Sears and Company, colloquially known as Sears, is an American chain of department stores founded by Richard Warren Sears and Alvah Curtis Roebuck in 1893, reincorporated by Richard Sears and new partner Julius Rosenwald in 1906. Based at the Sears Tower in Chicago and headquartered in Hoffman Estates, the operation began as a mail ordering catalog company and began opening retail locations in 1925; the first location was in Indiana. In 2005, the company was bought by the management of the American big box chain Kmart, which formed Sears Holdings upon completion of the merger. Sears had the largest domestic revenue of any retailer in the United States until October 1989, when Walmart surpassed it. In 2018, Sears was the 31st-largest retailer in the United States. After several years of declining sales, its parent company filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy on October 15, 2018. Sears announced on January 16, 2019 it had won its bankruptcy auction and would shrink and remain open with about 400 stores.
In 1863, Richard Warren Sears was born in Stewartville, Minnesota to a wealthy family, which moved to nearby Spring Valley. In 1879, Sears' father died shortly after losing the family fortune in a speculative stock deal. Sears moved across the state to work as a railroad station agent in North Redwood, as well as in Minneapolis. While in North Redwood, a jeweler received an impressive shipment of watches. Sears purchased them sold them at a low price to the station agents and made a considerable profit, he started a mail-order watch business in Minneapolis in 1886, calling it "R. W. Sears Watch Company." Within the first year, he met Alvah C. Roebuck, a watch repairman; the next year Roebuck relocated the business to Chicago. In 1887, R. W. Sears Watch Company published Richard Sears' first mail-order catalog, offering watches and jewelry. In 1889 Sears sold his business for US$100,000 and relocated to Iowa, intending to be a rural banker. Sears returned to Chicago in 1892 and established a new mail-order firm, again selling watches and jewelry, with Roebuck as his partner, operating as the A. C. Roebuck watch company.
In 1893, they renamed the company to Sears, Roebuck & Company and began to diversify the product lines offered in their catalogs. Before the Sears catalog, farmers near small rural towns purchased supplies—often at high prices and on credit—from local general stores with narrow selections of goods. Prices were relied on the storekeeper's estimate of a customer's creditworthiness. Sears took advantage of this by publishing catalogs offering customers a wider selection of products at stated prices. By 1894, the Sears catalog had grown to 322 pages, including many new items such as sewing machines, sporting goods, automobiles. By 1895, the company was producing a 532-page catalog. Sales were greater than $400,000 in 1893 and more than $750,000 two years later. By 1896, dolls and groceries had been added to the catalog. Despite the strong and growing sales, the national Panic of 1893 led to a full-scale recession, causing a cash squeeze and large quantities of unsold merchandise by 1895. Roebuck decided to quit, returning in a publicity role.
Sears offered Roebuck's half of the company to Chicago businessman Aaron Nusbaum, who in turn brought in his brother-in-law Julius Rosenwald, to whom Sears owed money. In August 1895, they bought Roebuck's half of the company for $75,000; the company was reincorporated in Illinois with a capital stock of $150,000 in August 1895. The 1895 transaction was handled by Albert Henry Loeb of Chicago law firm Adler. Copies of the transaction documents are now displayed on the walls of the law firm. Sears and Rosenwald got along well with each other, but not with Nusbaum. Rosenwald brought to the mail-order firm a rational management philosophy and diversified product lines: dry goods, consumer durables, hardware and nearly anything else a farm household could desire. Sales continued to grow and the prosperity of the company and their vision for greater expansion led Sears and Rosenwald to take the company public in 1906, with a stock placement of $40 million, they had to incorporate a new company in order to bring the operation public.
The current company inherits the history of the old company, celebrating the original 1892 incorporation, rather than the 1906 revision, as the start of the company. Sears' successful 1906 initial public offering marks the first major retail IPO in American financial history and represented a coming of age, financially, of the consumer sector; the company traded under the ticker symbol S, was a component of the Dow Jones Industrial Average from 1924 to 1999. In 1906, Sears opened its catalog plant and the Sears Merchandise Building Tower in Chicago's West Side; the building was the anchor of what would become the massive 40-acre Sears and Company Complex of offices and mail-order operations at Homan Avenue and Arthington Street. The complex served as corporate headquarters until 1973, when the Sears Tower was completed and served as the base of the mail-order catalog business until 1993. By 1907, under Rosenwald's leadersh
Graham-Paige was an American automobile manufacturer founded by brothers Joseph B. Graham, Robert C. Graham, Ray A. Graham in 1927. Automobile production ceased in 1940, its automotive assets were acquired by Kaiser-Frazer in 1947; as a corporate entity, the Graham-Paige name continued until 1962. After successful involvement in a glass manufacturing company brothers Joseph B. Robert C. and Ray A. Graham began in 1919 to produce kits to modify TTs into trucks; that led to the brothers building their trucks using engines of various manufacturers and the Graham Brothers brand. They settled on Dodge engines, soon the trucks were sold by Dodge dealers; the Grahams expanded from beginnings in Evansville, opening plants in 1922 on Meldrum Avenue in Detroit, Michigan, of 13,000 square feet, in 1925 on Cherokee Lane in Stockton, California. The Canadian market was supplied by the Canadian Dodge plant. Dodge purchased the Graham Brothers truck firm in 1925, the three Graham brothers took on executive positions at Dodge.
