Carl Bosch was a German chemist and engineer and Nobel Laureate in Chemistry. He was a pioneer in the field of high-pressure industrial chemistry and founder of IG Farben, at one point the world's largest chemical company. Carl Bosch was born in Germany to a successful gas and plumbing supplier, his uncle Robert Bosch pioneered the development of the spark plug. Carl, trying to decide between a career in metallurgy or chemistry, studied at the Königlich Technische Hochschule Charlottenburg and the University of Leipzig from 1892–1898. Carl Bosch attended the University of Leipzig, this is where he studied under Johannes Wislicenus, he obtained his doctorate in 1898 for research in organic chemistry. After he left In 1899 he took an entry level job at BASF Germany's largest chemical and dye firm. From 1909 until 1913 he transformed Fritz Haber's tabletop demonstration of a method to fix nitrogen using high pressure chemistry through the Haber–Bosch process to produce synthetic nitrate, a process that has countless industrial applications for making a near-infinite variety of industrial compounds, consumer goods, commercial products.
His primary contribution was to expand the scale of the process, enabling the industrial production of vast quantities of synthetic nitrate. To do this, he had to construct a plant and equipment that would function under high gas pressures and high temperatures. There were many more obstacles as well, such as discovering a practical catalyst, designing large compressors and safe high-pressure furnaces. A means was needed to provide pure hydrogen gas in quantity as the feedstock. Cheap and safe means had to be developed to clean and process the product ammonia; the first full-scale Haber-Bosch plant was erected in Oppau, now part of Ludwigshafen. With the process complete he was able to synthesize large amounts of ammonia, available for the industrial and agricultural fields. In fact, this production has increased the agricultural yields throughout the world; this work won him the Nobel prize for Chemistry in 1931. After World War I Bosch extended high-pressure techniques to the production of synthetic fuel via the Bergius process and methanol.
In 1925 Bosch helped found and was the first head of IG Farben and from 1935 chairman of the board of directors. He received the Siemens-Ring in 1924 for his contributions to applied research and his support of basic research. In 1931 he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry together with Friedrich Bergius for the introduction of high pressure chemistry. Today the Haber–Bosch process produces 100 million tons of nitrogen fertilizer every year. Bosch, a critic of many Nazi policies, was relieved of his high positions after Hitler became chancellor, fell into depression and alcoholism, he died in Heidelberg. The Haber–Bosch Process today consumes more than one percent of humanity's energy production and is responsible for feeding one-third of its population. On average, one-half of the nitrogen in a human body comes from synthetically fixed sources, the product of a Haber–Bosch plant. Bosch was an ardent collector of insects and gems, his collected meteorites and other mineral samples were loaned to Yale University, purchased by the Smithsonian.
He was an amateur astronomer with a well-equipped private observatory. The asteroid 7414 Bosch was named in his honour. Carl Bosch along with Fritz Haber were voted the world's most influential chemical engineers of all time by members of the Institution of Chemical Engineers; the Haber-Bosch process, quite the best-known chemical process in the world, which captures nitrogen from the air and converts it to ammonia, has its hand in the process of the Green Revolution, feeding the increasing population of the world. Bosch won numerous awards including an honorary doctorate from Hochschule Karlsruhe, the Liebig Memorial Medal of the Association of German Chemists along with the Bunsen Medal of the German Bunsen Society, the Siemens Ring, the Golden Grashof Memorial medal of the VDI. In 1931 he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Chemistry for the contribution to the invention of chemical high pressure methods, he received the Exner medal from the Austrian Trade Association and the Carl Lueg Memorial Medal.
