The Pallava dynasty was an Indian dynasty that existed from 275 CE to 897 CE, ruling a portion of southern India. They gained prominence after the eclipse of the Satavahana dynasty, whom the Pallavas served as feudatories. Pallavas became a major power during the reign of Mahendravarman I and Narasimhavarman I and dominated the Telugu and northern parts of the Tamil region for about 600 years until the end of the 9th century. Throughout their reign they were in constant conflict with both Chalukyas of Badami in the north and the Tamil kingdoms of Chola and Pandyas in the south and Pallava were defeated by the Chola Aditya I in the 9th century CE. Pallavas are most noted for their patronage of architecture, the finest example being the Shore Temple, a UNESCO World Heritage Site in Mahabalipuram; the Pallavas, who left behind magnificent sculptures and temples, established the foundations of medieval South Indian architecture. They developed the Pallava script from which Grantha descended; the Pallava script gave rise to several other southeast Asian scripts.
Chinese traveller Xuanzang extolled their benign rule. There were numerous theories about the origin of Pallavas. According to many notable scholars like Gabriel Jouveau, N. S Ramaswamy early pallavas originated in Andhradesa, which forms present day Andhra region and extended till kanchipuram of present day Tamilnadu; the early literary works of pallavas were traced in Prakrit and sanskrit from third century to sixth centuary and tamil literary records of pallavas were only available from seventh century. Velurpalaiyam plates dated to 852 AD, mentioned Virakurcha to be the first king of the Pallava dynasty as grant tells that Virakurcha grasped the complete insignia of royalty after marrying a Naga princess of Cutu-Nagas of Vanavasi who were feudatories of Andhras. Early relations between Nagas and Pallavas became well-established before the myth of Pallava's birth to Ashvatthama took root. A prashasti, composed in 753 on the dynastic eulogy in the Kasakadi plates, by the Pallava Trivikrama, traces the Pallava lineage from creation through a series of mythic progenitors, praises the dynasty in terms of two similes hinged together by triple use of the word avatara, as below:The Proceedings of the First Annual Conference of South Indian History Congress notes: The word Tondai means a creeper and the term Pallava conveys a similar meaning.
Since the Pallavas ruled in the territory extending from Bellary to Bezwada, it led to the theory that they were a northern dynasty who contracted marriages with princesses of the Andhra Dynasty and so inherited a portion of southern Andhra Pradesh. Historian K. R. Subramanian says the Pallavas were a Telugu power rather than a Tamil one. Telugu sources know of a Trilochana Pallava as the earliest Telugu king and they are confirmed by inscriptions; the first Chalukya king is said to have been met and killed by the same Trilochana near Mudivemu. A Buddhist story describes Kala the Nagaraja, resembling the Pallava Kalabhartar as a king of the region near Krishna district; the Pallava Bogga may be identified with the kingdom of Kala in Andhra which had close and early maritime and cultural relations with Ceylon. K. A. Nilakanta Sastri postulated that Pallavas were descendants of a North Indian dynasty who moved southwards, adopted local traditions to their own use, named themselves as Tondaiyar after the land called Tondai.
K. P. Jayaswal proposed a North Indian origin, putting forward the theory that the Pallavas were a branch of the Vakatakas; the earliest inscriptions of the Pallavas were found in the districts of Bellary and Nellore and all the inscriptions of the dynasty till the rise of Simhavishnu were found in the latter two of those. The mention of the Pallava king Vishnugopa of Kanchi, in the Allahabad record of Samudragupta in the fourth century, is noted as an important milestone in early Pallava history; the Pallavas captured Kanchi from the Cholas as recorded in the Velurpalaiyam Plates, around the reign of the fifth king of the Pallava line Kumaravishnu I. Thereafter Kanchi figures in inscriptions as the capital of the Pallavas; the Cholas drove the Pallavas away from Kanchi in the mid-4th century, in the reign of Vishugopa, the tenth king of the Pallava line. The Pallavas re-captured Kanchi in the mid-6th century in the reign of Simhavishnu, the fourteenth king of the Pallava line, whom the Kasakudi plates state as "the lion of the earth".