The Graham Brothers brand lasted until 1929, Chrysler Corporation having taken over Dodge in 1928. In 1927, with the banking syndicate controlling Dodge trying to sell the company, the Graham brothers decided to enter the automobile business on their own. In 1927, they purchased the Paige-Detroit Motor Company, makers of Paige and Jewett automobiles, for $3.5 million. Joseph became Robert vice-president and Ray secretary-treasurer of the company; the company's initial offering included a line of Graham-Paige cars with six- and eight-cylinder engines. For a while a line of light trucks was offered under the Paige name, soon discontinued when Dodge reminded the Grahams about the non-competition agreement they had signed as part of the sale of the Graham Brothers Company. Grahams earned a reputation for quality and sales rose. Graham had some success in racing, which helped boost sales; the Graham company logo included profiles of the three brothers and was used in insignia on the cars including badges and taillight lens.
Graham-Paige made most of their own engines. The Graham brothers had solved a long-standing Paige body supply dilemma by purchasing the Wayne Body Company in Wayne and expanding the factory along with other body plants, they did not have a foundry and contracted with Continental for these services relative to their engines. Some models did use Continental stock engines. Graham-Paige's own engineering department designed most of the engines used in Graham-Paige cars; the 1938–1940 "Spirit of Motion" cars and Hollywood models are incorrectly stated to use Continental engines. After World War II Continental produced a lesser version of Graham-Paige's 217-cubic-inch-displacement engine used in the mentioned models; these engines were used in the post-war Frazer automobiles. Graham-Paige withstood the onset of the depression well, but sales fell as the decade wore on; the 1932 models were designed by Amos Northup. This particular design has been noted as the "single most influential design in automotive history."
The new 8-cylinder engine was called the "Blue Streak." However, the press and public adopted the name "Blue Streak" for the cars themselves. The design introduced a number of innovative ideas; the most copied was the enclosed fenders, thus covering the grime built up on the underside. The radiator cap was moved under the hood, which itself was modified to cover the cowl, end at the base of the windshield. For engineering, the rear kickup on the chassis frame was eliminated by the adoption of a'banjo' frame. Unlike contemporary practice, the rear axle was placed through large openings on both sides of the frame, with rubber snubbers to absorb any shock if the car axle should make contact; this in turn permitted a wider body. To help lower the car, the rear springs were mounted on the outer sides of the chassis frame and not under the frame; this idea was copied by other manufacturers - Chrysler, for example, in 1957. For 1934, Graham introduced a crankshaft-driven supercharger, designed in-house by Graham Assistant Chief Engineer Floyd F. Kishline.
At first offered only in the top eight-cylinder models, when the eights were dropped for 1936, the supercharger was adapted to the six. Through the years, Graham would produce more supercharged cars than any other automobile manufacturer until Buick surpassed them in the 1990s. By 1935, the "Blue Streak" styling was getting rather dated. A restyling of the front and rear ends for 1935 proved to be a disaster, making the cars appear higher and narrower. Having no money for a new body, Graham signed an agreement with Reo Motor Car Company to purchase car bodies, paying Reo $7.50 in royalties for each Hayes-built body. The engines did have new full water jackets. Graham added new front end styling and revised detailing to these bodies to create the 1936 and 1937 Grahams. Amos Northup of Murray Body was hired to design a new model for 1938, but he died before the design was complete, it is believed. The new 1938 Graham was introduced with the slogan "Spirit of Motion"; the fenders, wheel openings and grille all appeared to be moving forward.
