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Kaipara Harbour

Kaipara Harbour is a large enclosed harbour estuary complex on the north western side of the North Island of New Zealand. The northern part of the harbour is administered by the Kaipara District and the southern part is administered by the Auckland Council; the local Māori tribe is Ngāti Whātua. By area, the Kaipara Harbour is one of the largest harbours in the world, it covers 947 square kilometres at high tide, with 409 square kilometres exposed as mudflats and sandflats at low tide. According to Māori tradition, the name Kaipara had its origins back in the 15th century when the Arawa chief, travelled to the Kaipara to visit his nephew at Pouto. At a feast, he was so impressed with the cooked root of the para fern, that he gave the name Kai-para to the district. "Kai" means food in the Māori language. The harbour extends for some 60 kilometres from north to south. Several large arms extend into the interior of the peninsula at the northeast of the harbour, one of them ending near the town of Maungaturoto, only ten kilometres from the Pacific Ocean coast.

The harbour has extensive catchments feeding five rivers and over a hundred streams, includes large estuaries formed by the Wairoa, Oruawharo and Kaipara. A number of small islands off the shoreline are connected to the mainland by mudflats at low tide; the Kaipara Harbour is broad and shallow, as it is formed from a system of drowned river valleys. The harbour shoreline is convoluted by the entry of many rivers and streams, is about 800 kilometres long, being the drainage catchment for about 640,000 ha of land; the harbour entrance is a channel to the Tasman Sea. It narrows to a width of 6 kilometres, is over 50 metres deep in parts. On average, Kaipara tides fall 2.10 metres. Spring tidal flows reach 9 km/h in the entrance channel and move 1,990 million cubic metres per tidal movement or 7,960 million cubic metres daily; the harbour head is a hostile place. Big waves from the Tasman Sea break over large sandbanks about five metres below the surface, two to five kilometres from the shore; the sand in these sandbanks comes from the Waikato River.

Sand discharged from this river is transported northward by the prevailing coastal currents. Some of this sand is carried into the Kaipara harbour entrance, but cycles out again and continues moving northwards along the west coast; the southern sandbanks at the entrance are accumulating and releasing this sand. These treacherous sandbanks shift and change position, are known locally as the graveyard; the graveyard is responsible for more shipwrecks than any other place in New Zealand, has claimed at least 43 vessels—some say as many as 110. For this reason, a lighthouse was built in 1884 on the northern arm of the entrance, it was closed in the mid 1950s. The structure still exists and was renovated in 1982-84. In Māori mythology, the ocean-going canoe Māhuhu voyaged from Hawaiki to New Zealand and overturned on the northern side of the entrance, it was commanded by the chief Rongomai. His body was eaten by araara, his descendants to this day will not eat that type of fish; the first European shipwreck was the Aurora, a 550-ton barque, in 1840, the most recent was the yacht Aosky in 1994.

Today, the remains of wrecks still become visible under certain tidal and sand conditions. The Kaipara is used today for shipping, no large settlements lie close to its shores, although many small communities lie along its coastline; the Kaipara Harbour is a productive marine ecosystem, with diverse ecotones. There are tidal reaches, intertidal mudflats and sandflats, freshwater swamps, maritime rushes, reed beds and coastal scrublands; the area includes 125 square kilometres of mangrove forest. With subtidal fringes of seagrass; the Kaipara is a migratory bird habitat of international significance. Forty–two coastal species are known, up to 50,000 birds are common. Rare species use the harbour for feeding during summer before returning to the Northern Hemisphere to breed, such as the bar-tailed godwit, lesser knot, turnstone. Threatened or endangered native species, such as the North Island fernbird, fairy tern, Australasian bittern, banded rail, grey‑faced petrels, banded and NZ dotterels, South Island pied oystercatcher, pied stilt, wrybill are present.