Bosch enjoyed his membership of various German and foreign scientific academics, his chairmanship of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society of which he became the President in 1937. 1931: Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1919: Liebig Medal of German Chemists Association 1924: Werner von Siemens Ring of Stiftung Werner-von-Siemens-Ring foundation 1932: Wilhelm Exner Medal of Austrian Trade Association Bunsen Medal of the German Bunsen Society Golden Grashof Memorial medal of the VDI Carl Lueg Memorial Medal German inventors and discoverers Vaclav Smil. Enriching the Earth: Fritz Haber, Carl Bosch, the Transformation of World Food Production. MIT Press. ISBN 978-0-262-69313-4. Thomas Hager, The Alchemy of Air: A Jewish Genius, a Doomed Tycoon, the Scientific Discovery That Fed the World but Fueled the Rise of Hitler ISBN 978-0-307-35178-4. Peter Hayes. "Carl Bosch and Carl Krauch: Chemistry and the Political Economy of Germany, 1925–1945". The Journal of Economic History. 47: 353–363. Doi:10.1017/S0022050700048117. JSTOR 2122234.
K. Holdermann. "Carl Bosch und die Naturwissenschaft". Naturwissenschaften. 36: 161–165. Bibcode:1949NW.....36..161H. Doi:10.1007/BF00626575. Carl Krauch. "Carl Bosch zum Gedächtnis". Angewandte Chemie. 53: 285–288. Doi:10.1002/ange.19400532702. "Carl Bosch". Famous Scientists. Human Touch of Chemistry. Archived from the original on 2013-06-29. "Carl Bosch". The Nobel Prize in Chemistr
In nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry, nuclear fission is a nuclear reaction or a radioactive decay process in which the nucleus of an atom splits into smaller, lighter nuclei. The fission process produces free neutrons and gamma photons, releases a large amount of energy by the energetic standards of radioactive decay. Nuclear fission of heavy elements was discovered on December 17, 1938 by German Otto Hahn and his assistant Fritz Strassmann, explained theoretically in January 1939 by Lise Meitner and her nephew Otto Robert Frisch. Frisch named the process by analogy with biological fission of living cells. For heavy nuclides, it is an exothermic reaction which can release large amounts of energy both as electromagnetic radiation and as kinetic energy of the fragments. In order for fission to produce energy, the total binding energy of the resulting elements must be more negative than that of the starting element. Fission is a form of nuclear transmutation because the resulting fragments are not the same element as the original atom.
The two nuclei produced are most of comparable but different sizes with a mass ratio of products of about 3 to 2, for common fissile isotopes. Most fissions are binary fissions, but three positively charged fragments are produced, in a ternary fission; the smallest of these fragments in ternary processes ranges in size from a proton to an argon nucleus. Apart from fission induced by a neutron and exploited by humans, a natural form of spontaneous radioactive decay is referred to as fission, occurs in high-mass-number isotopes. Spontaneous fission was discovered in 1940 by Flyorov and Kurchatov in Moscow, when they decided to confirm that, without bombardment by neutrons, the fission rate of uranium was indeed negligible, as predicted by Niels Bohr; the unpredictable composition of the products distinguishes fission from purely quantum-tunneling processes such as proton emission, alpha decay, cluster decay, which give the same products each time. Nuclear fission drives the explosion of nuclear weapons.
Both uses are possible because certain substances called nuclear fuels undergo fission when struck by fission neutrons, in turn emit neutrons when they break apart. This makes a self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction possible, releasing energy at a controlled rate in a nuclear reactor or at a rapid, uncontrolled rate in a nuclear weapon; the amount of free energy contained in nuclear fuel is millions of times the amount of free energy contained in a similar mass of chemical fuel such as gasoline, making nuclear fission a dense source of energy. The products of nuclear fission, are on average far more radioactive than the heavy elements which are fissioned as fuel, remain so for significant amounts of time, giving rise to a nuclear waste problem. Concerns over nuclear waste accumulation and over the destructive potential of nuclear weapons are a counterbalance to the peaceful desire to use fission as an energy source. Nuclear fission can occur without neutron bombardment as a type of radioactive decay.
