A public company, publicly traded company, publicly held company, publicly listed company, or public limited company is a corporation whose ownership is dispersed among the general public in many shares of stock which are traded on a stock exchange or in over the counter markets. In some jurisdictions, public companies over a certain size must be listed on an exchange. A public company can be unlisted. Public companies are formed within the legal systems of particular nations, therefore have national associations and formal designations which are distinct and separate. For example one of the main public company forms in the United States is called a limited liability company, in France is called a "society of limited responsibility", in Britain a public limited company, in Germany a company with limited liability. While the general idea of a public company may be similar, differences are meaningful, are at the core of international law disputes with regard to industry and trade. In the early modern period, the Dutch developed several financial instruments and helped lay the foundations of modern financial system.
The Dutch East India Company became the first company in history to issue bonds and shares of stock to the general public. In other words, the VOC was the first publicly traded company, because it was the first company to be actually listed on an official stock exchange. While the Italian city-states produced the first transferable government bonds, they did not develop the other ingredient necessary to produce a fledged capital market: corporate shareholders; as Edward Stringham notes, "companies with transferable shares date back to classical Rome, but these were not enduring endeavors and no considerable secondary market existed." The securities of a publicly traded company are owned by many investors while the shares of a held company are owned by few shareholders. A company with many shareholders is not a publicly traded company. In the United States, in some instances, companies with over 500 shareholders may be required to report under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. Public companies possess some advantages over held businesses.
Publicly traded companies are able to raise funds and capital through the sale of shares of stock. This is the reason publicly traded corporations are important; the profit on stock is gained in form of capital gain to the holders. The financial media and the public are able to access additional information about the business, since the business is legally bound, motivated, to publicly disseminate information regarding the financial status and future of the company to its many shareholders and the government; because many people have a vested interest in the company's success, the company may be more popular or recognizable than a private company. The initial shareholders of the company are able to share risk by selling shares to the public. If one were to hold a 100% share of the company, he or she would have to pay all of the business's debt; this increases asset liquidity and the company does not need to depend on funding from a bank. For example, in 2013 Facebook founder Mark Zuckerberg owned 29.3% of the company's class A shares, which gave him enough voting power to control the business, while allowing Facebook to raise capital from, distribute risk to, the remaining shareholders.
Facebook was a held company prior to its initial public offering in 2012. If some shares are given to managers or other employees, potential conflicts of interest between employees and shareholders will be remitted; as an example, in many tech companies, entry-level software engineers are given stock in the company upon being hired. Therefore, the engineers have a vested interest in the company succeeding financially, are incentivized to work harder and more diligently to ensure that success. Many stock exchanges require that publicly traded companies have their accounts audited by outside auditors, publish the accounts to their shareholders. Besides the cost, this may make useful information available to competitors. Various other annual and quarterly reports are required by law. In the United States, the Sarbanes–Oxley Act imposes additional requirements; the requirement for audited books is not imposed by the exchange known as OTC Pink. The shares may be maliciously held by outside shareholders and the original founders or owners may lose benefits and control.
The principal-agent problem, or the agency problem is a key weakness of public companies. The separation of a company's ownership and control is prevalent in such countries as U. K and U. S. In the United States, the Securities and Exchange Commission requires that firms whose stock is traded publicly report their major shareholders each year; the reports identify all institutional shareholders, all company officials who own shares in their firm, any individual or institution owning more than 5% of the firm's stock. For many years, newly created companies were held but held initial
South Korea the Republic of Korea, is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and lying to the east of the Asian mainland. The name Korea is derived from Goguryeo, one of the great powers in East Asia during its time, ruling most of the Korean Peninsula, parts of the Russian Far East and Inner Mongolia, under Gwanggaeto the Great. South Korea has a predominantly mountainous terrain, it comprises an estimated 51.4 million residents distributed over 100,363 km2. Its capital and largest city is Seoul, with a population of around 10 million. Archaeology indicates that the Korean Peninsula was inhabited by early humans starting from the Lower Paleolithic period; the history of Korea begins with the foundation of Gojoseon in 2333 BCE by the mythic king Dangun, but no archaeological evidence and writing was found from this period. The Gija Joseon was purportedly founded in 11th century BCE, its existence and role has been controversial in the modern era; the written historical record on Gojoseon was first mentioned in Chinese records in the early 7th century BCE.