Thereafter the Pallavas held on to Kanchi until the 9th century, until the reign of their last king, Vijaya-Nripatungavarman. The Pallavas were in conflict with major kingdoms at various periods of time. A contest for political supremacy existed between the Kadambas. Numerous Kadamba inscriptions provide details of Pallava-Kadamba hostilities. Kadamba dynasty's founder Mayurasharma first succeeded in establishing himself in the forests of Shriparvata by defeating the Antharapalas of the Pallavas and subduing the Banas of Kolar in 345 CE; the Pallavas under Skandavarman were unable to contain Mayurasharma and recognised him as a sovereign in the regions from the Amara Ocean to Prehara. Some historians feel that Mayurasharma was appointed as a commander in the army of the Pallavas, as the inscription uses such terms as Senani and calls Mayurasharma Shadanana. After a period of time, due to the confusion caused by the defeat of Pallava Vishnugopa by Samudragupta, Mayurasharma formed his kingdom with Banavasi as his capital.
The Satavahanas referred to as the Andhras in the Puranas, were an ancient Indian dynasty based in the Deccan region. Most modern scholars believe that the Satavahana rule began in the first century BCE and lasted until the second century CE, although some assign the beginning of their rule to as early as the 3rd century BCE; the Satavahana kingdom comprised the present-day Telangana, Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra. At different times, their rule extended to parts of modern Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka; the dynasty had different capital cities including Pratishthana and Amaravati. The origin of the dynasty is uncertain, but according to the Puranas, their first king overthrew the Kanva dynasty. In the post-Maurya era, the Satavahanas established peace in the Deccan region, resisted the onslaught of foreign invaders. In particular their struggles with the Saka Western Satraps went on for a long time; the dynasty reached its zenith under the rule of Gautamiputra Satakarni and his successor Vasisthiputra Pulamavi.
The kingdom fragmented into smaller states by the early 3rd century CE. The Satavahanas were early issuers of Indian state coinage struck with images of their rulers, they formed a cultural bridge and played a vital role in trade and the transfer of ideas and culture to and from the Indo-Gangetic Plain to the southern tip of India. They supported Brahmanism as well as Buddhism, patronised Prakrit literature; the date and place of origin of the Satavahanas, as well as the meaning of the dynasty's name, are a matter of debate among the historians. Some of these debates have happened in the context of regionalism, with the present-day Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and Telangana being variously claimed as the original homeland of the Satavahanas. According to one theory, the word "Satavahana" is a Prakrit form of the Sanskrit Sapta-Vahana; this would indicate that the Satavahanas claimed association with the legendary solar dynasty, as was common in ancient India. According to Inguva Kartikeya Sarma, the dynasty's name is derived from the words vahana.
Another theory connects their name to the earlier Satiyaputa dynasty. Yet another theory derives their name from the Munda words Sadam and Harpan, implying "son of the performer of a horse sacrifice". Several rulers of the dynasty bear the name or title "Satakarni". Satavahana, Satakarni and Shalivahana appear to be variations of the same word. Damodar Dharmanand Kosambi theorized that the word "Satakarni" is derived from the Munda words sada and kon; the Puranas use the name "Andhra" or "Andhra-Bhritya" for the Satavahanas. The term "Andhra" may refer to territory of the dynasty, it does not appear in the dynasty's own records. Tamil epic Silappatikaram mentions a "Nurruvar Kannar", who helped Chera king Senguttuvan during his Himalaya campaign; the direct translation of the term Nurruvar Kannar is "the hundred Karnas" or "Satakarni", hence the Nurruvar Kannar has been identified with the Satavahana dynasty. The use of the name "Andhra" in the Puranas has led some scholars to believe that the dynasty originated in the eastern Deccan region.