Significant local populations of black swan and grey duck breed in the area. Land habitats adjacent to the harbour support some rare botanical species, including native orchids, the king fern, the endangered kaka beak. In particular, Papakanui Spit on the south head of the harbour entrance, a mobile sandspit, is important as a breeding and roosting area for the New Zealand dotterel and the fairy tern, it has areas of pingao. The spit was an important habitat for the Caspian tern; the birds have moved to other parts of Kaipara Harbour due to human disturbance. An air weapons range used by the New Zealand Defence Force is a short distance south of the spit. Māori settlements and marae have been scattered around the harbour margins for hundreds of years; the waterways of the Kaipara provided, still provide, Māori with resources and a ready means of moving between marae. Today most marae are associated with Te Taoū and Te Uri-o-Hau; these sub-tribes both descend from the chief Haumoewhārangi who settled on the north end of the Kaipara entrance at Poutō.

He was killed in an argument about kūmara. His widow Waihekeao developed a partnership with Kāwharu. Kāwharu led several destructive campaigns around Kaipara; the descendants of Wa

Members of the Australian House of Representatives, 2010–2013

This is a list of members of the Australian House of Representatives of the 43rd Parliament of Australia, as elected at the 2010 federal election. Note: There are no separate caucuses for the LNP or the CLP. 1 These members caucus with the Liberal Party. 2 These members caucus with the National Party. 3 The independent MP for Kennedy, Bob Katter, formed Katter's Australian Party on 3 June 2011. 4 The LNP MP for Fisher, Peter Slipper, accepted Labor's nomination for the position of Speaker on 24 November 2011 and resigned from the Liberal National Party. 5 The Labor MP for Dobell, Craig Thomson, was suspended from the party on 28 April 2012 and the Labor party has indicated he is unlikely to rejoin under any circumstances. 6 Tony Crook, the MP for O'Connor and sole member of the Nationals WA in the parliament sat on the crossbenches before joining the National party room on 2 May 2012

Low Island (South Shetland Islands)

Low Island or Isla Baja, historical names Jameson Island or Jamesons Island is an island 9 miles long and 5 miles wide, 14 miles southeast of Smith Island, in the South Shetland Islands. The island is separated from Smith Island by Osmar Strait. Low Island was so named because of its low elevation. Low Island was known to sealers in 1820, the name Low Island has been established in international usage for 100 years. Composite Antarctic Gazetteer List of Antarctic islands south of 60° S SCAR South Shetland Islands Territorial claims in Antarctica Chart of South Shetland including Coronation Island, &c. from the exploration of the sloop Dove in the years 1821 and 1822 by George Powell Commander of the same. Scale ca. 1:200000. London: Laurie, 1822. South Shetland Islands: Smith and Low Islands. Scale 1:150000 topographic map No. 13677. British Antarctic Survey, 2009. Low Island. SCAR Composite Antarctic Gazetteer

Hooper (coachbuilder)

Hooper & Co. was a British coachbuilding company based in Westminster London. From 1805 to 1959 it was a notably successful maker, to special order, of luxury carriages both horse-drawn and motor-powered; the company was founded as Adams and Hooper in 1805 and held a royal warrant from 1830, building elegant horse-drawn carriages, supplying them to King William IV, Queen Victoria and King Edward VII. They moved into motor bodies at the turn of the 20th century; the first royal car, a Hooper body on a Daimler chassis, was delivered to Sandringham on 28 March 1900. It was painted chocolate brown with red lines. Hooper specialized in the top tier of the market, building the most luxurious bodies possible without consideration of cost; the models were not sporty, as the company specialized in elegant carriages. Coach customers included the Marquis of Londonderry and the Marquis of Crewe. Car body customers included the Kings of Spain, Norway and Siam, the Shah of Persia and the Negus of Abyssinia. In 1911, Hooper built an extension due to increased customer demand.

Their London showroom, opened 1896, was on the corner of St James' Bennet Street. It included a vehicle lift so that cars could be displayed at first floor; the alterations are to have been overseen by Francis Hooper, son of the owner. During World War I, Hooper turned to aircraft manufacture producing Sopwith Camels at the rate of three a day. With peace, the firm returned to coachbuilding, they weathered the Great Depression of the 1930s far better than most coachbuilders building a second factory in Acton, West London. In the peak year of 1936, more than 300 bodies were built. With re-armament in the late 1930s, another factory was opened in Park Royal, London, on Western Avenue, next to the Callard & Bowser confectionery works, during World War II, they built fuselage sections for De Havilland Mosquito bombers, Airspeed Oxfords and gliders. In 1938 Hooper acquired rivals Barker. Barker retained its separate identity. Hooper was acquired by The Daimler Company in 1940. Post war, Hooper became famous for making a series of outrageously-bodied large Daimlers for Lady Docker, the wife of the BSA chairman.

