Japanese mythology embraces Shinto and Buddhist traditions as well as agriculturally-based folk religion. The Shinto pantheon comprises innumerable kami; this article will discuss only the typical elements present in Asian mythology, such as cosmogony, important deities, the best-known Japanese stories. Japanese myths, as recognized in the mainstream today, are based on the Kojiki, the Nihon Shoki, some complementary books; the Kojiki, or "Record of Ancient Matters", is the oldest surviving account of Japan's myths and history. The Shintōshū describes the origins of Japanese deities from a Buddhist perspective, while the Hotsuma Tsutae records a different version of the mythology. One notable feature of Japanese mythology is its explanation of the origin of the Imperial Family, used to assign godhood to the imperial line; the title of the Emperor of Japan, tennō, means "heavenly sovereign". Japanese is not transliterated across all sources, see: #Spelling of proper nouns In the Japanese creation myth, the first deities which came into existence, appearing at the time of the creation of the universe, are collectively called Kotoamatsukami.
The seven generations of kami, known as Kamiyonanayo, following the formation of heaven and earth. The first two generations are individual deities called hitorigami, while the five that followed came into being as male/female pairs of kami: brothers and sisters that were married couples. In this chronicle, the Kamiyonanayo comprise 12 deities in total. In contrast, the Nihon Shoki states that the Kamiyonanayo group was the first to appear after the creation of the universe, as opposed to the Kamiyonanayo appearing after the formation of heaven and earth, it states that the first three generations of deities are hitorigami and that the generations of deities are pairs of the opposite gender, as compared to the Kojiki's two generations of hitorigami. Japan's creation narrative can be divided into the birth of the land; the seventh and last generation of Kamiyonanayo were Izanagi no Mikoto and Izanami no Mikoto, they would be responsible for the creation of the Japanese archipelago and would engender other deities.
To help them to achieve this and Izanami were given a naginata decorated with jewels, named Ame-no-nuboko. The two deities went to the bridge between heaven and earth and churned the sea below with the halberd. Drops of salty water formed Onogoro; the deities made their home on the island. They fell in love and wished to mate. So they built. Izanagi and Izanami circled the pillar in opposite directions, when they met on the other side, the female deity, spoke first in greeting. Izanagi didn't think that this was proper, they had two children and Awashima, but the children were badly formed and are not considered gods in their original form. The parents, who were dismayed at their misfortune, put the children into a boat and sent them to sea, petitioned the other gods for an answer about what they had done wrong, they were informed that Izanami's lack of manners was the reason for the defective births: a woman should never speak prior to a man. So Izanagi and Izanami went around the pillar again, this time, when they met, Izanagi spoke first.
Their next union was successful. From their union were born the Ōyashima, or the eight great islands of Japan: Awaji Iyo Oki Tsukushi Iki Tsushima Sado Yamato Note that Hokkaidō, Chishima and Okinawa were not part of Japan in ancient times. Izanami died giving birth to Kagutsuchi called Homusubi due to severe burns, she was buried on Mount Hiba, at the border of the old provinces of Izumo and Hoki, near modern-day Yasugi of Shimane Prefecture. In anger, Izanagi killed Kagutsuchi, his death created dozens of deities. The gods who were born from Izanagi and Izanami are symbolic aspects of culture. Izanagi undertook a journey to Yomi. Izanagi found little difference between Yomi and the land except for the eternal darkness. However, this suffocating darkness was enough to make him ache for life, he searched for Izanami and found her. At first, Izanagi could not see her, he asked her to return with him. Izanami informed him that he was too late, she had eaten the food of the underworld and now belonged to the land of the dead.