At Kotilingala in Telangana, coins bearing the legend "Rano Siri Chimuka Satavahanasa" were found. Epigraphist and numismastist P. V. P. Sastry identified Chimuka with the dynasty's founder Simuka, because of which Kotilingala came to be known as the only place where coins attributed to Simuka were found. Coins attributed to Simuka's successors Kanha and Satakarni I were discovered at Kotilingla. Based on these discoveries, historians such as D. R. Reddy, S. Reddy and Shankar R. Goyal theorized that Kotlingala was the original home of the Satavahanas. However, the coin samples from Kotlingala are small, it is not certain if these coins were minted there or reached there from somewhere else. Moreover, the identification of Chimuka of Kotilingala with the dynasty's founder Simuka has been contested by several scholars including P. L. Gupta and I. K. Sarma, who identified Chimuka as a ruler. P. V. P. Sastry later changed his view, stated that the two kings were different; as for the Puranas, these texts were compiled much during the Gupta period, it is not certain if the Satavahanas were referred to as Andhras during their time.
Another section of scholars believe. All four extant inscriptions from the early Satavahana period have been found in and around this region; the oldest known Satavahana inscription was found at Cave No.19 of the Pandavleni Caves in Nashik district, was issued during the reign of Kanha. An inscription found at Naneghat was issued by Nayanika, the widow of Satakarni I. A later inscription dated to the reign of Satakarni II has been found at Sanchi in Madhya Pradesh, located to the north of Maharashtra; the majority of the other Satavahana inscriptions have been found in western Deccan. On the other hand, the epigraphic evidence from eastern Deccan does not mention the Satavahanas before the 4th century CE. At Nevasa, a seal and coins attributed to Kanha have been discovered. Coins attributed to Satakarni I have been discovered at Nashik and Pauni in Maharashtra (besides places in eastern Deccan and present-day Madhya Pra
The Khalji or Khilji dynasty was a Muslim dynasty which ruled large parts of the Indian subcontinent between 1290 and 1320. It was founded by Jalal ud din Firuz Khalji and became the second dynasty to rule the Delhi Sultanate of India; the dynasty is known for their faithlessness and ferocity, conquests into the Hindu south, for fending off the repeated Mongol invasions of India. The Khaljis were of Turko-Afghan origin: a Turkic people that had settled in Afghanistan before moving to Delhi; the ancestors of Jalaluddin Khalji had lived in the Lamghan regions for over 200 years. There is some debate about the ethnic group; the Khalaj people in western Iran speak the Khalaj language. The modern Pashto-speaking Ghilzai Afghans are descendants of Khalaj people. After a number of ethnic transformations, the Afghan Khalaj became the Ghilzay tribe of Afghans. Between the 10th and 13th centuries, some sources refer to the Khalaj people as of Turkic, but some others do not. Ibn Khordadbeh mentions the Khalaj people while describing the "land of the Turks".
But the distance between the Amu Darya and the Talas is such as it would have been impossible for the tribes living beyond the Amu Darya to use the Talas pastures as winter quarters, leading to the conclusion that the text has been corrupted somehow or that some Khalaj still lived near the Khallukh at the time. Minorsky argues that the early history of the Khalaj tribe is obscure and adds that the identity of the name Khalaj is still to be proved. Mahmud al-Kashgari does not include the Khalaj among the Oghuz Turkic tribes, but includes them among the Oghuz-Turkman tribes. Kashgari felt the Khalaj did not belong to the original stock of Turkish tribes but had associated with them and therefore, in language and dress appeared "like Turks"; the 11th century Tarikh-i Sistan and the Firdausi's Shahnameh distinguish and differentiate the Khalaj from the Turks. Minhaj-i-Siraj Juzjani never identified Khalaj as Turks, but was careful not to refer to them as Afghans, they were always a category apart from Turks and Afghans.
