urban localities.
Some forms of non-rural settlement, such as temporary mining locations, may be non-rural, but have at best a questionable claim to be called a town. Towns exist as distinct governmental units, with defined borders and some or all of the appurtenances of local government. In the United States these are referred to as "incorporated towns". In other cases the town lacks its own governance and is said to be "unincorporated". Note that the existence of an unincorporated town may be set out by other means, e.g. zoning districts. In the case of some planned communities, the town exists in the form of covenants on the properties within the town; the United States Census identifies many census-designated places by the names of unincorporated towns which lie within them. The distinction between a town and a city depends on the approach: a city may be an administrative entity, granted that designation by law, but in informal usage, the term is used to denote an urban locality of a particular size or importance: whereas a medieval city may have possessed as few as 10,000 inhabitants, today some consider an urban place of fewer than 100,000 as a town though there are many designated cities that are much smaller than that.
Australian geographer Thomas Griffith Taylor proposed a classification of towns based on their age and pattern of land use. He identified five types of town: Infantile towns, with no clear zoning Juvenile towns, which have developed an area of shops Adolescent towns, where factories have started to appear Early mature towns, with a separate area of high-class housing Mature towns, with defined industrial and various types of residential area In Afghanistan and cities are known as shār; as the country is an rural society with few larger settlements, with major cities never holding more than a few hundred thousand inhabitants before the 2000s, the lingual tradition of the country does not discriminate between towns and cities. In Albania "qytezë" means town, similar with the word for city. Although there is no official use of the term for any settlement. In Albanian "qytezë" means "small city" or "new city", while in ancient times "small residential center within the walls of a castle"; the center is a population group, larger than a village, smaller than a city.
Though the village is bigger than a hamlet In Australia, towns or "urban centre localities" are understood to be those centers of population not formally declared to be cities and having a population in excess of about 200 people. Centers too small to be called towns are understood to be a township. In addition, some local government entities are styled as towns in Queensland, Western Australia and the Northern Territory, before the statewide amalgamations of th
Coconino County, Arizona
Coconino County is a county located in the north central part of the U. S. state of Arizona. The population was 134,421 at the 2010 census; the county seat is Flagstaff. The county takes its name from Cohonino, a name applied to the Havasupai, it is the second-largest county by area in the contiguous United States, behind San Bernardino County, with its 18,661 square miles, or 16.4% of Arizona's total area, making it larger than each of the nine smallest states. Coconino County comprises Arizona Metropolitan Statistical Area. Coconino County contains Grand Canyon National Park, the Havasupai Nation, parts of the Navajo Nation, Hualapai Nation, Hopi Nation, it has a large Native American population at nearly 30% of the county's total population, being Navajo with smaller numbers of Havasupai and others. The county was the setting for George Herriman's early-20th-century Krazy Kat comic strip. After the building of the Atlantic & Pacific Railroad in 1883 the region of northern Yavapai County began experiencing rapid growth.
The people of the northern reaches had tired of the rigors of travelling all the way to Prescott for county business. They believed that they were a significant enough entity that they should have their own county jurisdiction. Therefore, they decided in 1887 to petition for secession from Yavapai and the creation of a new Frisco County, they remained part of Yavapai, until 1891 when Coconino County was formed and its seat declared to be Flagstaff. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 18,661 square miles, of which 18,619 square miles is land and 43 square miles is water, it is the largest county by area in Arizona and the second-largest county in the United States after San Bernardino County in California. It has more land area than each of the following U. S. states: Connecticut, Hawaii, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Rhode Island, Vermont. The highest natural point in the county, as well as the entire state, is Humphreys Peak at 12,637 feet or 3,852 metres.
The Barringer Meteor Crater is located in Coconino County. Mohave County – west Yavapai County – south Gila County – south Navajo County – east San Juan County, Utah – northeast Kane County, Utah – north Coconino County has 7,142.42 square miles of federally designated Indian reservation, second only to Apache County. In descending order of area within the county, the reservations are the Navajo Nation, Hualapai Indian Reservation, Hopi Indian Reservation, Havasupai Indian Reservation, the Kaibab Indian Reservation; the Havasupai Reservation is the only one that lies within the county's borders. As of the 2000 census, there were 116,320 people, 40,448 households, 26,938 families residing in the county; the population density was 6 people per square mile. There were 53,443 housing units at an average density of 3 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 63.09% White, 28.51% Native American, 1.04% Black or African American, 0.78% Asian, 0.09% Pacific Islander, 4.13% from other races, 2.36% from two or more races.