This type of fission is rare except in a few heavy isotopes. In engineered nuclear devices all nuclear fission occurs as a "nuclear reaction" — a bombardment-driven process that results from the collision of two subatomic particles. In nuclear reactions, a subatomic particle causes changes to it. Nuclear reactions are thus driven by the mechanics of bombardment, not by the constant exponential decay and half-life characteristic of spontaneous radioactive processes. Many types of nuclear reactions are known. Nuclear fission differs from other types of nuclear reactions, in that it can be amplified and sometimes controlled via a nuclear chain reaction. In such a reaction, free neutrons released by each fission event can trigger yet more events, which in turn release more neutrons and cause more fission; the chemical element isotopes that can sustain a fission chain reaction are called nuclear fuels, are said to be fissile. The most common nuclear fuels are 239Pu; these fuels break apart into a bimodal range of chemical elements with atomic masses centering near 95 and 135 u.
Most nuclear fuels undergo spontaneous fission only slowly, decaying instead via an alpha-beta decay chain over periods of millennia to eons. In a nuclear reactor or nuclear weapon, the overwhelming majority of fission events are induced by bombardment with another particle, a neutron, itself produced by prior fission events. Nuclear fission in fissile fuels are the result of the nuclear excitation energy produced when a fissile nucleus captures a neutron; this energy, resulting from the neutron capture, is a result of the attractive nuclear force acting between the neutron and nucleus. It is enough to deform the nucleus into a double-lobed "drop", to the point that nuclear fragments exceed the distances at which the nuclear force can hold two groups of charged nucleons together and, when this happens, the two fragments complete their separation and are driven further apart by their mutually repulsive charges, in a process which becomes irreversible with greater and greater distance. A similar process occurs in fissionable iso
Magdeburg is the capital city and the second largest city of the state of Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. It is situated on the Elbe River. Otto I, the first Holy Roman Emperor and founder of the archbishopric of Magdeburg, was buried in the town's cathedral after his death. Magdeburg's version of German town law, known as Magdeburg rights, spread throughout Central and Eastern Europe; until 1631, Magdeburg was one of the largest and most prosperous German cities, a notable member of the Hanseatic League. Magdeburg has been destroyed twice in its history; the Catholic League sacked Magdeburg in 1631, resulting in the death of 25,000 non-combatants, the largest loss of the Thirty Years' War. Allies bombed the city in 1945. Magdeburg is the site of two universities, the Otto-von-Guericke University and the Magdeburg-Stendal University of Applied Sciences. Magdeburg is situated on autobahn route 2, hence is at the connection point of the East with the West of Europe, as well as the North and South of Germany.
As a modern manufacturing centre, the production of chemical products, steel and textiles are of particular economic significance, along with mechanical engineering and plant engineering and life-cycle management, health management and logistics. In 2005 Magdeburg celebrated its 1200th anniversary. In June 2013 Magdeburg was hit by record breaking flooding. Founded by Charlemagne in 805 as Magadoburg, the town was fortified in 919 by King Henry the Fowler against the Magyars and Slavs. In 929 King Otto I granted the city to his English-born wife Edith as dower. Queen Edith loved the town and resided there. In 937, Magdeburg was the seat of a royal assembly. Otto I visited Magdeburg and was buried in the cathedral, he granted the abbey the right to income from various tithes and to corvée labour from the surrounding countryside. The Archbishopric of Magdeburg was founded in 968 at the synod of Ravenna; the archbishopric under Adalbert included the bishoprics of Havelberg, Merseburg and Naumburg-Zeitz.
The archbishops played a prominent role in the German colonisation of the Slavic lands east of the Elbe river. In 1035 Magdeburg received a patent giving the city the right to hold trade exhibitions and conventions, which form the basis of the family of city laws known as the Magdeburg rights; these laws were modified throughout Central and Eastern Europe. Visitors from many countries began to trade with Magdeburg. In the 13th century, Magdeburg became a member of the Hanseatic League. With more than 20,000 inhabitants Magdeburg was one of the largest cities in the Holy Roman Empire; the town had an active maritime commerce on the west, with the countries of the North Sea, maintained traffic and communication with the interior. The citizens struggled against the archbishop, becoming nearly independent from him by the end of the 15th century. Around Easter 1497, the twelve-year-old Martin Luther attended school in Magdeburg, where he was exposed to the teachings of the Brethren of the Common Life.