Muhammad ibn Najib Bakran's Jahan-nama explicitly describes them as Turkic, although he notes that that their complexion had become darker and their language had undergone enough alterations to become a distinct dialect. The modern historian Irfan Habib has argued that the Khaljis were not related to the Turkic people and were instead ethnic Afghans. Habib pointed out that, in some 15th century Devanagari Sati inscriptions, the Khaljis of Malwa have been referred to as "Khalchi" and "Khilchi", that the 17th century chronicle Padshahnama, an area near Boost in Afghanistan as "Khalich". Habib theorizes that the earlier Persian chroniclers misread the name "Khalchi" as "Khalji", but this is unlikely, as this would mean that every Persian chronicler writing between the 13th and 17th centuries made the same mistake. Habib argues that no 13th century source refers to the Turkish background of the Khaljis, but this assertion is wrong, as Muhammad ibn Najib Bakran's Jahan-nama explicitly describes the Khalaj people as Turkic.
The accounts describing the Khaljis' rise to power in India indicate that they were regarded as a race quite distinct from the Turks in late 13th century Delhi. Over the centuries, the Khaljis had intermarried with the local Afghans and adopted their manners, culture and practices, they were looked down as non-Turks by Turks. Therefore, the Turkish nobles wrongly looked upon them as Afghans, they were considered Afghans in the Delhi Court. Khaljis were vassals of the Mamluk dynasty of Delhi and served the Sultan of Delhi, Ghiyas ud din Balban. Balban's successors were murdered over 1289-1290, the Mamluk dynasty succumbed to the factional conflicts within the Mamluk dynasty and the Muslim nobility; as the struggle between the factions razed, Jalal ud din Firuz Khalji led a coup and murdered the 17-year-old Mamluk successor Muiz ud din Qaiqabad - the last ruler of Mamluk dynasty. Jalaluddin Firuz Khalji, around 70 years old at the time of his ascension, was known as a mild-mannered and kind monarch to the general public.
Jalaluddin succeeded in overcoming the opposition of the Turkish nobles and ascended the throne of Delhi in January 1290. Jalal-ud-din was not universally accepted: During his six-year reign, Balban's nephew revolted due to his assumption of power and the subsequent sidelining of nobility and commanders serving the Mamluk dynasty. Jalal-ud-din suppressed the revolt and executed some commanders led an unsuccessful expedition against Ranthambhor and repelled a Mongol force on the banks of the Sind River in central India with the help of his nephew Juna Khan. Alauddin Khalji was the son-in-law of Jalal-ud-din, he raided the Hindu Deccan peninsula and Deogiri - the capital of the Hindu state of Maharashtra, looting their treasure. He murdered Jalal-ud-din and assumed power as Sultan. Alauddin Khalji continued expanding Delhi Sultanate into South India, with the help of generals such as Malik Kafur and Khusraw Khan, collecting large war booty from those they defeated, his commanders collected war spoils from Hindu kingdoms and paid khums on ghanima to Sultan's treasury, which helped strengthen the Khalji rule.
Alauddin Khalji reigned for 20 years. He attacked and seized Hindu states of Ranthambhor, Chittorgarh, Māndu and plundered the wealthy state of Devagiri withstood two Mongol raids. Alauddin
The Penna is a river of southern India. The Penna rises in Nandi Hills in Chikballapur District of Karnataka state, runs north and east through the states of Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh to empty into the Bay of Bengal, it is 597 kilometres long, with a drainage basin covering 55,213 km2: 6,937 km2 in Karnataka and 48,276 km2 in Andhra Pradesh. The river basin lies in the rain shadow region of Eastern Ghats and receives 500 mm average rainfall annually; the name of the river Penneru is derived from Telugu words penu పెను meaning grand and yeru ఏఱు / యేఱు meaning river, stream, or a rivulet or else from neeru నీరు water, in flow of course. It called as Utthara Pinakini in Karnataka; the name Pinakini refers to Pinaka bow of the Nandhiswara, the presiding deity of the Nandi hills at the origin of the river. The Penna river has several mouths; the main stream starts in Nandi Hills in of Karnataka, flows for 597km in north and east directions through several mountains and plains, joins the Bay of Bengal in Nellore district of Andhra Pradesh.