This season's extravagant new Docker Daimler was exhibited each October at the London Motor Show. Docker Daimlers1951 Stardust or The Golden Daimler, limousine 1952 Blue Clover, 5 seater saloon 1953 Silver Flash, 2 seater fixed head coupé 1954 Star Dust, limousine 1955 Golden Zebra, 2 door, 4 seater fixed head coupé As the era of building cars on separate chassis was ending, with it the market for complete bodies, Hooper completed the transition from wood-framed bodywork to bodies built over a skeleton of cast or extruded aluminium. Cast alloy was first used about 1933 in door and windscreen pillars where the'fight' between roof and scuttle structures tended to cause cracking. "Hoopers the coachbuilders, whose Rolls-Royce seven-seater limousine, at £9,185, is the most expensive car at the Motor Show, are celebrating their 150th anniversary in a dignified way. The atmosphere in their St James's street showrooms is halfway between that of a fine tailor's and the waiting-room of a distinguished physician.

The quiet, unruffled representatives of the firm at the Hooper stand at Earls Court give a reassuring impression of solid continuity. All their car bodies are still handmade. "After a car is sold we're still interested in it. King Feisal II—that was a Silver Cloud wasn't it? The Crown Prince of Iraq, he had a Bentley; the Shah of Persia, a Rolls-Royce. The King of Afghanistan, he had an open tourer Daimler." The roof of a car for The Ameer of Bahawalpur was of Perspex. There was the Dockers' famous golden car — a wonderful piece of craftsmanship." "Table Talk by Pendennis", The Observer October 20, 1957, page 14 Production at Daimler, Hooper's in-group chassis supplier, fell to 110 Daimler SP250 sports cars in 1959, with no saloons or limousines being built that year. Rolls-Royce, their subsidiary, became the main supplier of rolling chassis for the coachbuilding trade. Hooper's management decided to end production of coachbuilt bodies after Rolls-Royce's plans to cease series production of separate-chassis cars and use monocoque construction became known to them in 1958.

Their showroom at St. James's Street closed down at the end of September that year. Hooper exhibited their coachbuilt cars for the last time at the 1959 Earls Court Motor Show. Four cars were on the stand: a close-coupled saloon based on a SP250 chassis, two Rolls-Royces, a Bentley S2. In addition to being the only Hooper-bodied S2, being built on BC1AR, the first S2 Continental chassis, the Bentley had the last bespoke body Hooper built, number 10294, it was finished in October 1959. At the end of 1959, BSA transferred the remaining business to a new entity, Hooper Ltd, which acted as a sales and service company. In 1970 the company became a Rolls-Royce distributor. In 1988 used Rolls-Royces and special rates for servicing them were offered by "authorised Rolls-Royce and Bentley dealers" Hooper & Co Limited of Clabon Works, Kimberley Road, London NW 7SH and in addition they offered these special coachbuilt motor cars: Rolls-Royce Silver Spirit two-door Bentley Turbo R two-door Empress II Emperor state limousine A brief news item at the end of 1990 rep

Craig Joiner

Craig Joiner is a Scottish retired rugby union player who won 25 caps playing on the wing for the Scottish rugby union side between 1994 and 2000. Craig Joiner born on 21 April 1974 in Scotland, he was educated at Merchiston Castle School. He joined Leicester Tigers, played at outside centre, but returned to Scotland in 2000, he joined Stewart's Melville RFC in 2005. He is the brother of racing cyclist Charline Joiner. Joiner retired from professional rugby in 2015 to pursue a career in investment management, he joined Cornelian Asset Managers where he undertook his professional qualifications before moving on to join Standard Life in 2010. Craig Joiner on Sporting Heroes