In 1524, he was called to Magdeburg, where he preached and caused the city's defection from Roman Catholicism. The Protestant Reformation had found adherents in the city, where Luther had been a schoolboy. Emperor Charles V outlawed the unruly town, which had joined the League of Torgau and the Schmalkaldic League; as it had not accepted the Augsburg Interim decree, the city, by the emperor's commands, was besieged by Maurice, Elector of Saxony, but it retained its independence. The rule of the archbishop was replaced by that of various administrators belonging to Protestant dynasties. In the following years Magdeburg gained a reputation as a stronghold of Protestantism and became the first major city to publish the writings of Luther. In Magdeburg, Matthias Flacius and his companions wrote their anti-Catholic pamphlets and the Magdeburg Centuries, in which they argued that the Roman Catholic Church had become the kingdom of the Antichrist. In 1631, during the Thirty Years' War, imperial troops under Johann Tserclaes, Count of Tilly, stormed the city and massacred the inhabitants, killing about 20,000 and burning the town.
The city had withstood a first siege in 1629 by Albrecht von Wallenstein, a Protestant convert to Catholicism. After the war, a population of only 4,000 remained. Under the Peace of Westphalia, Magdeburg was to be assigned to Brandenburg-Prussia after the death of the administrator August of Saxe-Weissenfels, as the semi-autonomous Duchy of Magdeburg; this occurred in 1680. In the course of the Napoleonic Wars, the fortress surrendered to French troops in 1806; the city was annexed to the French-controlled Kingdom of Westphalia in the 1807 Treaty of Tilsit. King Jérôme appointed Count Heinrich von Blumenthal as mayor. In 1815, after the Napoleonic Wars, Magdeburg was made the capital of the new Prussian Province of Saxony. In 1912, the old fortress was dismantled, in 1908, the municipality Rothensee became part of Magdeburg. Magdeburg was bombed by British and American air forces during the Second World War; the RAF bombing raid on the night of 16 January 1945, destroyed much of the city. The death toll is estimated at 2,000–2,500.
Near the end of World War II, the city of about 340,000 became capital of the Province of Magdeburg. Brabag's Magdeburg/Rothensee plant that produced synthetic oil from lignit
Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck, ForMemRS was a German theoretical physicist whose discovery of energy quanta won him the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1918. Planck made many contributions to theoretical physics, but his fame as a physicist rests on his role as the originator of quantum theory, which revolutionized human understanding of atomic and subatomic processes. In 1948, the German scientific institution the Kaiser Wilhelm Society was renamed the Max Planck Society; the MPS now includes 83 institutions representing a wide range of scientific directions. Planck came from a intellectual family, his paternal great-grandfather and grandfather were both theology professors in Göttingen. One of his uncles was a judge. Planck was born in Holstein, to Johann Julius Wilhelm Planck and his second wife, Emma Patzig, he was baptized with the name of Karl Ernst Ludwig Marx Planck. However, by the age of ten he used this for the rest of his life, he was the 6th child in the family, though two of his siblings were from his father's first marriage.
War was common during Planck's early years and among his earliest memories was the marching of Prussian and Austrian troops into Kiel during the Second Schleswig War in 1864. In 1867 the family moved to Munich, Planck enrolled in the Maximilians gymnasium school, where he came under the tutelage of Hermann Müller, a mathematician who took an interest in the youth, taught him astronomy and mechanics as well as mathematics, it was from Müller. Planck graduated early, at age 17; this is. Planck was gifted, he took singing lessons and played piano and cello, composed songs and operas. However, instead of music he chose to study physics; the Munich physics professor Philipp von Jolly advised Planck against going into physics, saying, "in this field everything is discovered, all that remains is to fill a few holes." Planck replied that he did not wish to discover new things, but only to understand the known fundamentals of the field, so began his studies in 1874 at the University of Munich. Under Jolly's supervision, Planck performed the only experiments of his scientific career, studying the diffusion of hydrogen through heated platinum, but transferred to theoretical physics.