The river is seasonal. The main source of the water is from rains, it appears like small stream during dry periods. The major tributaries of the Penna are the Jayamangali and Sagileru from the north, Chitravathi and Cheyyeru from the south; the Penna river rises at 13.55°N 77.60°E / 13.55. It starts in north west direction at its source, it flows near the towns like Maralur. It flows for 48km towards north through the Kolar and Tumkur districts in Karnataka before entering Andhra Pradesh in Anantpur district. At 69km, the Penna meets the Kumudavati river. At 82km, the Penna meets the Jayamangali river near the Hindupur town in Anantapur district; the Jayamangali river rises in Tumkur district and traverses 77km in northeast direction before joining the Penna river on the left bank. The Penna flows northwards for the next 146km from the confluence of Jayamangali. After traversing for 67km in Anantapur district, the Penna reenters Karnataka at Pavagada Taluk in Tumkur district at 115km from its source.
After traversing for 13km in Tumkur district again, it reenters Andhra Pradesh in Kalyandurg Taluk in Anantapur district at 128km from its source. The Penna turns east at Penna Ahobilam and flows through Marutia and katrimala reserve forests and near the towns like Tadipatri; the Penna gains the volume but loses stream by the time it crosses Palakondalu and enters Cuddapah district of Andhra Pradesh. It regains the stream in district after meeting many tributaries including Chitravati, Papagni, Kunderu and Cheyyeru and flows near the towns like Kodur, Proddatur and Siddhavattam; the Penna meets its major tributary Chitravati at Gandalur near the Gandikota at 336km from its source. The Chitravati rises near the Chikballapur town in the Kolar district of Karnataka and traverses 218km in northeast direction in Kolar and Cuddapah districts before joining the Penna on the right bank; the Penna river forces through Gandikota gorge and flows east through a gap in the Eastern Ghats to go to the plains of Coastal Andhra.
The rivers Papagni and Kunderu meets the Penna near Kamalapuram. The Papagni river rises near Sidlaghatta town in Kolar district of Karnataka and traverses 205km before joining the Penna on the right bank; the Kunderu river rises in Kurnool district of Andra Pradesh and travels 205km before joining the Penna on the left bank. The Penna river continues in southeastern direction and cuts across the Nallamala hills; the river turns east. The Sagileru flows south to meet the Penna; the Penna river meets Cheyyeru at Gundlamada near the Sidhout on the right bank. The Cheyyeru river is formed by the confluence of the rivers Bahuda and Puncha that originate in the Chittoor district of Andhra Pradesh; the two flows towards north for 87 km before joining the Penna. The Penna emerges from Velikonda Range in Eastern Ghats at 467km from its source and enters the Somasila plains in the Nellore district; the Pennar river flows near the towns like Atmakuru, Jonnawada and Nellore. It meets the Boggeru and the Biraperu near the Sangam town.
The Boggeru rises in Boggu Venkatapuram and joins other minor streams before meeting the Penna river. The Biraperu is a small stream to carry off the rainfall of the north east portion of Nellore and Kavali Mandals to the Penna river, it joins the Bay of Bengal at 14.58°N 80.14°E / 14.58. The watershed of the Penna and its tributaries covers part of the southern Deccan plateau, including most of the Rayalaseema region of Andhra Pradesh and part of Karnataka; the Kolar Plateau forms the divide between the Penna watershed and those of the Kaveri and Palar rivers to the south. The Penna drains the northern portion of the plateau, which includes parts of Kolar and Tumkur districts in Karnataka; the Krishna River and its tributaries drain the Deccan plateau to the west and north of the Penna's watershed, the low Erramala hills forms the northern divide of the Penna basin. The upper watershed of the Penna includes Cuddapah District and eastern Anantapur District, the southern part of Kurnool District, northwestern Chittoor District.