The design was praised in the American press and by American designers. It won the prestigious Concours D'Elegance in Paris, France. Wins were recorded in the Prix d'Avant-Garde at Lyon, the Prix d'Elegance at Bordeaux, the Grand Prix d'Honneur at Deauville, France, its cut-back grille gained the car the name "sharknose", which appears to have origins in the 1950s. The styling was
Kaiser Motors Corporation made automobiles at Willow Run, United States, from 1945 to 1953. In 1953, Kaiser merged with Willys-Overland to form Willys Motors Incorporated, moving its production operations to the Willys plant at Toledo, Ohio; the company changed its name to Kaiser Jeep Corporation in 1963. The Kaiser-Frazer Corporation was established in August 1945 as a joint venture between the Henry J. Kaiser Company and Graham-Paige Motors Corporation. Both Henry J. Kaiser, a California-based industrialist and Joseph W. Frazer, CEO of Graham-Paige, wanted to get into the automobile business and pooled their resources and talents to do so. Less than a year after Kaiser-Frazer's formation, the first Kaiser and Frazer branded automobiles were being produced at the Willow Run, headquarters for both Kaiser-Frazer and Graham-Paige. By the end of 1946, over 11,000 cars went out to distributors. During the summer of 1948, the 300,000th car came off the production line. In 1950, Kaiser-Frazer began production of a new compact car, the Henry J and ended production of the Frazer automobile.
In 1952 and 1953, Kaiser-Frazer provided Sears and Company with Allstate-branded automobiles that retailer sold through selected Sears Auto Centers. The cars, based on the Henry J models that Kaiser-Frazer dealers were selling, were in the Sears catalog, but the car could not be purchased by mail order. At the 1953 New York Auto Show, Kaiser-Frazer announced it would produce a fiberglass bodied sports car, called the Kaiser-Darrin-Frazer 161; this vehicle was sold as the Kaiser Darrin. Production of the Allstate ended during 1953, the last Henry J automobiles were built in late 1953 as 1954 model year cars; the sports car was in production only during the 1954 model year and the last Kaisers were produced in America during the 1955 model year. Close to 760,000 cars were produced, all makes and models, between May 1946 and September 1955. While sales were strong because of a car-starved public, the company did not have the resources to survive long-term competition with the "Big Three" automakers: GM, Chrysler.
The original Kaiser-Frazer design was distinctive and fresh but the company was unable to maintain the price point it needed for long-term success. However, the company's problems started as early as 1948; that year, Joseph Frazer resigned as president of Kaiser-Frazer, but stayed in the position as a "lame duck" until April 1949 when Henry J. Kaiser's oldest son, took Frazer's place as K-F's president; this was in part because Frazer's had warned Kaiser not to tool up for 200,000 cars for the 1949 model year, realizing that they could not compete against the new cars from the big three coming out that year. Kaiser did not heed the warning, saying "The Kaisers never retrench." Only 58,000 cars were sold that year. The Frazer marque was discontinued after the 1951 models. Joseph Frazer remained as a sales consultant and vice-chairman of the Kaiser-Frazer board until 1953. At the 1953 annual stockholders' meeting, Kaiser-Frazer Corporation's name was changed by stockholder vote to Kaiser Motors Corporation.
Shortly before meeting, Kaiser-Frazer's Kaiser Manufacturing Corporation division worked out a deal to purchase certain assets of the Willys-Overland Corporation, makers of Willys cars and Jeep vehicles. The purchase was made by Kaiser-Frazer's wholly owned subsidiary company, Kaiser Manufacturing Corporation. After completing the acquisition, Kaiser Manufacturing Corporation changed its name to Willys Motors, Incorporated. During late 1953 and 1954, Kaiser Motors operations at Willow Run Michigan were closed down or moved to the Willys facility in Toledo, Ohio. Kaiser-Frazer was able to work out deals with General Motors not only to purchase GM Hydramatic automatic transmissions, but had a signed deal for detuned Rocket 88 engines from Oldsmobile with deliveries starting in the 1952 model year; the deal was contingent on Olds being able to expand its MI engine production facility. K-F had their own V8 engine development program that ran through 1949 but, as the lead engineers on the team stated to the Society of Automotive Engineers they found their work was leading down a "blind alley" and would not work as a production engine.
Frazer cars ended up suffering as a luxury and upper medium priced models due to changing market conditions, just as Hudson and Studebaker experienced during the 1950s. The Henry J, while a well-meaning idea, but was hamstrung by various government requirements stemming from a re-capitalization loan the government made to the company in the fall of 1949. Kaiser-Frazer labor agreements resulted in the company paying the highest wages of any American automaker while having a productivity rate of only 60–65% in return. Kaiser tried to get around its deficiencies with schemes like elaborate designer interiors with fancy dashboards and upholstery. A line of "Traveler" sedans with the trunk connected to the interior of the car were an improvised attempt at marketing a model to compete with standard station wagon designs. At the end of 1955, the management team of the Henry J. Kaiser Company used Kaiser Motors Corporation to create a new holding company encompassing the various Kaiser industrial activities.