Following the unification of the Three Kingdoms of Korea under Unified Silla in CE 668, Korea was subsequently ruled by the Goryeo dynasty and the Joseon dynasty. It was annexed by the Empire of Japan in 1910. At the end of World War II, Korea was divided into Soviet and U. S. zones of occupations. A separate election was held in the U. S. zone in 1948 which led to the creation of the Republic of Korea, while the Democratic People's Republic of Korea was established in the Soviet zone. The United Nations at the time passed a resolution declaring the ROK to be the only lawful government in Korea; the Korean War began in June 1950. The war lasted three years and involved the U. S. China, the Soviet Union and several other nations; the border between the two nations remains the most fortified in the world. Under long-time military leader Park Chung-hee, the South Korean economy grew and the country was transformed into a G-20 major economy. Military rule ended in 1987, the country is now a presidential republic consisting of 17 administrative divisions.
South Korea is a developed country and a high-income economy, with a "very high" Human Development Index, ranking 22nd in the world. The country is considered a regional power and is the world's 11th largest economy by nominal GDP and the 12th largest by PPP as of 2010. South Korea is a global leader in the industrial and technological sectors, being the world's 5th largest exporter and 8th largest importer, its export-driven economy focuses production on electronics, ships, machinery and robotics. South Korea is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, the United Nations, Uniting for Consensus, G20, the WTO and OECD and is a founding member of APEC and the East Asia Summit; the name Korea derives from the name Goryeo. The name Goryeo itself was first used by the ancient kingdom of Goguryeo in the 5th century as a shortened form of its name; the 10th-century kingdom of Goryeo succeeded Goguryeo, thus inherited its name, pronounced by the visiting Persian merchants as "Korea". The modern spelling of Korea first appeared in the late 17th century in the travel writings of the Dutch East India Company's Hendrick Hamel.
Despite the coexistence of the spellings Corea and Korea in 19th century publications, some Koreans believe that Imperial Japan, around the time of the Japanese occupation, intentionally standardised the spelling on Korea, making Japan appear first alphabetically. After Goryeo was replaced by Joseon in 1392, Joseon became the official name for the entire territory, though it was not universally accepted; the new official name has its origin in the ancient country of Gojoseon. In 1897, the Joseon dynasty changed the official name of the country from Joseon to Daehan Jeguk; the name Daehan, which means "Great Han" derives from Samhan, referring to the Three Kingdoms of Korea, not the ancient confederacies in the southern Korean Peninsula. However, the name Joseon was still used by Koreans to refer to their country, though it was no longer the official name. Under Japanese rule, the two names Han and Joseon coexisted. There were several groups who fought for independence, the most notable being the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea.
Following the surrender of Japan, in 1945, the Republic of Korea was adopted as the legal English name for the new country. Since the government only controlled the southern part of the Korean Peninsula, the informal term South Korea was coined, becoming common in the Western world. While South Koreans use Han to refer to the entire country, North Koreans and ethnic Koreans living in China and Japan use the term Joseon as the name of the country; the Korean name "Daehan Minguk" is sometimes used by South Koreans as a metonym to refer to the Korean ethnicity as a whole, rather than just the South Korean state. The history of Korea begins with the founding of Joseon in 2333 BCE by Dangun, according to Korea's foundation mythology. Gojoseon expanded until it controlled parts of Manchuria. Gija Joseon was purportedly founded in the 12th century BC, but its existence and role have been controversial in the modern era. In 108 BCE, the Han dynasty defeated Wiman Joseon and installed four commanderies in the n
The Korean alphabet, known as Hangul, has been used to write the Korean language since its creation in the 15th century by King Sejong the Great. It may be written as Hangeul following the standard Romanization, it is the official writing system of Korea, both North. It is a co-official writing system in the Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture and Changbai Korean Autonomous County in Jilin Province, China, it is sometimes used to write the Cia-Cia language spoken near the town of Indonesia. The Hangul alphabet consisted of 28 letters with 17 consonant letters and 11 vowel letters when it was created; as four became obsolete, the modern Hangul consists of total 24 letters with 14 consonant letters and 10 vowel letters. In North Korea the total is counted 40, it consists of 19 consonant letters and 21 vowel letters as it additionally includes 5 tense consonants and 20. The Korean letters are written in syllabic blocks with each alphabetic letter placed vertically and horizontally into a square dimension.