Izanagi was shocked at this news, but he refused to give in to her wishes to be left to the dark embrace of Yomi. Izanami first requested to have some time to rest, she instructed Izanagi to not come into her bedroom. After a long wait, Izanami did not come out of her bedroom, Izanagi was worried. While Izanami was sleeping, he took the comb that set it alight as a torch. Under the sudden burst of light, he saw the horrid form of the once graceful Izanami; the flesh of her ravaged body was rotting and was overrun with maggots and fou
Persona 4 Arena Ultimax
Persona 4 Arena Ultimax is a fighting video game developed by Arc System Works and Atlus. It is the direct sequel to the 2012 game, Persona 4 Arena, itself a follow-up to the role-playing game, Persona 4; the game was released in Japanese arcades in November 2013, was released worldwide for the PlayStation 3 and Xbox 360 in 2014. Unlike the previous game, it features no region locking. Set shortly after the events of Persona 4 Arena, the story focuses on the two protagonists groups, The Investigation Team and the Kirijo Group, who are trapped in a dimension known as the Dark Hour where they encounter doppeldangers known as Shadows; as the story progresses, the cast meets apparent culprit behind this, a teenager known as Sho Minazuki. While retaining gameplay elements from Persona 4 Arena, now the player can directly choose each character's Shadow that change the gameplay elements; the game was well received by video game publications. Like the previous title, Persona 4 Arena Ultimax is a fighting game in which characters from both Persona 3 and Persona 4 battle each other using a variety of special moves and Persona abilities.
Along with balance adjustments and new moves added to the returning characters, a new S-Hold system allows players to charge up their attacks. New to Ultimax is the ability to choose "Shadow Types" for many of the game's characters; these Shadow versions differ by being skill-based variants of their counterparts, employing a high-risk high-reward play style thanks to reduced normal attack damage and an altered move set with lacking defensive options. They keep their SP over multiple rounds instead of resetting each time and possess an exclusive Shadow Rampage ability, which replaces the Burst command, giving the characters infinite SP for a limited time; the game's story mode is now split into two separate campaigns for the Persona 3 and Persona 4 casts, as opposed to a campaign for each character. Two additional story campaigns are available: one allows players to replay the character campaigns from Persona 4 Arena, while the other is included with the Tohru Adachi downloadable content and focuses on his actions during the story.
Golden Arena is a dungeon-based survival mode, in which players travel through various dungeons to increase the fighter's stats. Players can build Social Links with a navigator character, giving them skills that can aid the player in battle. Online play now features a new lobby area, resembling an arcade, where players can interact with each other. Along with all thirteen returning characters from the previous game, eight new characters are added to the roster, including a brand new character, Sho Minazuki. Furthermore, many of these characters feature a Shadow Type. Other characters, such as Fuuka Yamagishi and Theodore from Persona 3 appear in a non-playable capacity. Notes: ^a - First appearance console version/pre-2.00 arcade version ^b - Downloadable content character ^c - Sho Minazuki has two different character slots. These are distinguished as "Minazuki" and "Sho" in the English version, has different Japanese pronunciations and texts in Japanese version. ^d - Does not have a Shadow Type The game begins a day after the conclusion of Persona 4 Arena, in the fictional rural Japanese town of Inaba.
Unlike in the previous game, which focused on the TV World, the events of Ultimax occur in the real world. However, due to the enemies' interference, Inaba is shrouded by red fog and turns into a labyrinth that mixes with the places of Persona 3 such as Moonlight Bridge, Club Escapade, Tartarus. All 13 playable characters featured in Persona 4 Arena return in Ultimax. Eight new characters, five of whom were introduced in console version, were added to the roster: Yukari Takeba, Ken Amada and his canine partner Koromaru, Junpei Iori, Rise Kujikawa, Tohru Adachi, Margaret and a brand new character, Sho Minazuki. Furthermore, many of these characters feature a Shadow Type. Other characters, such as Fuuka Yamagishi from Persona 3, Theodore from Persona 3 Portable, Nanako and Ryotaro Dojima from Persona 4, appear in a non-playable capacity. At midnight the day after the P-1 Grand Prix concludes, the TV in Yu's room starts airing the Midnight Channel, showing a promotion for the P-1 Climax and an image of Mitsuru, Aigis and Fuuka crucified, with General Teddie announcing the world's end within one hour.