EstuaryThe estuary of the Penna river extends 7 km upstream from the Bay of Bengal. Tidal influence and salt water extends further upstream during the November to June dry season. Coastal dunes as high as 7 meters form around the river mouth. Upputeru tidal creek, 15 km in length, Isakap
Postal Index Number
A Postal Index Number, or sometimes redundantly a PIN code, is a code in the post office numbering or postal code system used by India Post, the Indian postal entity. The code is six digits long; the PIN system was introduced on 15 August 1972 by Shriram Bhikaji Velankar, an additional secretary in the Union Ministry of Communications. The system was introduced to simplify the manual sorting and delivery of mail by eliminating confusion over incorrect addresses, similar place names, different languages used by the public. There are nine postal zones including eight regional zones and one functional zone; the first digit of the PIN indicates the zone. The second digit indicates the sub-zone, the third digit indicates the sorting district within that zone; the final three digits are assigned to individual post offices. The first digit of the PIN is allocated over the 9 zones as follows: 1 — Delhi, Punjab, Himachal Pradesh and Kashmir, Chandigarh 2 — Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand 3 — Rajasthan, Gujarat and Diu, Dadra and Nagar 4 — Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh 5 — Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka 6 — Tamil Nadu, Puducherry, Lakshadweep 7 — West Bengal, Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur, Tripura, Meghalaya and Nicobar Islands, Sikkim 8 — Bihar, Jharkhand 9 — Army Post Office and Field Post Office The first three digits of the PIN represent a specific geographical region called a sorting district, headquartered at the main post office of the largest city and is known as the sorting office.
A state may have one or more sorting districts depending on the volume of mail handled. The fourth digit represents the route; this is 0 for offices in the core area of the sorting district. The last two digits represent the delivery office within the sorting district starting from 01 which would be the General Post Office or head office; the numbering of the delivery office is done chronologically with higher numbers assigned to newer delivery offices. If the volume of mails handled at a delivery office is too large, a new delivery office is created and the next available PIN is assigned. Thus, two delivery offices situated next to each other will only have the first four digits in common; each PIN is mapped to one delivery post office which receives all the mail to be delivered to one or more lower offices within its jurisdiction, all of which share the same code. The delivery office can either be a General Post Office, a head office, or a sub-office which are located in urban areas; the post from the delivery office is sorted and routed to other delivery offices for a different PIN or to one of the relevant sub-offices or branch offices for the same PIN.
Branch offices have limited postal services. Find Pincode – India Post
The Chola dynasty was one of the longest-ruling dynasties in history. The earliest datable references to this Tamil dynasty are in inscriptions from the 3rd century BCE left by Ashoka, of the Maurya Empire; as one of the Three Crowned Kings of Tamilakam, the dynasty continued to govern over varying territory until the 13th century CE. The heartland of the Cholas was the fertile valley of the Kaveri River, but they ruled a larger area at the height of their power from the half of the 9th century till the beginning of the 13th century; the whole country south of the Tungabhadra was united and held as one state for a period of three centuries and more between 907-1215 AD. Under Rajaraja Chola I and his successors Rajendra Chola I, Rajadhiraja Chola, Virarajendra Chola and Kulothunga Chola I the dynasty became a military and cultural power in South Asia and South-East Asia; the power of the new empire was proclaimed to the eastern world by the expedition to the Ganges which Rajendra Chola I undertook and by the naval raids on cities of the maritime empire of Srivijaya, as well as by the repeated embassies to China.
The Chola fleet represented the zenith of ancient Indian sea power. During the period 1010–1153, the Chola territories stretched from the islands of the Maldives in the south to as far north as the banks of the Godavari River in Andhra Pradesh. Rajaraja Chola conquered peninsular South India, annexed parts of, now Sri Lanka and occupied the islands of the Maldives. Rajendra Chola sent a victorious expedition to North India that touched the river Ganges and defeated the Pala ruler of Pataliputra, Mahipala, he successfully invaded cities of Srivijaya of Malaysia and Indonesia. The Chola dynasty went into decline at the beginning of the 13th century with the rise of the Pandyan dynasty, which caused their downfall; the Cholas left a lasting legacy. Their patronage of Tamil literature and their zeal in the building of temples has resulted in some great works of Tamil literature and architecture; the Chola kings were avid builders and envisioned the temples in their kingdoms not only as places of worship but as centres of economic activity.