For example, the Korean word for "honeybee" is written 꿀벌, not ㄲㅜㄹㅂㅓㄹ. As it combines the features of alphabetic and syllabic writing systems, it has been described as an "alphabetic syllabary" by some linguists; as in traditional Chinese writing, Korean texts were traditionally written top to bottom, right to left, are still written this way for stylistic purposes. Today, it is written from left to right with spaces between words and western-style punctuation; some linguists consider it among the most phonologically faithful writing systems in use today. One interesting feature of Hangul is that the shapes of its consonants mimic the shapes of the speaker's mouth when pronouncing each consonant; the Korean alphabet was called Hunminjeong'eum, after the document that introduced the script to the Korean people in 1446. The Korean alphabet is called hangeul, a name coined by Korean linguist Ju Si-gyeong in 1912; the name combines the ancient Korean word han, meaning "great", geul, meaning "script".
The word han is used to refer to Korea in general, so the name means "Korean script". It has been romanized in multiple ways: Hangeul or han-geul in the Revised Romanization of Korean, which the South Korean government uses in English publications and encourages for all purposes. Han'gŭl in the McCune–Reischauer system, is capitalized and rendered without the diacritics when used as an English word, Hangul, as it appears in many English dictionaries. Hānkul in the Yale romanization, a system recommended for technical linguistic studies. In North Korea it is called Chosŏn'gŭl after Chosŏn, the North Korean name for Korea after the old name of Korea; the McCune–Reischauer system is used there. Until the mid-20th century, the Korean elite preferred to write using Chinese characters called Hanja, they referred to Hanja as jinseo or "true letters". Some accounts say the elite referred to the Korean alphabet derisively as'amkeul meaning "women's script", and'ahaetgeul meaning "children's script", though there is no written evidence of this.
Supporters of the Korean alphabet referred to it as jeong'eum meaning "correct pronunciation", gukmun meaning "national script", eonmun meaning "vernacular script". Before the creation of the new Korean alphabet, Koreans wrote using Classical Chinese alongside native phonetic writing systems that predate the modern Korean alphabet by hundreds of years, including Idu script, Hyangchal and Gakpil. However, due to fundamental differences between the Korean and Chinese languages, the large number of characters, many lower class Koreans were illiterate. To promote literacy among the common people, the fourth king of the Joseon dynasty, Sejong the Great created and promulgated a new alphabet; the Korean alphabet was designed so that people with little education could learn to write. A popular saying about the alphabet is, "A wise man can acquaint himself with them before the morning is over; the project was completed in late December 1443 or January 1444, described in 1446 in a document titled Hunminjeong'eum, after which the alphabet itself was named.
The publication date of the Hunminjeongeum, October 9, became Hangul Day in South Korea. Its North Korean equivalent, Chosŏn'gŭl Day, is on January 15. Another document published in 1446 and titled Hunminjeong'eum Haerye was discovered in 1940; this document explains that the design of the consonant letters is based on articulatory phonetics and the design of the vowel letters are based on the principles of yin and yang and vowel harmony. The Korean alphabet faced opposition in the 1440s by the literary elite, including politician Choe Manri and other Korean Confucian scholars, they believed. They saw the circulation of the Korean alphabet as a threat to their status. However, the Korean alphabet entered popular culture as King Sejong had intended, used by women and writers of popular fiction. King Yeonsangun banned the study and publication of the Korean alphabet in 1504, after a document criticizing the king entered the public. King Jungjong abolished the Ministry of Eonmun, a governmental institution related to Hangul research, in 1506.
The late 16th century, saw a revival of the Korean alphabet as gasa and sijo poetry flourished. In the 17th century, the Korean alphabet novels became a major genre. However, the use of the Korea
Anipang is a South Korean mobile puzzle game available through Cyworld Appstore and Naver Social Apps. Anipang is a social network game, it was developed by SundayToz. Service began on 11 October 2012, within 74 days the game had been downloaded more than 20 million times, making it the first South Korean game to achieve that milestone. On the strength of popularity, Sunday Toz is released a sequel titled "Anipang 2"; this game is under consideration for entering the North America market. The first aspect is. Therefore, this game is good for passing the time when commuting or going outside to subways or bus stations; the second aspect relates to social networking services. This game is based on the Kakao Talk system, so users can send messages to their friends related on kakaotalk friends. Anipang's structure is simple and middle-aged people prefer to play this game. Anipang has been criticised by mass media in South Korea, because its basic structure is similar to other mobile games; as a result, mass media and broadcasting people have accused the developers of copying other companies' ideas.