A black out occurs throughout Inaba and the whole town is surrounded by red fog. The Investigation Team starts facing Shadows that steal fragments of their enemies' Personas upon their defeat. Yu, Chie reach Yasogami and are approached by Sho, who announces himself as the culprit behind the P-1 Grand Prix and P-1 Climax. Tohru Adachi, whom they had believed to be imprisoned appears and give cryptic clues regarding Sho's intentions to them. At Tartarus, they once again encounter Sho and defeat him, but are overpowered by his other self, Minazuki. Minazuki reveals he has gathered enough Persona fragments to summon a malevolent entity that will destroy the world. Now reunited with their teammates and the Shadow Operatives, they pursue him through Tartarus, but are assaulted by a huge group of Shadows, forcing the group to let Yu confront Sho alone. At the top of the tower, Yu stops Sho from emerging victorious. General Teddie, revealing himself to be Hi-no-Kagutsuchi, possesses Sho's body and fights Yu.
With Adachi's help, they are able to kill Kagutsuchi. As Tartarus collapses, Elizabeth transports everyone to the TV World where Yu reunites with his friends who all set up to find a new path in their futures. Following this scenario, the game shows ho
Call of Duty: Black Ops II
Call of Duty: Black Ops II is a first-person shooter developed by Treyarch and published by Activision. It was released for Microsoft Windows, PlayStation 3, the Xbox 360 on November 13, 2012, for the Wii U on November 18 in North America and November 30 in PAL regions. Black Ops II is the ninth game in the Call of Duty franchise of video games, a sequel to the 2010 game Call of Duty: Black Ops and the first Call of Duty game for the Wii U. A corresponding game for the PlayStation Vita, Call of Duty: Black Ops: Declassified, was developed by nStigate Games and released on November 13; the game's campaign is set in two different time periods. In the'80s, the player switches control between Alex Mason and Frank Woods, two of the protagonists from Black Ops, while in 2025, the player assumes control of Mason's son, David. Both time periods involve the characters pursuing Raul Menendez, a Nicaraguan cartel leader, responsible for kidnapping Woods in the 80s and sparking a second Cold War in 2025.
The campaign has multiple endings. Development for the game began sometime after the release of Black Ops, with Activision promising that the follow-up would bring "meaningful innovation" to the Call of Duty franchise. Black Ops II is the first game in the series to feature futuristic warfare technology and the first to present branching storylines driven by player choice as well as selecting weapons before starting story mode missions, it offers a 3D display option. The game was revealed on May 1, 2012, following a set of leaked information released during the previous months. Black Ops II received positive reviews from critics; the game was a commercial success. It had remained the largest entertainment launch of all time until September 2013, when Take-Two Interactive announced that Grand Theft Auto V had grossed $800 million in its first day of release, it went on to sell 7.5 million copies in the U. S. in November 2012, making it the highest-grossing game of the month. A sequel, Call of Duty: Black Ops III, was released in 2015.
Black Ops II was made backwards compatible for the Xbox One in April 2017. Black Ops II is the first Call of Duty video game to feature branching storylines, in which the player's choice affects both the current mission and in turn, the overall course of the story. Known as "Strike Force missions", these branching storylines appear during the 2025 storyline and feature permanent death; the success or failure of these missions can have ramifications for the wider campaign storyline. Choosing one of the missions locks out the others unless the player begins a fresh campaign. Strike Force missions allow the player to control a number of different war assets, such as unmanned aerial vehicles, jet fighters and robots. If the player dies in a Strike Force mission, the campaign continues recording that loss, as opposed to letting the player load a saved checkpoint; the player's progress in the Strike Force missions may go on to change the plans of the story's antagonist, Raul Menendez. By the end of the game, the player may have changed the results of the new Cold War.