Kaiser Motors' name was changed to Kaiser Industries C
A station wagon called an estate car, estate or wagon, is a car body style which has a two-box design, a large cargo area and a rear tailgate, hinged to open for access to the cargo area. The body style is similar to a hatchback car, however station wagons are longer and are more to have the roofline extended to the rear of the car to maximize the cargo space; the names "station wagon" and "estate car" are a result due to the initial purpose of the car being to transport people and luggage between a country estate and the nearest train station. The first station wagons, produced in the United States around 1910, were wood-bodied conversions of an existing passenger car. During the 1930s, the car manufacturers in the United States, United Kingdom and France began to produce station wagons models, by the 1950s the wood rear bodywork had been replaced by an all-steel body. Station wagon models sold well from the 1950s to the 1970s, however since sales have declined as minivans and SUVs have increased in popularity.
Reflecting the original purpose of transporting people and luggage between country estates and train stations, the body style is called an "estate car" or "estate" in the United Kingdom, "station wagon" in American, New Zealand and African English. In the United States, early models with exposed wooden bodies became known as woodies. In Germany, the term "Kombi" is used, short for Kombinationskraftwagen. Station wagons have been marketed using the French term "break de chasse", which translates as "hunting break", due to shared ancestry with the shooting-brake body style. Manufacturers may designate station wagons across various model lines with a proprietary nameplate. Examples include "Avant", "Caravan", "Kombi", "Sports Tourer", "Sports Wagon, "Tourer", "Touring" and "Variant". Station wagons and hatchbacks have in common a two-box design configuration, a shared interior volume for passengers and cargo and a rear door, hinged at roof level. Folding rear seats are common on both station wagons and hatchbacks.
Distinguishing features between hatchbacks and station wagons are: D-pillar: Station wagons are more to have a D-pillar. Cargo volume: Station wagons prioritize passenger and cargo volume — with windows aside the cargo volume. Of the two body styles, a station wagon roof more extends to the rearmost of the vehicle, enclosing a full-height cargo volume — a hatchback roof might more rake down steeply behind the C-Pillar, prioritizing style over interior volume, with shorter rear overhang and with smaller windows aside the cargo volume. Other differences are more variable and can include: Cargo floor contour: Favoring cargo capacity, a station wagon may prioritize a fold-flat floor, whereas a hatchback would more allow a cargo floor with pronounced contour. Seating: Station wagons may have two or three rows of seats, while hatchbacks may only have one or two; the rearmost row of seating in a station wagon is located in the cargo area and can be either front-facing or rear-facing. Rear suspension: A station wagon may include reconfigured rear suspension for additional load capacity and to minimize intrusion in the cargo volume.
Rear Door: Hatchbacks feature a top-hinged liftgate for cargo access, with variations ranging from a two-part liftgate/tailgates to a complex tailgate that can function either as a full tailgate or as a trunk lid. Station wagons have enjoyed numerous tailgate configurations. Hatchbacks may be called Liftbacks when the opening area is sloped and the door is lifted up to open. A design director from General Motors has described the difference as "Where you break the roofline, at what angle, defines the spirit of the vehicle", he said. "You could have a 90-degree break in the back and have a station wagon."It has become common for station wagons to use a shared platform with other body styles, resulting in many shared components being used for the wagon and hatchback variants of the model range. Many modern station wagons have an upward-swinging, full-width, full-height rear door supported on gas springs — where the rear window can swing up independently. Wagons have employed numerous designs; the earliest common style was an upward-swinging window combined with a downward swinging tailgate.