Another controversy has arisen over the gambling system. This bug programme causes the high score to rise automatically; this game was released in 2011 and became popular in South Korea mobile market, because Anipang is the first mobile game based on a social networking system in that market. There were over 5,000,000 users in 2011, more people took part in and enjoyed this game after years. There are now over 20,000,000 users, the highest number of users in the mobile game market in South Korea; the stock price of the developer SundayToz has risen over the past three years. Sunday Toz has opened an Anipang pop-up store in a department store in South Korea. In 2015, Anipang 2 entered the overseas mobile market, reaching countries such as China; the community application'Line' helped to spread Anipang. The first sequel to the original Anipang, Anipang Sanghai, had a game structure based on the original Anipang. There were more than one million advance bookings for downloads of Anipang Sanghai prior to its release.
The second sequel to the original Anipang was Anipang Matgo. This game is based on a traditional Korean card game called hwatu matgo, while the design is similar to other Anipang games; the third sequel to the original Anipang was Anipang: The Sichuan. This game is based on the program named Sichuan; this game is similar to the Chinese game mahjong. Official website
Instant messaging technology is a type of online chat that offers real-time text transmission over the Internet. A LAN messenger operates in a similar way over a local area network. Short messages are transmitted between two parties, when each user chooses to complete a thought and select "send"; some IM applications can use push technology to provide real-time text, which transmits messages character by character, as they are composed. More advanced instant messaging can add file transfer, clickable hyperlinks, Voice over IP, or video chat. Non-IM types of chat include multicast transmission referred to as "chat rooms", where participants might be anonymous or might be known to each other. Instant messaging systems tend to facilitate connections between specified known users. Depending on the IM protocol, the technical architecture can be client-server. By 2010, instant messaging over the Web was in sharp decline, in favor of messaging features on social networks; the most popular IM platforms, such as AIM, closed in 2017, Windows Live Messenger was merged into Skype.
Today, most instant messaging takes place on messaging apps which by 2014 had more users than social networks. Instant messaging is a set of communication technologies used for text-based communication between two or more participants over the Internet or other types of networks. IM–chat happens in real-time. Of importance is that online chat and instant messaging differ from other technologies such as email due to the perceived quasi-synchrony of the communications by the users; some systems permit messages to be sent to users not then'logged on', thus removing some differences between IM and email. IM allows effective and efficient communication, allowing immediate receipt of acknowledgment or reply; however IM is not supported by transaction control. In many cases, instant messaging includes added features which can make it more popular. For example, users may see each other via webcams, or talk directly for free over the Internet using a microphone and headphones or loudspeakers. Many applications allow file transfers, although they are limited in the permissible file-size.
It is possible to save a text conversation for reference. Instant messages are logged in a local message history, making it similar to the persistent nature of emails. Though the term dates from the 1990s, instant messaging predates the Internet, first appearing on multi-user operating systems like Compatible Time-Sharing System and Multiplexed Information and Computing Service in the mid-1960s; some of these systems were used as notification systems for services like printing, but were used to facilitate communication with other users logged into the same machine. As networks developed, the protocols spread with the networks; some of these used a peer-to-peer protocol. The Zephyr Notification Service was invented at MIT's Project Athena in the 1980s to allow service providers to locate and send messages to users. Parallel to instant messaging were early online chat facilities, the earliest of, Talkomatic on the PLATO system, which allowed 5 people to chat on a 512x512 plasma display. During the bulletin board system phenomenon that peaked during the 1980s, some systems incorporated chat features which were similar to instant messaging.