Sequence stratigraphy

Sequence stratigraphy is a branch of geology that attempts to subdivide and link sedimentary deposits into unconformity bound units on a variety of scales and explain these stratigraphic units in terms of variations in sediment supply and variations in the rate of change in accommodation space. The essence of the method is mapping of strata based on identification of surfaces which are assumed to represent time lines, therefore placing stratigraphy in chronostratigraphic framework. Sequence stratigraphy is a useful alternative to a lithostratigraphic approach, which emphasizes similarity of the lithology of rock units rather than time significance. Sequence stratigraphy deals with genetically related sedimentary strata bounded by unconformities; the "sequence" part of the name refers to cyclic sedimentary deposits. Stratigraphy is the geologic knowledge about the processes by which sedimentary deposits form and how those deposits change through time and space on the Earth's surface. Sequence boundaries are deemed the most significant surfaces.

Sequence boundaries are defined as their correlative conformities. Sequence boundaries are formed due to the sea level fall. For example, multi-story fluvial sandstone packages infill incised valleys formed by the sea level drop associated with sequence boundaries; the incised valleys of sequence boundaries correlate laterally with interfluves, palaeosols formed on the margins of incised valleys. The valley infills are not genetically related to underlying depositional systems as previous interpretations thought. There are four criteria distinguishing incised valley fills from other types of multi-story sandstone deposits: a widespread correlation with a regional, high relief erosional surface, more widespread than the erosional bases of individual channels within the valley. Sandstone bodies associated with incised valleys can be good hydrocarbon reservoirs. There have been problems in the distribution of these bodies. Sequence stratigraphic principles and identification of significant surfaces have resolved some issues.

Lesser importance is attached to parasequence boundaries, there is a suggestion that flooding surfaces representing parasequence boundaries may be more laterally extensive leaving more evidence than sequence boundaries because the coastal plain has a lower gradient than the inner continental shelf. Parasequence boundaries may be distinguished by differences in physical and chemical properties across the surface such as. Parasequence boundaries may not form a barrier to hydrocarbon accumulation but may inhibit vertical reservoir communication. After production begins the parasequences act as separate drainage units with the flooding surfaces, which are overlain by shales or carbonate-cemented horizons, forming a barrier to vertical reservoir communications. Sequence stratigraphic principles have optimized production potential once reservoir scale architecture is identified and separate drainage units identified; the concept of systems tracts evolved to link the contemporaneous depositional systems.

Systems tract forms subdivision in a sequence. Different kind of systems tracts are assigned on the basis of stratal stacking pattern, position in a sequence and in the sea level curve and types of bounding surfaces. A lowstand systems tract forms when the rate of sedimentation outpaces the rate of sea level rise during the early stage of the sea level curve, it is bounded by a subaerial unconformity or its correlative conformity at the base and maximum regressive surface at the top. A transgressive systems tract is bounded by maximum regressive surface at the base and maximum flooding surface at the top; this systems tracts forms when the rate of sedimentation is outpaced by the rate of sea level rise in the sea level curves. A highstand systems tract occurs during the late stage of base level rise when the rate of sea level rise drops below the sedimentation rate. In this period of sea level highstand is formed, it is bounded by maximum flooding surface at composite surface at the top. Regressive systems tract forms in the marine part of the basin during the base level fall.

Subaerial unconformities form in the landward side of the basin at the same time. A parasequence is a conformable, genetically related succession of beds and bedsets bounded by marine flooding surfaces and their correlative surfaces; the flooding surfaces bounding parasequences are not of the same scale as the regional transgressive surface, associated with a sequence boundary. The parasequences are the separated into stacking patterns: Aggradational Progradational RetrogradationalEach stacking pattern will give different information on the behaviour of accommodation space, a major control of, relative level. So a progradational pattern will be indicative of falling sea level retrogradational is evidence for transgressing sea level and aggradational will be indicative of rising sea level. Sea level changes over geologic time; the graph on the right illustrates two recent interpretations of sea level changes during the Phanerozoic. The modern age is depicted on the left side, labe