In the main story missions, there are certain points where the player is given different choices and paths to progress, which could have an effect on the gameplay, as well as the story. Black Ops II is the first game in the series to allow the player to customize their loadout before beginning a mission, creating freedom in choosing how to approach a mission. One of the biggest changes added to multiplayer in Black Ops II is the introduction of Pick 10, a new system within the Create-a-Class menu. Pick 10 gives the player a total of 10 allocation slots in a class, which are used for guns, grenades, etc.... The player can choose to allocate the slots however they like, to either have more attachments for a gun, or more perks. Killstreaks from previous Call of Duty games are renamed as Scorestreaks, which are now earned by gaining points, rather than kills; this allows the player to focus on objective modes, which earn points towards Scorestreaks. Unlike past games, weapons in Black Ops II have a progression system, used to unlock weapon attachments.
After maxing out a weapon's level, the player can choose to "prestige" the gun, similar to how they can prestige the player level, reset their attachment progress. In exchange, the player can customize their weapons with custom clan emblems. Black Ops II is the first Call of Duty game to include a competitive mode. Known as League Play, the mode allows players of similar skill level to be matched together, play according to the rules of Major League Gaming. Treyarch confirmed; this is the third Call of Duty game to feature a Zombies mode, following Call of Duty: World at War and Call of Duty: Black Ops, the first to have game modes other than the traditional Survival mode. Treyarch confirmed that Zombies would run on the game's multiplayer engine, allowing for a deeper community experience, along with new features. A new, 8 player co-op game called "Grief" is supported, featuring 2 teams of 4 players competing to survive, unlike the previous games which only supported 4 player online co-op; as with the previous installments, each Zombies map contains "Easter eggs" side quests, used to progress the story.
Another new mode, "Turned", is introduced with several downloadable content maps, in which one player attempts to survive three player-controlled zombies who must turn the other player into a zombie. The single-player campaign features two connected storylines, with
Rurouni Kenshin: Meiji Swordsman Romantic Story known as Samurai X, is a Japanese manga series written and illustrated by Nobuhiro Watsuki. The story begins during the 11th year of the Meiji period in Japan and follows a former assassin from the Bakumatsu, known as Hitokiri Battosai. After his work against the bakufu, Hitokiri Battosai disappears to become Himura Kenshin: a wandering swordsman who protects the people of Japan with a vow to never take another life. Watsuki wrote the series upon his desire to make a shōnen manga different from the other ones that were published at the time, with Kenshin being a former assassin and the story taking a more serious tone as it continued; the manga revolves around themes of atonement and romance. The manga appeared in Shueisha's Weekly Shōnen Jump magazine from April 1994 to September 1999; the complete work consists of 28 tankōbon volumes, while years it was reprinted into twenty-two kanzenban volumes. Studio Gallop, Studio Deen and SPE Visual Works adapted the manga into an anime series which aired in Japan from January 10, 1996 to September 8, 1998.
Besides an animated feature film, two series of original video animations were produced. The first adapted stories from the manga that were not featured in the anime, while the second was a sequel to the manga. Several art and guidebooks for Rurouni Kenshin have been published and writer Kaoru Shizuka has authored three official light novels which were published by Shueisha. Many video games have been released for the PlayStation, PlayStation 2, PlayStation Portable consoles. A successful live-action theatrical film adaptation was released in 2012, with limited international screenings; the manga, as well as the first light novel and first guidebook, has received a complete North American release by Viz Media. Rurouni Kenshin is subtitled "Wandering Samurai" in some English releases; the TV series was licensed in North America and released on DVD by Media Blasters. The first two seasons aired on the United States Cartoon Network as part of the Toonami block, while the third season was only featured on DVD.