In 1877 he went to the Friedrich Wilhelms University in Berlin for a year of study with physicists Hermann von Helmholtz and Gustav Kirchhoff and mathematician Karl Weierstrass. He wrote that Helmholtz was never quite prepared, spoke miscalculated endlessly, bored his listeners, while Kirchhoff spoke in prepared lectures which were dry and monotonous, he soon became close friends with Helmholtz. While there he undertook a program of self-study of Clausius's writings, which led him to choose thermodynamics as his field. In October 1878 Planck passed his qualifying exams and in February 1879 defended his dissertation, Über den zweiten Hauptsatz der mechanischen Wärmetheorie, he taught mathematics and physics at his former school in Munich. By the year 1880, Planck obtained two highest academic degrees offered in Europe; the first was a doctorate degree after he completed his paper detailing his research and theory of thermodynamics. He presented his thesis called Gleichgewichtszustände isotroper Körper in verschiedenen Temperaturen, which earned him a habilitation.
With the completion of his habilitation thesis, Planck became an unpaid Privatdozent in Munich, waiting until he was offered an academic position. Although he was ignored by the academic community, he furthered his work on the field of heat theory and discovered one after another the same thermodynamical formalism as Gibbs without realizing it. Clausius's ideas on entropy occupied a central role in his work. In April 1885 the University of Kiel appointed Planck as associate professor of theoretical physics. Further work on entropy and its treatment as applied in physical chemistry, followed, he published his Treatise on Thermodynamics in 1897. He proposed a thermodynamic basis for Svante Arrhenius's theory of electrolytic dissociation. In 1889 he was named the successor to Kirchhoff's position at the Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität in Berlin – thanks to Helmholtz's intercession – and by 1892 became a full professor. In 1907 Planck turned it down to stay in Berlin. During 1909, as a University of Berlin professor, he was invited to become the Ernest Kempton Adams Lecturer in Theoretical Physics at Columbia University in New York City.
A series of his lectures were translated and co-published by Columbia University professor A. P. Wills, he retired from Berlin on 10 January 1926, was succeeded by Erwin Schrödinger. In March 1887 Planck married Marie Merck, sister of a school fellow, moved with her into a sublet apartment in Kiel, they had four children: Karl, the twins Emma and Grete, Erwin. After the apartment in Berlin, the Planck family lived in a villa in Berlin-Grunewald, Wangenheimstrasse 21. Several other professors from University of Berlin lived nearby, among them theologian Ad
Tübingen is a traditional university town in central Baden-Württemberg, Germany. It is situated 30 km south of the state capital, Stuttgart, on a ridge between the Neckar and Ammer rivers; as of 2014 about one in three people living in Tübingen is a student. North of the city lies the Schönbuch, a densely wooded nature park; the Swabian Alb mountains rise about 13 km to the southeast of Tübingen. The Ammer and Steinlach rivers discharge into the Neckar river, which flows right through the town, just south of the medieval old town in an easterly direction. Large parts of the city are hilly, with the Schlossberg and the Österberg in the city centre and the Schnarrenberg and Herrlesberg, among others, rising adjacent to the inner city; the highest point is at about 500 m above sea level near Bebenhausen in the Schönbuch forest, while the lowest point is 305 m in the town's eastern Neckar valley. Nearby the Botanical Gardens of the city's university, in a small forest called Elysium, lies the geographical centre of the state of Baden-Württemberg.
Tübingen is the capital of an eponymous district and an eponymous administrative region, before 1973 called Südwürttemberg-Hohenzollern. Tübingen is, with nearby Reutlingen, one of the two centre cities of the Neckar-Alb region. Administratively, it is not part of the Stuttgart Region, bordering it to the west. However, the city and northern parts of its district can be regarded as belonging to that region in a wider regional and cultural context; the area was first settled in the 12th millennium BC. The Romans left some traces here in AD 85. Tübingen itself dates from the 7th century, when the region was populated by the Alamanni; some argue that the Battle of Solicinium was fought at Spitzberg, a mountain in Tübingen, in AD 367, although there is no evidence for this. Tübingen first appears in official records in 1191, the local castle, Hohentübingen, has records going back to 1078 when it was besieged by Henry IV, king of Germany, its name transcribed in Medieval Latin as Tuingia and Twingia.
