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Kaifeng Jews

The Kaifeng Jews are members of a small Jewish community in Kaifeng, in the Henan province of China, who had assimilated into Chinese society due to centuries of cultural suppression and intermarriage, while preserving some Jewish traditions and customs. Their origin and time of arrival in Kaifeng are a matter of debate among experts. Most scholars agree that a Jewish community has existed in Kaifeng since the Northern Song Dynasty, though some date their arrival to the Tang Dynasty, or earlier. Kaifeng the capital of the Northern Song Dynasty, was a cosmopolitan city on a branch of the Silk Road, it is surmised that a small community of Sephardic Jews, most from Persia or India, or fleeing the Crusades, arrived either overland or by a sea route, settled in the city, building a synagogue in 1163. During the Ming Dynasty, a Ming emperor conferred eight surnames upon the Jews, by which they are identifiable today: Ai, Gao, Jin, Li, Zhao. By the beginning of the 20th century, one of these Kaifeng clans, the Zhang, had converted to Islam.

The Jews who managed the Kaifeng synagogue were called "mullahs". A catastrophic flood in 1642 destroyed the synagogue, considerable efforts were made to save the scriptures. One man of the Gao clan, Gao Xuan, dove into the flooded synagogue to rescue what he could, afterward all seven clans helped restore and rewrite the 13 scrolls. Floods and fire destroyed the books of the Kaifeng synagogue; the existence of Jews in China was unknown to Europeans until 1605, when Matteo Ricci established in Beijing, was visited by a Jew from Kaifeng, who had come to Beijing to take examinations for his jinshi degree. According to his account in De Christiana expeditione apud Sinas, his visitor, named Ai Tian, explained that he worshipped one God, it is recorded that when he saw a Christian image of Mary with Jesus, he believed it to be a picture of Rebecca with Esau or Jacob. Ai said. About three years after Ai's visit, Ricci sent a Chinese Jesuit Lay Brother to visit Kaifeng; when Ricci wrote to the "ruler of the synagogue" in Kaifeng, telling him that the Messiah the Jews were waiting for had come the "Archsynagogus" wrote back, saying that the Messiah would not come for another ten thousand years.

Nonetheless concerned with the lack of a trained successor, the old rabbi offered Ricci his position, if the Jesuit would join their faith and abstain from eating pork. Another three Jews from Kaifeng, including Ai's nephew, stopped by the Jesuits' house while visiting Beijing on business, got themselves baptized, they told Ricci that the old rabbi had died, his position was inherited by his son, "quite unlearned in matters pertaining to his faith". Ricci's overall impression of the situation of China's Jewish community was that "they were well on the way to becoming Saracens or heathens."). A number of European Jesuits visited the Kaifeng community as well; the Taiping Rebellion of the 1850s led to the dispersal of the community, but it returned to Kaifeng. Three stelae with inscriptions were found at Kaifeng; the oldest, dating from 1489, commemorates the construction of a synagogue in 1163. The inscription states, it cites the names of 70 Jews with Chinese surnames, describes their audience with an unnamed Song Dynasty emperor, lists the transmission of their religion from Abraham down to Ezra the scribe.

The second tablet, dating from 1512 details their Jewish religious practices. The third, dated 1663, commemorates the rebuilding of the Qingzhen si synagogue and repeats information that appears in the other two stelae. Two of the stelae refer to a famous tattoo written on the back of Song Dynasty General Yue Fei; the tattoo, which reads "Boundless loyalty to the country", first appeared in a section of the 1489 stele talking about the Jews’ “Boundless loyalty to the country and Prince”. The second appeared in a section of the 1512 stele talking about how Jewish soldiers and officers in the Chinese armies were “Boundlessly loyal to the country.” Father Joseph Brucker, a Roman Catholic researcher of the early 20th century, notes that Ricci's account of Chinese Jews indicates that there were only in the range of ten or twelve Jewish families in Kaifeng in the late 16th to early 17th centuries, that they had resided there for five or six hundred years. It was stated in the manuscripts that there was a greater number of Jews in Hangzhou.