Both were manually operated. This configuration prevailed from the earliest origins of the wagon body style in the 1920s through the 1940s, it remained in use through 1960 on several models offered by Ford, including the 1957-58 Del Rio two-door wagon. This style was adopted on aftermarket camper shells for pickup trucks, seeing that pickup trucks had a bottom half tailgate as an OEM feature. In the early 1950s, tailgates with hand-cranked roll-down rear windows began to appear. In the decade, electric power was applied to the tailgate window—it could be operated from the driver's seat, as well as by the keyhole in the rear door. By the early 1960s, this arrangement was common on both compact wagons. Side hinge: A side hinged tailgate that opened like a door was offered on three-seat wagons to make it easier for the back row passengers to enter and exit their rear-facing seats; this was supplanted by the dual-hinged tailgate. These have a retractable rear roof section as well as a conventional rear tailgate which folded
Brazil the Federative Republic of Brazil, is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers and with over 208 million people, Brazil is the world's fifth-largest country by area and the fifth most populous. Its capital is Brasília, its most populated city is São Paulo; the federation is composed of the union of the 26 states, the Federal District, the 5,570 municipalities. It is the largest country to have Portuguese as an official language and the only one in the Americas. Bounded by the Atlantic Ocean on the east, Brazil has a coastline of 7,491 kilometers, it borders all other South American countries except Ecuador and Chile and covers 47.3% of the continent's land area. Its Amazon River basin includes a vast tropical forest, home to diverse wildlife, a variety of ecological systems, extensive natural resources spanning numerous protected habitats; this unique environmental heritage makes Brazil one of 17 megadiverse countries, is the subject of significant global interest and debate regarding deforestation and environmental protection.
Brazil was inhabited by numerous tribal nations prior to the landing in 1500 of explorer Pedro Álvares Cabral, who claimed the area for the Portuguese Empire. Brazil remained a Portuguese colony until 1808, when the capital of the empire was transferred from Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro. In 1815, the colony was elevated to the rank of kingdom upon the formation of the United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves. Independence was achieved in 1822 with the creation of the Empire of Brazil, a unitary state governed under a constitutional monarchy and a parliamentary system; the ratification of the first constitution in 1824 led to the formation of a bicameral legislature, now called the National Congress. The country became a presidential republic in 1889 following a military coup d'état. An authoritarian military junta came to power in 1964 and ruled until 1985, after which civilian governance resumed. Brazil's current constitution, formulated in 1988, defines it as a democratic federal republic. Due to its rich culture and history, the country ranks thirteenth in the world by number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
Brazil is considered an advanced emerging economy. It has the ninth largest GDP in the world by nominal, eight and PPP measures, it is one of the world's major breadbaskets, being the largest producer of coffee for the last 150 years. It is classified as an upper-middle income economy by the World Bank and a newly industrialized country, with the largest share of global wealth in Latin America. Brazil is a regional power and sometimes considered a great or a middle power in international affairs. On account of its international recognition and influence, the country is subsequently classified as an emerging power and a potential superpower by several analysts. Brazil is a founding member of the United Nations, the G20, BRICS, Union of South American Nations, Organization of American States, Organization of Ibero-American States and the Community of Portuguese Language Countries, it is that the word "Brazil" comes from the Portuguese word for brazilwood, a tree that once grew plentifully along the Brazilian coast.
In Portuguese, brazilwood is called pau-brasil, with the word brasil given the etymology "red like an ember", formed from brasa and the suffix -il. As brazilwood produces a deep red dye, it was valued by the European textile industry and was the earliest commercially exploited product from Brazil. Throughout the 16th century, massive amounts of brazilwood were harvested by indigenous peoples along the Brazilian coast, who sold the timber to European traders in return for assorted European consumer goods; the official Portuguese name of the land, in original Portuguese records, was the "Land of the Holy Cross", but European sailors and merchants called it the "Land of Brazil" because of the brazilwood trade. The popular appellation eclipsed and supplanted the official Portuguese name; some early sailors called it the "Land of Parrots". In the Guarani language, an official language of Paraguay, Brazil is called "Pindorama"; this was the name the indigenous population gave to the region, meaning "land of the palm trees".
Some of the earliest human remains found in the Americas, Luzia Woman, were found in the area of Pedro Leopoldo, Minas Gerais and provide evidence of human habitation going back at least 11,000 years. The earliest pottery found in the Western Hemisphere was excavated in the Amazon basin of Brazil and radiocarbon dated to 8,000 years ago; the pottery was found near Santarém and provides evidence that the tropical forest region supported a complex prehistoric culture. The Marajoara culture flourished on Marajó in the Amazon delta from 800 CE to 1400 CE, developing sophisticated pottery, social stratification, large populations, mound building, complex social formations such as chiefdoms. Around the time of the Portuguese arrival, the territory of current day Brazil had an estimated indigenous population of 7 million people semi-nomadic who subsisted on hunting, fishing and migrant agriculture; the indigenous population of Brazil comprised several large indigenous ethnic groups. The Tupí people were subdivided into the Tupiniquins and Tupinambás, there were many subdivisions of the other gro