From 1146, Count Hugo V was promoted to count palatine, as Hugo I, establishing Tübingen as the capital of a County Palatine of Tübingen. By 1231, Tübingen was a civitas indicating recognition of a court system. In 1262, an Augustinian monastery was established by Pope Alexander IV in Tübingen, in 1272, a Franciscan monastery followed; the latter existed until Duke Ulrich of Würtemmberg disestablished it in 1535 in course of the Protestant Reformation, which the Duchy of Württemberg followed. In 1300, a Latin school was founded. In 1342, the county palatine was sold to Ulrich III, Count of Württemberg and incorporated into the County of Württemberg. Between 1470 and 1483, St. George's Collegiate Church was built; the collegiate church offices provided the opportunity for what soon afterwards became the most significant event in Tübingen's history: the founding of the Eberhard Karls University by Duke Eberhard im Bart of Württemberg in 1477, thus making it one of the oldest universities in Central Europe.
It became soon renowned as one of the most influential places of learning in the Holy Roman Empire for theology. Today, the university is still the biggest source of income for the residents of the city and one of the biggest universities in Germany with more than 22,000 students. Between 1622 and 1625, the Catholic League occupied Lutheran Württemberg in the course of the Thirty Years' War. In the summer of 1631, the city was raided. In 1635/36 the city was hit by the Plague. In 1638, Swedish troops conquered Tübingen. Towards the end of the war, French troops occupied the city from 1647 until 1649. In 1789, parts of the old town burned down, but were rebuilt in the original style. In 1798 the Allgemeine Zeitung, a leading newspaper in early 19th-century Germany, was founded in Tübingen by Johann Friedrich Cotta. From 1807 until 1843, the poet Friedrich Hölderlin lived in Tübingen in a tower overlooking the Neckar. In the Nazi era, the Tübingen Synagogue was burned in the Kristallnacht on November 9, 1938.
The Second World War left the city unscathed because of the peace initiative of a local doctor, Theodor Dobler. It became part of the French occupational zone. From 1946 to 1952, Tübingen was the capital of the newly formed state of Württemberg-Hohenzollern, before the state of Baden-Württemberg was created by merging Baden, Württemberg-Baden and Württemberg-Hohenzollern; the French troops had a garrison stationed in the south of the city until the end of the Cold War in the 1990s. In the 1960s, Tübingen was one of the centres of the German student movement and the Protests of 1968 and has since shaped left and green political views; some radicalized Tübingen students supported the leftist Rote Armee Fraktion terrorist group, with active member Gudrun Ensslin, a local and a Tübingen student from 1960 to 1963, joining the group in 1968. Although noticing such things today is impossible, as as the 1950s, Tübingen was a socioeconomically divided city, with poor local farmers and tradesmen living along the Stadtgraben and students and academics residing around the Alte Aula and the Burse, the old university buildings.
There, hanging on the Cottahaus, a sign commemorates Goethe's stay of a few weeks while visiting his publisher. The Ge
Anthropology is the scientific study of humans and human behavior and societies in the past and present. Social anthropology and cultural anthropology study the values of societies. Linguistic anthropology studies. Biological or physical anthropology studies the biological development of humans. Archaeology, which studies past human cultures through investigation of physical evidence, is thought of as a branch of anthropology in the United States and Canada, while in Europe, it is viewed as a discipline in its own right or grouped under other related disciplines, such as history; the abstract noun anthropology is first attested in reference to history. Its present use first appeared in Renaissance Germany in the works of Otto Casmann, their New Latin anthropologia derived from the combining forms of the Greek words ánthrōpos and lógos. It began to be used in English via French Anthropologie, by the early 18th century. In 1647, the Bartholins, founders of the University of Copenhagen, defined l'anthropologie as follows: Anthropology, to say the science that treats of man, is divided ordinarily and with reason into Anatomy, which considers the body and the parts, Psychology, which speaks of the soul.