The English-language versions of the OVAs, as well as the film, were released as Samurai X in North America, although the original name was included on the DVD and Blu-ray Disc releases. The Rurouni Kenshin manga has over 70 million copies in circulation as of 2014, making it one of the best-selling manga series, while its anime has ranked among the 100 most watched series in Japan multiple times; the series has received praise and criticism from various publications for manga and other media, with both having received good response on the characters' designs and historical setting. In 2017, Watsuki began a direct sequel titled Rurouni Kenshin: The Hokkaido Arc in Jump Square. In the early Meiji era, after participating in the Bakumatsu war as the assassin "Hitokiri Battōsai", Himura Kenshin wanders the countryside of Japan with a reverse blade katana, offering protection and aid to those in need as atonement for the murders he once committed; when arriving in Tokyo in the 11th year of Meiji, he meets a young woman named Kamiya Kaoru, in the middle of a fight with a murderer - who claims to be the Hitokiri Battōsai - tarnishing the name of the swordsmanship school that she teaches.
Kenshin defeats the fake Battōsai. After discovering that Kenshin is the real infamous assassin, Kaoru offers him a place to stay at her dojo noting that he is peace-loving and not cold-hearted, as his reputation implies. Kenshin accepts and begins to establish lifelong relationships with many people such as Sagara Sanosuke, a former Sekihō Army member. However, he deals with his fair share of enemies and old, including the former leader of the Oniwabanshū, Shinomori Aoshi and a rival from the Bakumatsu turned police officer, Saitō Hajime. After several months of living in the dojo, Kenshin discovers that his successor as assassin of the shadows, Shishio Makoto, plans to conquer Japan by destroying the Meiji Government, starting with Kyoto. Feeling that his friends may be attacked by Shishio's faction, Kenshin goes to meet Shishio alone in order to defeat him. However, many of his friends, including a young Oniwabanshū named Makimachi Misao, whom he meets in his travels, decide to help him in his fight.
After his first meeting with him, Kenshin realizes he needs to get stronger to defeat Shishio without becoming the cold assassin he was in the past and returns to the man who taught him kenjutsu, Hiko Seijūrō, in order to learn the school's final technique. He accepts his friends' help and defeats Shishio in a close fight; when Kenshin and his friends return to Tokyo, he finds Yukishiro Enishi, who plans to take revenge by killing his friends. At this point it is revealed that, during the Bakumatsu, Kenshin was to be married to a woman named Yukishiro Tomoe, she had wanted to avenge the death of her 1st fiancé whom Kenshin had killed, but instead they both fell in love and she got proposed to. It is discovered that Tomoe was related to a group of Edo guards that wanted to kill Kenshin, Tomoe is betrayed by them and captured to use as bait. Kenshin rushes to rescue her, killing both his assailant and believed to accidentally slay Tomoe, who jumps in at the last minute to save Kenshin from a fatal attack.
Wanting to take revenge for the death of his sister, Enishi kidnaps Kaoru and leaves behind a corpse doll bearing a stunning
Shogakukan Inc. is a Japanese publisher of dictionaries, manga, non-fiction, DVDs, other media in Japan. Shogakukan founded Shueisha, which founded Hakusensha; these are three separate companies, but are together called the Hitotsubashi Group, one of the largest publishing groups in Japan. Shogakukan is headquartered in the Shogakukan Building in Hitotsubashi, part of Kanda, Tokyo, near the Jimbocho book district; the corporation has the other two companies located in the same ward. Shogakukan, along with Shueisha, owns Viz Media, which publishes manga from both companies in the United States. Shogakukan's licensing arm in North America was ShoPro Entertainment. Shogakukan's production arm is Shogakukan-Shueisha Productions In March 2010 it was announced that Shogakukan would partner with the American comics publisher Fantagraphics to issue a line of manga to be edited by Matt Thorn. In Europe, manga from Shōgakukan and Shūeisha are published by local publishers such like Pika Édition, Ki-oon, Kana or Kazé for the French market, Kazé, Egmont or Tokyopop for the German market.