They established a disciplined bureaucracy. The Chola school of art spread to Southeast Asia and influenced the architecture and art of Southeast Asia; the Cholas are known as the Choda. There is little information available in regarding their origin, its antiquity is evident in inscriptions. Medieval Cholas claimed a long and ancient lineage. Mentions in the early Sangam literature indicate that the earliest kings of the dynasty antedated 100 CE. Cholas were mentioned in Ashokan Edicts of 3rd Century BCE as one of the neighboring countries existing in the South. A held view is that Chola is, like Chera and Pandya, the name of the ruling family or clan of immemorial antiquity; the annotator Parimelazhagar said: "The charity of people with ancient lineage are forever generous in spite of their reduced means". Other names in common use for the Cholas are Killi and Sembiyan. Killi comes from the Tamil kil meaning dig or cleave and conveys the idea of a digger or a worker of the land; this word forms an integral part of early Chola names like Nedunkilli, Nalankilli and so on, but drops out of use in times.
Valavan is most connected with "valam" – fertility and means owner or ruler of a fertile country. Sembiyan is taken to mean a descendant of Shibi – a legendary hero whose self-sacrifice in saving a dove from the pursuit of a falcon figures among the early Chola legends and forms the subject matter of the Sibi Jataka among the Jataka stories of Buddhism. In Tamil lexicon Chola means Soazhi or Saei denoting a newly formed kingdom, in the lines of Pandya or the old country. There is little written evidence available of the Cholas prior to the 7th century. Historic records exist thereafter, including inscriptions on temples. During the past 150 years, historians have gleaned significant knowledge on the subject from a variety of sources such as ancient Tamil Sangam literature, oral traditions, religious texts and copperplate inscriptions; the main source for the available information of the early Cholas is the early Tamil literature of the Sangam Period. There are brief notices on the Chola country and its towns and commerce furnished by the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, in the later work of the geographer Ptolemy.
Mahavamsa, a Buddhist text written down during the 5th century CE, recounts a number of conflicts between the inhabitants of Ceylon and Cholas in the 1st century BCE. Cholas are mentioned in the Pillars of Ashoka inscriptions, where they are mentioned among the kingdoms which, though not subject to Ashoka, were on friendly terms with him; the history of the Cholas falls into four periods: the Early Cholas of the Sangam literature, the interregnum between the fall of the Sangam Cholas and the rise of the Imperial medieval Cholas under Vijayalaya, the dynasty of Vijayalaya, the Later Chola dynasty of Kulothunga Chola I from the third quarter of the 11th century. The earliest Chola kings for whom there is tangible evidence are mentioned in the Sangam literature. Scholars agree that this literature belongs to the second or first few centuries of the common era; the internal chronology of this literature is still far from settled, at present a connected account of the history of the period cannot be derived.
It records the names of the kings and the princ
ʿAlāʾ ud-Dīn Khaljī was the second and the most powerful ruler of the Khalji dynasty that ruled the Delhi Sultanate in the Indian subcontinent. Born as Ali Gurshasp, Alauddin was a son-in-law of his predecessor Jalaluddin; when Jalaluddin became the Sultan of Delhi after deposing the Mamluks, Alauddin was given the position of Amir-i-Tuzuk. Alauddin obtained the governorship of Kara in 1291 after suppressing a revolt against Jalaluddin, the governorship of Awadh in 1296 after a profitable raid on Bhilsa. In 1296, Alauddin raided Devagiri, acquired loot to stage a successful revolt against Jalaluddin. After killing Jalaluddin, he consolidated his power in Delhi, subjugated Jalaluddin's sons in Multan. Over the next few years, Alauddin fended off the Mongol invasions from the Chagatai Khanate, at Jaran-Manjur, Kili and Amroha. In 1306, his forces achieved a decisive victory against the Mongols near the Ravi riverbank, in the subsequent years, his forces ransacked the Mongol territories in present-day Afghanistan.