This could be taken to suggest that loyal Jews fled south along with the soon-to-be crowned Emperor Gaozong to Hangzhou. In fact, the 1489 stele mentions. Despite their isolation from the rest of the Jewish diaspora, the Jews of Kaifeng preserved Jewish traditions and customs fo


Kilopower is an experimental project aimed at producing new nuclear reactors for space travel. The project started in October 2015, led by NASA and the DoE’s National Nuclear Security Administration; as of 2017, the Kilopower reactors were intended to come in four sizes, able to produce from one to ten kilowatts of electrical power continuously for twelve to fifteen years. The fission reactor uses uranium-235 to generate heat, carried to the Stirling converters with passive sodium heat pipes. In 2018, positive test results for the Kilopower Reactor Using Stirling Technology demonstration reactor were announced. Potential applications include nuclear electric propulsion and a steady electricity supply for crewed or robotic space missions that require large amounts of power where sunlight is limited or not available. NASA has studied the Kilopower reactor as the power supply for crewed Mars missions. During those missions, the reactor would be responsible for powering the machinery necessary to separate and cryogenically store oxygen from the Martian atmosphere for ascent vehicle propellants.

Once humans arrive the reactor would power their life-support systems and other requirements. NASA studies have shown that a 40 kWe reactor would be sufficient to support a crew of between 4 and 6 astronauts; the reactor is fueled by an alloy of 7 % molybdenum. The core of the reactor is a solid cast alloy structure surrounded by a beryllium oxide reflector, which prevents neutrons from escaping the reactor core and allows the chain reaction to continue; the reflector reduces the emissions of gamma radiation that could impair on-board electronics. A uranium core has the benefit of avoiding uncertainty in the supply of other radioisotopes, such as plutonium, that are used in RTGs; the prototype KRUSTY 1 kWe Kilopower reactor weighs 134 kg and contains 28 kg of 235U. The space rated 10 kWe Kilopower for Mars is expected to mass 1500 kg in total and contain 43.7 kg of 235U. Nuclear reaction control is provided by a single rod of boron carbide, a neutron absorber; the reactor is intended to be launched cold, preventing the formation of radioactive fission products.

Once the reactor reaches its destination, the neutron absorbing boron rod is removed to allow the nuclear chain reaction to start. Once the reaction is initiated, decay of a series of fission products cannot be stopped completely. However, the depth of control rod insertion provides a mechanism to adjust the rate at which uranium fissions, allowing the heat output to match the load. Passive heat pipes filled with liquid sodium transfer the reactor core heat to one or more free-piston Stirling engines, which produce reciprocating motion to drive a linear electric generator; the melting point of sodium is 98 °C, which means that liquid sodium can flow at high temperatures between about 400 and 700 °C. Nuclear fission cores operate at about 600 °C; the reactor is designed to be intrinsically safe in a wide range of scenarios. Several feedback mechanisms are employed to mitigate a nuclear meltdown; the primary method is passive cooling. The reactor design is self-regulating through design geometry that creates a negative temperature reactivity coefficient.

In effect this means. This causes it to shrink, preventing neutrons from leaking out which in turn causes reactivity to increase and power output to increase to meet the demand; this works in reverse for times of lower power demand. The development of Kilopower began with an experiment called DUFF or Demonstration Using Flattop Fissions, tested in September 2012 using the existing Flattop assembly as a nuclear heat source; when DUFF was tested at the Device Assembly Facility at the Nevada Test Site, it became the first Stirling engine powered by fission energy and the first use of a heat pipe to transport heat from a reactor to a power conversion system. According to David Poston, the leader of the Compact Fission Reactor Design Team, Patrick McClure, the manager for small nuclear reactor projects at Los Alamos National Laboratory, the DUFF experiment showed that "for low-power reactor systems, nuclear testing can be accomplished with reasonable cost and schedule within the existing infrastructure and regulatory environment".

In 2017, the KRUSTY test reactor was completed. KRUSTY is about 6.5 feet tall. The goal of the test reactor is to match the operational parameters that would be required in NASA deep space missions; the first tests used a depleted uranium core manufactured by Y-12 National Security Complex in Tennessee. The depleted uranium core is the same material as the regular high-enriched uranium core with the only difference being the level of uranium enrichment; the prototype Kilopower uses a solid, cast uranium-235 reactor core, about the size of a paper towel roll. Reactor heat is transferred via passive sodium heat pipes, with the heat being converted to electricity by Stirling engines. Testing to gain technology readiness level 5 started in November 2017 and continued into 2018; the testing of KRUSTY represents the first time the United States has conducted ground tests on any space reactor since the SNAP-10A experimental reactor was tested and flown in 1965. During November 2017 through March 2018, testing of KRUSTY was conducted at Nevada National Security Site.