Shogakukan and ShoPro have made a joint venture named Viz Media Europe. Viz Media Europe bought in 2009 the French Kazé Group whose activities are publishing manga and home video for the French and German market; the company has Shogakukan Asia, headquartered in Singapore. Besides producing popular titles in English such as Detective Conan and Future Card Buddyfight, the company partners with local creators such as Johnny Lau to publish comic series for distribution in Southeast Asia. On February 15, 2018, CoroCoro Comic, a children's magazine published by Shogakukan published its March issue with a cartoon mocking Genghis Khan, the founder of the Mongol Empire; the comic depicted Khan with a crude rendering of male genitalia on his forehead. Shogakukan offered an apology addressed to the Mongolian Embassy in Tokyo on February 23, but it failed to mollify reactions by the Mongolians in Japan who regard Genghis Khan a national hero. Major bookselling chains, Kinokuniya and Kumazawa pulled the publication off its shelves after the Mongolian Embassy of Tokyo filed an official complaint with the Japanese Foreign Ministry.
On February 26, Mongolians and citizens from China’s Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region residing in Japan sent a formal letter of protest to Shogakukan and a group of 90 demonstrators protested in front of Shogakukan Inc.'s headquarters. In March 2018, Shogakukan issued a public apology, announced a national recall of the magazine and offered reimbursement to magazine goers. CoroCoro Comic's website published an apology by Asumi Yoshino, author of the serialized manga, "Yarisugi!!! Itazura-kun," which contained the controversial cartoon drawing. Children's manga magazinesCoroCoro Comic Bessatsu CoroCoro Comic CoroCoro Ichiban! Shōnen manga magazinesWeekly Shōnen Sunday Shōnen Sunday Super Shōnen Big Comic Monthly Shōnen Sunday Bessatsu Shōnen Sunday Seinen manga magazinesBig Comic Big Comic Business Big Comic Original Big Comic Spirits Monthly Big Comic Spirits Big Comic Special Big Comic Superior IKKI Monthly Sunday Gene-X Weekly Young Sunday Woman's weekly magazine Children's manga magazinesPucchigumi Shōjo manga magazinesBetsucomi Cheese!
ChuChu Ciao Pochette Shōjo Comic Josei manga magazinesflowers Judy Petit Comic Rinka CanCam Jinbōchō Theater and operated by Shogakukan List of manga published by Shogakukan Shogakukan has awards for amateur manga artists who want to become professional. It allows people to either bring it in to an editor. Shogakukan website Shogakukan website Shogakukan Asia website Shogakukan Productions Co. Ltd. at Anime News Network's encyclopedia
Kyoto Kyoto City, is the capital city of Kyoto Prefecture, located in the Kansai region of Japan. It is best known in Japanese history for being the former Imperial capital of Japan for more than one thousand years, as well as a major part of the Kyoto-Osaka-Kobe metropolitan area. In Japanese, Kyoto was called Kyō, Miyako, or Kyō no Miyako. In the 11th century, the city was renamed Kyoto, from the Chinese calligraphic, jingdu. After the city of Edo was renamed Tokyo in 1868, the seat of the Emperor was moved there, Kyoto was for a short time known as Saikyō. Kyoto is sometimes called the thousand-year capital; the National Diet never passed any law designating a capital. Foreign spellings for the city's name have included Kioto and Meaco, utilised by Dutch cartographers. Another term used to refer to the city in the pre-modern period was Keishi, meaning "urba" or "capital". Ample archaeological evidence suggests human settlement in Kyoto began as early as the Paleolithic period, although not much published material is retained about human activity in the area before the 6th century, around which time the Shimogamo Shrine is believed to have been established.
During the 8th century, when powerful Buddhist clergy became involved in the affairs of the Imperial government, Emperor Kanmu chose to relocate the capital in order to distance it from the clerical establishment in Nara. His last choice for the site was the village of Uda, in the Kadono district of Yamashiro Province; the new city, Heian-kyō, a scaled replica of the Tang capital Chang'an, became the seat of Japan's imperial court in 794, beginning the Heian period of Japanese history. Although military rulers established their governments either in Kyoto or in other cities such as Kamakura and Edo, Kyoto remained Japan's capital until the transfer of the imperial court to Tokyo in 1869 at the time of the Imperial Restoration; the city suffered extensive destruction in the Ōnin War of 1467–1477, did not recover until the mid-16th century. During the Ōnin War, the shugo collapsed, power was divided among the military families. Battles between samurai factions spilled into the streets, came to involve the court nobility and religious factions as well.