10.94% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 18.59 % reported speaking Navajo at home. There were 40,448 households out of which 34.90% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.70% were married couples living together, 12.20% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.40% were non-families. 22.10% of all households were made up of individuals and 4.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.80 and the average family size was 3.36. In the county, the population was spread out with 28.70% under the age of 18, 14.40% from 18 to 24, 29.20% from 25 to 44, 20.70% from 45 to 64, 7.00% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 30 years. For every 100 females there were 99.70 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.20 males. The median income for a household in the county was $38,256, the median income for a family was $45,873. Males had a median income of $32,226 versus $25,055 for females.
The per capita income for the county was $17,139. About 13.10% of families and 18.20% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.30% of those under age 18 and 13.30% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 census, there were 134,421 people, 46,711 households, 29,656 families residing in the county; the population density was 7.2 inhabitants per square mile. There were 63,321 housing units at an average density of 3.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 61.7% white, 27.3% American Indian, 1.4% Asian, 1.2% black or African American, 0.1% Pacific islander, 5.2% from other races, 3.1% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 13.5% of the population. The largest ancestry groups were: Of the 46,711 households, 33.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.0% were married couples living together, 12.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.5% were non-families, 24.5% of all households were made up of individuals.
The average household size was 2.69 and the average family size was 3.26. The median age was 31.0 years. The median income for a household in the county was $49,510 and the median income for a family was $58,841. Males had a median income of $42,331 versus $31,869 for females; the per capita income for the county was $22,632. About 11.6% of families and 18.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.5% of those under age 18 and 13.8% of those age 65 or over. Flagstaff Page Sedona Williams Fredonia Tu
Fredonia is a town in Coconino County, United States. As of the 2010 census it had a population of 1,314. Fredonia is the gateway to the North Rim of the Grand Canyon. Fredonia was laid out in 1886; as of the census of 2000, there were 1,036 people, 359 households, 287 families residing in the town. The population density was 139.7 people per square mile. There were 455 housing units at an average density of 61.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 85.71% White, 1.06% Black or African American, 11.39% Native American, 0.39% from other races, 1.45% from two or more races. 1.45% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 359 households out of which 37.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 65.5% were married couples living together, 10.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 19.8% were non-families. 15.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.89 and the average family size was 3.25.
In the town, the age distribution of the population shows 32.3% under the age of 18, 6.2% from 18 to 24, 27.7% from 25 to 44, 22.7% from 45 to 64, 11.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 104.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.0 males. The median income for a household in the town was $30,288, the median income for a family was $30,913. Males had a median income of $24,904 versus $19,554 for females; the per capita income for the town was $13,309. About 12.3% of families and 15.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 25.4% of those under age 18 and 3.2% of those age 65 or over. Fredonia is located at 36°56′58″N 112°31′18″W, at 4,680 feet in elevation, it is in the Arizona Strip, the portion of Arizona lying north of the Colorado River, is within a few miles of the Utah border. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 7.4 square miles, all of it land. Fredonia is located within a short distance of other national parks, national monuments, state parks, scenic outdoor recreation spots.
Fredonia is a part of the Fredonia-Moccasin Unified School District. Two schools, Fredonia Elementary School and Fredonia High/Middle School, serve the town. List of localities in Arizona Pipe Spring National Monument George R. Stewart. Names on the Land. Houghton Mifflin Company: Boston Town of Fredonia official website
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most identify, indicate whether or not they are of Hispanic or Latino origin. The racial categories represent a social-political construct for the race or races that respondents consider themselves to be and, "generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country." OMB defines the concept of race as outlined for the US Census as not "scientific or anthropological" and takes into account "social and cultural characteristics as well as ancestry", using "appropriate scientific methodologies" that are not "primarily biological or genetic in reference." The race categories include both national-origin groups. Race and ethnicity are considered separate and distinct identities, with Hispanic or Latino origin asked as a separate question. Thus, in addition to their race or races, all respondents are categorized by membership in one of two ethnic categories, which are "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino".
However, the practice of separating "race" and "ethnicity" as different categories has been criticized both by the American Anthropological Association and members of US Commission on Civil Rights. In 1997, OMB issued a Federal Register notice regarding revisions to the standards for the classification of federal data on race and ethnicity. OMB developed race and ethnic standards in order to provide "consistent data on race and ethnicity throughout the Federal Government; the development of the data standards stem in large measure from new responsibilities to enforce civil rights laws." Among the changes, OMB issued the instruction to "mark one or more races" after noting evidence of increasing numbers of interracial children and wanting to capture the diversity in a measurable way and having received requests by people who wanted to be able to acknowledge their or their children's full ancestry rather than identifying with only one group. Prior to this decision, the Census and other government data collections asked people to report only one race.