The tests included thermal and component validation, culminated in a successful fission trial at full-power. Various faults in the supporting equipment were simula

Kings XI Punjab in 2017

The Kings XI Punjab are a franchise cricket team based in Mohali, which plays in the Indian Premier League. They are one of the eight teams competing in the 2017 Indian Premier League; the Kings XI Punjab drew an average home attendance of 20,000 in the 2017 IPL season. The four top ranked teams qualified for the playoffs advanced to Qualifier 1 advanced to the EliminatorSource: ESPNcricinfo The players auction for the 2017 Indian Premier League was scheduled to be held in Bangalore on 4 February 2017, but was pushed forward by at least two weeks due to the BCCI–Lodha committee stand-off. On 3 February, the BCCI announced that the auction will be held on 20 February in Bangalore and that a total of 799 players have signed up for it. On 14 February, the IPL Desk released a list of 351 players. Players with international caps are listed in bold. * denotes a player, unavailable for selection. * denotes a player, unavailable for rest of the season. In December 2016, Sanjay Bangar stepped down as the head coach of Kings XI Punjab.

In January 2017, Virender Sehwag was named head of cricket operations and strategy of Kings XI Punjab. In February 2017, J. Arunkumar was named batting coach of Kings XI Punjab

Mduduzi Manana

Mduduzi Manana was the South African Deputy Minister of Higher Education and Training and member of parliament from 2009 to 2017. He earned a BA degree in Political Science and Sociology from University of Natal and was elected to the Regional Executive Committee of the ANCYL in the Gert Sibande Region in 2006. In 2009, he served in the International Relations & Cooperation and Public Works Portfolio Committees and was appointed a Whip of the Portfolio Committees on Transport and Public Service and Administration and Governance and Monitoring Cluster in 2011. On 5 August 2017, Mduduzi Manana was involved in an altercation in which he assaulted 3 women for calling him "gay"; this happened at a night club in Johannesburg in the early hours of the morning. He confessed when he was being confronted by the brother of one of the victims. South African Police Minister Fikile Mbalula said a case was opened against him at Douglasdale Police station and Mduduzi would be arrested as soon as they had gathered enough evidence.

He highlighted that he would not be given special treatment because he was a member of parliament. Mduduzi Manana pleaded guilty to the charges of assault with intent to do grievous bodily harm in the Randburg Magistrates Court in Johannesburg. Video evidence that went viral on the internet was submitted as evidence, he was found guilty and sentenced to and compensation to his victims, as well as 500 hours of community service and required to go for counselling. He was declared unfit to possess a firearm, he was allowed to remain as an ANC backbencher in the National Assembly. People by Mduduzi Manana at People's Assembly

Ma (film)

Ma is a 2019 American psychological horror film produced, co-written and directed by Tate Taylor. It stars Octavia Spencer, Juliette Lewis, Diana Silvers, Corey Fogelmanis, Luke Evans, follows a group of teenagers who befriend a lonely middle-aged woman, she lets them party in her basement, they end up being terrorized by her. The film was produced by Jason Blum through his Blumhouse Productions company, along with Taylor and John Norris. Ma came together as a result of Taylor's desire to direct a film about "something fucked up," and a conversation he had with actress Spencer. Taylor and Spencer are longtime friends, having worked together in films such as The Help and Get on Up. In 2018, Taylor and Blumhouse Productions began developing the film, with Taylor directing, Landes writing, Blum producing and Spencer starring it. Principal photography on the film started in February 2018 and wrapped in March 2018, in Mississippi, with parts shot in Natchez. Ma was released in the United States on May 2019, by Universal Pictures.

It has grossed $60.6 million worldwide and received mixed reviews from critics, who praised the atmosphere, the horror elements and Spencer's performance, but criticized the teenage characters, slow pacing and story. Both critics and audiences said. Teenager Maggie Thompson moves with her mother Erica to her Ohio hometown after Erica's husband leaves her. At her new high school, Maggie befriends Haley, Darrell and Andy, who develops a crush on her, they convince Sue Ann Ellington, a veterinary technician, to help them buy alcohol because they are underage. Sue Ann anonymously reports the teenagers' activities, but they are released because of the officer's history with Andy's father, Ben; the next day, Sue Ann invites the teenagers to drink in her basement. The next time they go, Sue Ann has decorated her basement and lots of other teenagers show up at her house to party, making her popular among the students. However, her hospitality starts to annoy the group as she continuously harasses them to engage in various activities with her.