Nobles' mansions were transformed into fortresses, deep trenches dug throughout the city for defense and as firebreaks, numerous buildings burned. The city has not seen such widespread destruction since. In the late 16th century, Toyotomi Hideyoshi reconstructed the city by building new streets to double the number of north-south streets in central Kyoto, creating rectangle blocks superseding ancient square blocks. Hideyoshi built earthwork walls called odoi encircling the city. Teramachi Street in central Kyoto is a Buddhist temple quarter where Hideyoshi gathered temples in the city. Throughout the Edo period, the economy of the city flourished as one of three major cities in Japan, the others being Osaka and Edo; the Hamaguri rebellion of 1864 burnt down 28,000 houses in the city which showed the rebels' dissatisfaction towards the Tokugawa Shogunate. The subsequent move of the Emperor to Tokyo in 1869 weakened the economy; the modern city of Kyoto was formed on April 1, 1889. The construction of Lake Biwa Canal in 1890 was one measure taken to revive the city.
The population of the city exceeded one million in 1932. There was some consideration by the United States of targeting Kyoto with an atomic bomb at the end of World War II because, as an intellectual center of Japan, it had a population large enough to persuade the emperor to surrender. In the end, at the insistence of Henry L. Stimson, Secretary of War in the Roosevelt and Truman administrations, the city was removed from the list of targets and replaced by Nagasaki; the city was spared from conventional bombing as well, although small-scale air raids did result in casualties. As a result, the Imperial City of Kyoto is one of the few Japanese cities that still have an abundance of prewar buildings, such as the traditional townhouses known as machiya. However, modernization is continually breaking down the traditional Kyoto in favor of newer architecture, such as the Kyōto Station complex. Kyoto became a city designated by government ordinance on September 1, 1956. In 1997, Kyoto hosted the conference.
Kyoto is located in a valley, part of the Yamashiro Basin, in the eastern part of the mountainous region known as the Tamba highlands. The Yamashiro Basin is surrounded on three sides by mountains known as Higashiyama and Nishiyama, with a height just above 1,000 metres above sea level; this interior positioning results in cold winters. There are three rivers in the basin, the Ujigawa to the south, the Katsuragawa to the west, the Kamogawa to the east. Kyoto City takes up 17.9% of the land in the prefecture with an area of 827.9 square kilometres. The original city was arranged in accordance with traditional Chinese feng shui following the model of the ancient Chinese capital of Chang'an; the Imperial Palace faced south. The streets in the modern-day wards of Nakagyō, Shimogyō, Kamigyō-ku still follow a grid pattern. Today, the main business district is located to the south of the old Imperial Palace, with the less-populated northern area retaining a fa
Fairy Tail is a Japanese manga series written and illustrated by Hiro Mashima. It was serialized in Kodansha's Weekly Shōnen Magazine from August 2, 2006 to July 26, 2017, with the individual chapters collected and published into 63 tankōbon volumes; the story follows the adventures of Natsu Dragneel, a member of the popular wizard guild Fairy Tail, as he searches the fictional world of Earth-land for the dragon Igneel. The manga has been adapted into an anime series produced by Dentsu Inc.. Satelight and CloverWorks which began broadcasting in Japan on October 12, 2009. Additionally, A-1 Pictures has developed nine original video animations and two animated feature films; the series ended its initial run on March 30, 2013. A second series premiered on TV Tokyo on April 5, 2014, ended on March 26, 2016. A third series of the anime series began airing on October 7, 2018, is slated to have 51 episodes; the series has inspired numerous spin-off manga, including a sequel storyboarded by Mashima, titled Fairy Tail: 100 Years Quest, which launched on July 25, 2018.