Sporadic use of the term for some of the subject matter occurred subsequently, such as the use by Étienne Serres in 1839 to describe the natural history, or paleontology, of man, based on comparative anatomy, the creation of a chair in anthropology and ethnography in 1850 at the National Museum of Natural History by Jean Louis Armand de Quatrefages de Bréau. Various short-lived organizations of anthropologists had been formed; the Société Ethnologique de Paris, the first to use Ethnology, was formed in 1839. Its members were anti-slavery activists; when slavery was abolished in France in 1848 the Société was abandoned. Meanwhile, the Ethnological Society of New York the American Ethnological Society, was founded on its model in 1842, as well as the Ethnological Society of London in 1843, a break-away group of the Aborigines' Protection Society; these anthropologists of the times were liberal, anti-slavery, pro-human-rights activists. They maintained international connections. Anthropology and many other current fields are the intellectual results of the comparative methods developed in the earlier 19th century.
Theorists in such diverse fields as anatomy and Ethnology, making feature-by-feature comparisons of their subject matters, were beginning to suspect that similarities between animals and folkways were the result of processes or laws unknown to them then. For them, the publication of Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species was the epiphany of everything they had begun to suspect. Darwin himself arrived at his conclusions through comparison of species he had seen in agronomy and in the wild. Darwin and Wallace unveiled evolution in the late 1850s. There was an immediate rush to bring it into the social sciences. Paul Broca in Paris was in the process of breaking away from the Société de biologie to form the first of the explicitly anthropological societies, the Société d'Anthropologie de Paris, meeting for the first time in Paris in 1859; when he read Darwin, he became an immediate convert to Transformisme, as the French called evolutionism. His definition now became "the study of the human group, considered as a whole, in its details, in relation to the rest of nature".
Broca, being what today would be called a neurosurgeon, had taken an interest in the pathology of speech. He wanted to localize the difference between man and the other animals, which appeared to reside in speech, he discovered the speech center of the human brain, today called Broca's area after him. His interest was in Biological anthropology, but a German philosopher specializing in psychology, Theodor Waitz, took up the theme of general and social anthropology in his six-volume work, entitled Die Anthropologie der Naturvölker, 1859–1864; the title was soon translated as "The Anthropology of Primitive Peoples". The last two volumes were published posthumously. Waitz defined anthropology as "the science of the nature of man". By nature he meant matter animated by "the Divine breath". Following Broca's lead, Waitz points out that anthropology is a new field, which would gather material from other fields, but would differ from them in the use of comparative anatomy and psychology to differentiate man from "the animals nearest to him".
He stresses. The history of civilization, as well as ethnology, are to be brought into the comparison, it is to be presumed fundamentally that the species, man, is a unity, that "the same laws of thought are applicable to all men". Waitz was influential among the British ethnologists. In 1863 the explorer Richard Francis Burton and the speech therapist James Hunt broke away from the Ethnological Society of London to form the Anthropological Society of London, which henceforward would follow the path of the new anthropology rather than just ethnology, it was the 2nd society dedicated to general anthropology in existence. Representatives from the French Société were present. In his keynote address, printed in the first volume of its new publication, The Anthropological Review, Hunt stressed the work of Waitz, adopting his definitions as a standard. Among the first associates were the young Edward Burnett Tylor, inventor of cultural anthropology, his brother Alfred Tylor, a geologist. Edward had referred to himself as an ethnologist.