One night, Sue Ann becomes jealous. She drugs Maggie after and takes her earrings; the next morning, Maggie wakes up and notices her earrings is badly bruised and cut. Scared, Maggie tells Andy that she does not want to go to her house anymore and that she does not want him to go as well and he agrees. One day to earn the group's trust back, Ma meets with them to tell them that she has pancreatic cancer and, why she acts the way she does; as she is talking, Haley notices. The girls suspect that Sue Ann has been stealing their jewelry so they go to her house to investigate, they are surprised by Genie, Sue Ann's daughter from a failed marriage, who Maggie thought used a wheelchair, but she is able-bodied. She warns them as Sue Ann arrives home, they narrowly escape. Ben warns calling her pathetic. A flashback reveals that Sue Ann, who had a crush on Ben in high school, performed fellatio on him in a closet. Once she left the closet, it turned out that she had been doing it to another boy and Ben had tricked her.

Ben had gotten the entire school to witness the event, Sue Ann suffered devastating humiliation, which she never recovered from. An unstable Sue Ann runs over Mercedes with her truck, killing her, she kills her boss, draws blood from Maggie's dog Louie, lures Ben to her house, where she knocks him out. Ben wakes up trapped in her bed. Maggie is grounded. Ma sends Maggie a picture of herself with Andy in her basement at Chaz's birthday party. Hurt that he went back to her house despite promising that he would not go back, she sneaks out of the house to confront him; when she arrives, she notices that only the original group remain. She tries to get Andy to leave but soon realizes that Andy and the rest of her friends have been drugged. Maggie in the process finds Ben's body; as she stands there in horror, Sue Ann renders her unconscious. Maggie awakens chained in the basement. Sue Ann irons Chaz's stomach, sews Haley's mouth shut, paints Darrell's face white with industrial paint, because she feels there is only room for one Black Queen, and, her.

Andy awakens, tries to seduce Sue Ann, as he is well aware that she is in love with him. He tries to trick her by telling her that he loves her and kisses her but she stabs him after knowing that he is lying. An officer arrives and when Maggie screams for help, Sue Ann shoots the officer dead before he can react, she gathers the four friends around the couch with her and makes Maggie take photos of them together in a crude recreation of what Sue Ann always longed for but never had. Sue Ann leaves Maggie to be hanged before Genie intervenes. Everyone else wakes up to discover what Sue Ann has done to them but have time to react as the house is on fire and need to find a way out. Erica, knowing where Maggie would be, calls her co-worker Stu for help and the two save the teenagers. Sue Ann attempts to throw Genie into the fire, blaming Erica for not stopping Ben from pulling the prank in school. Maggie stabs Sue Ann; the group assess what has happened. Sue Ann watches them Andy who survived the stabbing and is lying down next to Maggie.

Sue Ann walks upstairs and lies down next to Ben's body, cuddling with it as t

Sargan–Hansen test

The Sargan–Hansen test or Sargan's J test is a statistical test used for testing over-identifying restrictions in a statistical model. It was proposed by John Denis Sargan in 1958, several variants were derived by him in 1975. Lars Peter Hansen re-worked through the derivations and showed that it can be extended to general non-linear GMM in a time series context; the Sargan test is based on the assumption that model parameters are identified via a priori restrictions on the coefficients, tests the validity of over-identifying restrictions. The test statistic can be computed from residuals from instrumental variables regression by constructing a quadratic form based on the cross-product of the residuals and exogenous variables. Under the null hypothesis that the over-identifying restrictions are valid, the statistic is asymptotically distributed as a chi-square variable with degrees of freedom; this version of the Sargan statistic was developed for models estimated using instrumental variables from ordinary time series or cross-sectional data.

When longitudinal data are available, it is possible to extend such statistics for testing exogeneity hypotheses for subsets of explanatory variables. Testing of over-identifying assumptions is less important in longitudinal applications because realizations of time varying explanatory variables in different time periods are potential instruments, i.e. over-identifying restrictions are automatically built into models estimated using longitudinal data. Durbin–Wu–Hausman test Davidson, Russell. Estimation and Inference in Econometrics. New York: Oxford University Press. Pp. 616–620. ISBN 0-19-506011-3. Verbeek, Marno. A Guide to Modern Econometrics. New York: John Wiley & Sons. Pp. 142–158. ISBN 0-470-85773-0. Kitamura, Yuichi. "Specification Tests with Instrumental Variable and Rank Deficiency". In Corbae, Dean. Econometric Theory and Practice: Frontiers of Analysis and Applied Research. New York: Cambridge University Press. Pp. 59–124. ISBN 0-521-80723-9