The military commanders that led his army against the Mongols include Zafar Khan, Ulugh Khan, his slave-general Malik Kafur. Alauddin conquered the kingdoms of Gujarat, Chittor, Malwa and Jalore; these victories ended several Hindu dynasties, including the Paramaras, the Vaghelas, the Chahamanas of Ranastambhapura and Jalore, the Rawal branch of the Guhilas, the Yajvapalas. His slave-general Malik Kafur led multiple campaigns to the south of the Vindhyas, obtaining a considerable amount of wealth from Devagiri and Dwarasamudra; these victories forced the Yadava king Ramachandra, the Kakatiya king Prataparudra, the Hoysala king Ballala III to become Alauddin's tributaries. Kafur raided the Pandya kingdom, obtaining a large number of treasures and horses. At times, he exploited the treatment of the zimmis, he heeded to the orthodox ulema but believed "that the Hindu will never be submissive and obedient to the Musalman." He undertook measures to impoverish them and felt it was justified because he knew the Hindu chiefs and muqaddams led a luxurious life but didn't pay a jital in taxes.
Under the Mamluks, Indian Muslims and Hindus were deprived of positions in higher bureaucracy. However, Amir Khusrau mentions a Hindu officer of his army despatched to repel the Mongols. In addition, many non-Muslims served in his army. During the last years of his life, Alauddin suffered from an illness, relied on Malik Kafur to handle the administration. After his death in 1316, Malik Kafur appointed Shihabuddin, son of Alauddin and his Hindu wife Jhatyapali, as a puppet monarch. However, his elder son Qutbuddin Mubarak Shah seized the power shortly after his death. Contemporary chroniclers did not write much about Alauddin's childhood. According to the 16th/17th-century chronicler Haji-ud-Dabir, Alauddin was 34 years old when he started his march to Ranthambore. Assuming this is correct, Alauddin's birth can be dated to 1266–1267, his original name was Ali Gurshasp. He was the eldest son of Shihabuddin Mas'ud, the elder brother of the Khalji dynasty's founder Sultan Jalaluddin, he had three brothers: Qutlugh Tigin and Muhammad.
Alauddin was brought up by Jalaluddin after Shihabuddin's death. Both Alauddin and his younger brother Almas Beg married Jalaluddin's daughters. After Jalaluddin became the Sultan of Delhi, Alauddin was appointed as Amir-i-Tuzuk, while Almas Beg was given the post of Akhur-beg. Alauddin married Jalaluddin's daughter, Malika-i-Jahan, long before the Khalji revolution of 1290; the marriage, was not a happy one. Having become a princess after Jalaluddin's rise as a monarch, she was arrogant and tried to dominate Alauddin. According to Haji-ud-Dabir, Alauddin married a second woman, named Mahru, the sister of Malik Sanjar alias Alp Khan. Malika-i-Jahan was infuriated by the fact that her husband had taken a second wife. According to Dabir, this was the main cause of misunderstanding between his first wife. Once, while Alauddin and Mahru were together in a garden, Jalaluddin's daughter attacked Mahru out of jealousy. In response, Alauddin assaulted her; the incident was reported to Jalaluddin. Alauddin was not on good terms with his mother-in-law either, who wielded great influence over the Sultan.
According to the 16th-century historian Firishta, she warned Jalaluddin that Alauddin was planning to set up an independent kingdom in a remote part of the country. She kept a close watch on Alauddin, encouraged her daughter's arrogant behaviour towards him. In 1291, Alauddin played an important role in crushing a revolt by the governor of Kara Malik Chajju; as a result, Jalaluddin appointed him as the new governor of Kara in 1291. Malik Chajju's former Amirs at Kara considered Jalaluddin as a weak and ineffective ruler, instigated Alauddin to usurp the throne of Delhi. This, combined with his unhappy domestic life, made. While instigating Alauddin to revolt against Jalaluddin, Malik Chajju's supporters emphasized that he needed a lot of money to raise a large army and stage a successful coup: Malik Chajju's revolt had failed for want of resources. To finance his plan to dethrone Jalaluddin, Alauddin decided to raid the neighbouring Hindu kingdoms. In 1293, he raided Bhilsa, a wealthy town in the Paramar