The manga series was licensed for an English language release in North America by Del Rey Manga, which began releasing the individual volumes on March 25, 2008 and ended its licensing with the 12th volume release in September 2010. In December 2010, Kodansha USA took over North American release of the series; the Southeast Asian network Animax Asia aired an English-language version of the anime for seven seasons from 2010 to 2015. The manga was licensed in the United Kingdom by Turnaround Publisher Services and in Australia by Penguin Books Australia; the anime has been licensed by Funimation for an English-language release in North America. As of February 2017, Fairy Tail had 60 million copies in print; the world of Earth-land is home to numerous guilds where wizards apply their magic for paid job requests. Natsu Dragneel, a dragon slayer wizard from the Fairy Tail guild, explores the Kingdom of Fiore in search of his missing adoptive father, the dragon Igneel. During his journey, he befriends a young celestial wizard named Lucy Heartfilia and invites her to join Fairy Tail.
Lucy forms a team with Natsu and his cat-like Exceed partner, joined by other guild members: Gray Fullbuster, an ice wizard. The team embark on numerous missions together, which include subduing criminals, illegal dark guilds, ancient Etherious demons created by the immortal dark wizard Zeref. After several adventures and his companions encounter Zeref living in isolation on the guild's sacred ground of Sirius Island. A battle over Zeref ensues between Fairy Tail and the dark guild Grimoire Heart, which attracts the attention of the evil black dragon Acnologia; the Fairy Tail wizards survive Acnologia's assault when the spirit of their guild's founder and Zeref's estranged lover, Mavis Vermillion, casts the defensive Fairy Sphere spell that places them into seven years of suspended animation. After participating in the Grand Magic Games tournament, Fairy Tail wages war against Tartaros, a dark guild of Etherious that aim to unseal a book believed to contain E. N. D. Zeref's ultimate demon. Acnologia returns to annihilate both guilds, prompting Igneel – revealed to have sealed himself within Natsu – to emerge and battle Acnologia.
However, Acnologia kills Igneel in front of a helpless Natsu, who departs on a training journey to avenge Igneel. One year Natsu returns to discover that Fairy Tail's master, Makarov Dreyar, has been futilely trying to postpone an invasion by the Alvarez Empire, which Zeref governs. Zeref and his forces assault Fiore, intending to acquire Mavis' body preserved beneath Fairy Tail's guildhall, which houses a wellspring of infinite magic power called Fairy Heart. While battling Zeref, Natsu is informed of his own identity as both Zeref's younger brother and the true incarnation of E. N. D. Whom Zeref resurrected as a demon with the intention of being killed by him; when Natsu fails to do so, Zeref absorbs Fairy Heart from Mavis in a bid to rewrite the present timeline with one where he might prevent the atrocities he and Acnologia have caused. Natsu incapacitates Zeref to stop the drastic changes to history this would create, while Lucy edits the book of E. N. D. to make Natsu human. Mavis lifts her and Zeref's shared curse of immortality by reciprocating his love, which kills them both.
Meanwhile, Fairy Tail and their allies detain Acnologia within a space-time rift discovered by Lucy's ancestor, Anna Heartfilia. However, Acnologia escapes while his disembodied spirit traps all of the present dragon slayers within the rift to maintain his godlike power. Lucy and the other wizards across the continent immobilize Acnologia's body within Fairy Sphere, while Natsu accumulates the other dragon slayers' magic and destroys Acnologia's spirit, killing him and freeing the dragon slayers from captivity. In the following year, Lucy publishes a novel based on her experiences at the guild. Afterwards and his team depart on a century-old guild mission, continuing their adventures together. After finishing his previous work, Rave Master, Hiro Mashima found the story sentimental and sad at the same time, so he wanted the storyline of Fairy Tail to have a "lot of fun ", his inspiration for the series was sitting in bars and partying with his friends, the community aspect. Having always loved magicians and wizards, he imagined what it would be like if he and his friends were magicians.
But it was about young people finding their calling, such as a job. He stated that while he tries to consider both h