The OMB states, "many federal programs are put into effect based on the race data obtained from the decennial census. Race data are critical for the basic research behind many policy decisions. States require these data to meet legislative redistricting requirements; the data are needed to monitor compliance with the Voting Rights Act by local jurisdictions". "Data on ethnic groups are important for putting into effect a number of federal statutes. Data on Ethnic Groups are needed by local governments to run programs and meet legislative requirements." The 1790 United States Census was the first census in the history of the United States. The population of the United States was recorded as 3,929,214 as of Census Day, August 2, 1790, as mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution and applicable laws."The law required that every household be visited, that completed census schedules be posted in'two of the most public places within, there to remain for the inspection of all concerned...' and that'the aggregate amount of each description of persons' for every district be transmitted to the president."
This law along with U. S. marshals were responsible for governing the census. One third of the original census data has been lost or destroyed since documentation; the data was lost in 1790–1830 time period and included data from: Connecticut, Maryland, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Delaware, New Jersey, Virginia. Census data included the name of the head of the family and categorized inhabitants as follows: free white males at least 16 years of age, free white males under 16 years of age, free white females, all other free persons, slaves. Thomas Jefferson the Secretary of State, directed marshals to collect data from all thirteen states, from the Southwest Territory; the census was not conducted in Vermont until 1791, after that state's admission to the Union as the 14th state on March 4 of that year. There was some doubt surrounding the numbers, President George Washington and Thomas Jefferson maintained the population was undercounted; the potential reasons Washington and Jefferson may have thought this could be refusal to participate, poor public transportation and roads, spread out population, restraints of current technology.
No microdata from the 1790 population census is available, but aggregate data for small areas and their compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. In 1800 and 1810, the age question regarding free white males was more detailed; the 1820
Parks is a census-designated place in Coconino County, United States. The population was 1,188 at the 2010 census. Parks is located at 35°17′29″N 111°57′32″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 172.4 square miles, of which 172.3 square miles is land and 0.02 square miles, or 0.01%, is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,137 people, 462 households, 342 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 6.6 people per square mile. There were 918 housing units at an average density of 5.3/sq mi. The racial makeup of the CDP was 93.67% White, 0.35% Black or African American, 0.70% Native American, 0.35% Asian, 0.53% Pacific Islander, 1.76% from other races, 2.64% from two or more races. 5.19% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 462 households out of which 29.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 63.6% were married couples living together, 5.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 25.8% were non-families.
18.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.46 and the average family size was 2.78. In the CDP, the age distribution of the population shows 22.6% under the age of 18, 3.9% from 18 to 24, 29.2% from 25 to 44, 34.3% from 45 to 64, 10.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 43 years. For every 100 females, there were 109.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 106.6 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $39,886, the median income for a family was $45,000. Males had a median income of $34,500 versus $27,875 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $19,377. About 6.4% of families and 9.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 9.6% of those under age 18 and 5.7% of those age 65 or over. Parks, photo gallery and profile at CityData.com
Mountainaire is a census-designated place in Coconino County, United States. The population was 1,119 at the 2010 census. Mountainaire is located at 35°5′28″N 111°39′37″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 10.2 square miles, all of it land. Mountainaire CDP includes Kachina Hills and Mountainaire subdivisions, nearby areas; this region experiences warm and dry summers, with no average monthly temperatures above 71.6 °F. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Mountainaire has a warm-summer Mediterranean climate, abbreviated "Csb" on climate maps; as of the census of 2000, there were 1,014 people, 417 households, 246 families residing in the CDP. The population density was 99.2 people per square mile. There were 556 housing units at an average density of 54.4/sq mi. The racial makeup of the CDP was 86.09% White, 0.30% Black or African American, 7.69% Native American, 0.30% Asian, 0.10% Pacific Islander, 3.06% from other races, 2.47% from two or more races.
6.61% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 417 households out of which 31.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.8% were married couples living together, 8.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 41.0% were non-families. 26.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 4.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.43 and the average family size was 3.04. In the CDP, the age distribution of the population shows 24.7% under the age of 18, 8.5% from 18 to 24, 39.6% from 25 to 44, 23.5% from 45 to 64, 3.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females, there were 110.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 107.6 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $41,250, the median income for a family was $49,355. Males had a median income of $32,406 versus $27,125 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $23,625. About 5.3% of families and 7.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 10.9% of those under age 18 and none of those age 65 or over.
Beekeeping in Mountainaire Mountainaire, AZ Weather Station