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Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich
Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich is a public research university located in Munich, Germany. The University of Munich is Germany's sixth-oldest university in continuous operation. Established in Ingolstadt in 1472 by Duke Ludwig IX of Bavaria-Landshut, the university was moved in 1800 to Landshut by King Maximilian I of Bavaria when Ingolstadt was threatened by the French, before being relocated to its present-day location in Munich in 1826 by King Ludwig I of Bavaria. In 1802, the university was named Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität by King Maximilian I of Bavaria in his as well as the university's original founder's honour; the University of Munich has since the 19th century, been considered as one of Germany's as well as one of Europe's most prestigious universities. Among these were Wilhelm Röntgen, Max Planck, Werner Heisenberg, Otto Hahn and Thomas Mann. Pope Benedict XVI was a student and professor at the university; the LMU has been conferred the title of "elite university" under the German Universities Excellence Initiative.
LMU is the second-largest university in Germany in terms of student population. Of these, 8,671 were freshmen while international students totalled 7,812 or 15% of the student population; as for operating budget, the university records in 2015 a total of 660.0 million euros in funding without the university hospital. The University was founded with papal approval in 1472 as the University of Ingolstadt, with faculties of philosophy, medicine and theology, its first rector was Christopher Mendel of Steinfels, who became bishop of Chiemsee. In the period of German humanism, the university's academics included names such as Conrad Celtes and Petrus Apianus; the theologian Johann Eck taught at the university. From 1549 to 1773, the university was influenced by the Jesuits and became one of the centres of the Counter-Reformation; the Jesuit Petrus Canisius served as rector of the university. At the end of the 18th century, the university was influenced by the Enlightenment, which led to a stronger emphasis on natural science.
In 1800, the Prince-Elector Maximilian IV Joseph moved the university to Landshut, due to French aggression that threatened Ingolstadt during the Napoleonic Wars. In 1802, the university was renamed the Ludwig Maximilian University in honour of its two founders, Louis IX, Duke of Bavaria and Maximilian I, Elector of Bavaria; the Minister of Education, Maximilian von Montgelas, initiated a number of reforms that sought to modernize the rather conservative and Jesuit-influenced university. In 1826, it was moved to the capital of the Kingdom of Bavaria; the university was situated in the Old Academy until a new building in the Ludwigstraße was completed. The locals were somewhat critical of the number of Protestant professors Maximilian and Ludwig I invited to Munich, they were dubbed the "Nordlichter" and physician Johann Nepomuk von Ringseis was quite angry about them. In the second half of the 19th century, the university rose to great prominence in the European scientific community, attracting many of the world's leading scientists.
It was a period of great expansion. From 1903, women were allowed to study at Bavarian universities, by 1918, the female proportion of students at LMU had reached 18%. In 1918, Adele Hartmann became the first woman in Germany to earn the Habilitation, at LMU. During the Weimar Republic, the university continued to be one of the world's leading universities, with professors such as Wilhelm Röntgen, Wilhelm Wien, Richard Willstätter, Arnold Sommerfeld and Ferdinand Sauerbruch. During the Third Reich, academic freedom was curtailed. In 1943 the White Rose group of anti-Nazi students conducted their campaign of opposition to the National Socialists at this university; the university has continued to be one of the leading universities of West Germany during the Cold War and in the post-reunification era. In the late 1960s, the university was the scene of protests by radical students. Today the University of Munich is part of 24 Collaborative Research Centers funded by the German Research Foundation and is host university of 13 of them.
It hosts 12 DFG Research Training Groups and three international doctorate programs as part of the Elite Network of Bavaria. It attracts an additional 120 million euros per year in outside funding and is intensively involved in national and international funding initiatives. LMU Munich has a wide range of degree programs, with 150 subjects available in numerous combinations. 15% of the 45,000 students who attend the university come from abroad. In 2005, Germany’s state and federal governments launched the German Universities Excellence Initiative, a contest among its universities. With a total of 1.9 billion euros, 75 percent of which comes from the federal state, its architects aim to strategically promote top-level research and scholarship. The money is given to more than 30 research universities in Germany; the initiative will fund three project-oriented areas: graduate schools to promote the next generation of scholars, clusters of excellence to promote cutting-edge research and "future concepts" for the project-based expansion of academic excellence at universities as a whole.
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