The first such general-availability commercial online chat service was the CompuServe CB Simulator in 1980, created by CompuServe executive Alexander "Sandy" Trevor in Columbus, Ohio. Early instant messaging programs were real-time text, where characters appeared as they were typed; this includes the Unix "talk" command line program, popular in the 1980s and early 1990s. Some BBS chat programs used a similar interface. Modern implementations of real-time text exist in instant messengers, such as AOL's Real-Time IM as an optional feature. In the latter half of the 1980s and into the early 1990s, the Quantum Link online service for Commodore 64 computers offered user-to-user messages between concurrently connected customers, which they called "On-Line Messages", "FlashMail." (Quantum Link became America Online and made AOL Instant Messenger. While the Quantum Link client software ran on a Commodore 64, using only the Commodore's PETSCII text-graphics, the screen was visually divided into sections and OLMs would appear as a yellow bar saying "Message From:" and the name of the sender along with the message across the top of whatever the user was doing, presented a list of options for responding.
As such, it could be considered a type of graphical user interface, albeit much more primitive than the Unix and Macintosh based GUI IM software. OLMs were what Q-Link called "Plus Services" meaning they charged an extra per-minute fee on top of the monthly Q-Link access costs. Modern, Internet-wide, GUI-based messaging clients as they are known today, began to take off in the mid-1990s with PowWow, ICQ, AOL Instant Messenger. Similar functionalit
WeMade Entertainment Co. Ltd is a South Korean video game developer, based in Seoul, they are the creators of the Legend of Mir series of MMORPGs, the two most successful being The Legend of Mir 2, its sequel The Legend of Mir 3. Legend of Mir has attracted over 120 million users in Asia, generated over $65 million a month in revenue during its height. Today, in its ninth year of operation, Legend of Mir 2 still generates well over $20 million a month in China alone. WeMade was founded on February 2000, by the original Legend of Mir developers, they chose the name WeMade Entertainment to acknowledge a copyright infringement lawsuit filed by their Korean publishing partner Actoz against the Chinese game operator Shanda. Shanda had copied Legend of Mir under the name The World of Legend, prompting the lawsuit. In choosing their company name, the developers were making the point that “We made Legend of Mir”. Shanda settled the lawsuit by operating it as Shanda Korea. In 2007, WeMade Entertainment’s CEO and founder Kwan-Ho Park hired Kevin “Sookiel” Seo as co-CEO to turn the development company into a publisher and operator of online games in Korea.
Mr. Seo was the CEO of Actoz/Shanda Korea; the company grew from 300 to close to 600 employees as it expanded to provide full hosting services in Korea. Today, WeMade Entertainment Co. Ltd. operates several games in Korea. This includes games developed by WeMade such as Legend of Mir 2, Legend of Mir 3, Master of Fantasy and Chang Chun. In addition, WeMade hosts games from other developers including Chaps Online and Avalon. WeMade continues to license these games to other operators in other global territories. Shanda operates Legend of Mir 2 and Chang Chun in Greater China, while Softworld operates Mir 2 in Taiwan. GameFactory operates Rumble Fighter in the Europe. In the summer of 2008, WeMade established its US headquarters in Washington area. WeMade Entertainment USA, Inc. is a wholly owned subsidiary of the Korean entity. Headed up by CEO Kisung Kim, the US company is responsible for the Western Games market including Europe and the Americas. WeMade Entertainment USA, Inc. is hosting the North American servers of Lost Saga, a game developed by I.
O. Entertainment, it planned to transfer accounts from OGPlanet Lost Saga to the new servers and the game was released on May 2, 2013. On November 20, 2013, WeMade Entertainment USA announced from the North America Lost Saga homepage, that they will be ending Lost Saga's service in North America on December 8, 2013. No answer or reason was given as to why WeMade USA is ending its service of Lost Saga, though there have been rumors; the company Z8Games will be resuming Lost Saga's services in the North America region on December 18, 2013. With the change of services, all of the content obtained while under WeMade USA's service will transfer over when Z8Games resumes when the Lost Saga servers come online, with the transfer period being from December 9 through December 17, 2013. Further information regarding how the transfer will work is unknown. From 2007 to 2011, WeMade Entertainment operated a professional gaming team called WeMade FOX that maintained high-ranking Counter-Strike, StarCraft: Brood War and Warcraft III players.
Sponsored by Pepsi, GomTV and Mizuno, WeMade FOX possessed several high-earning players including NaDa and Jang Jae "Moon" Ho. On August 31, 2011, the team was shut down, with the former players placed in the care of KeSPA, until new sponsors were to be found. WeMade Entertainment Official Site WeMade Entertainment USA Official Site
Jeju is the capital of Jeju Province in South Korea and the largest city on Jeju Island. The city is served by Jeju International Airport. Located on an island off the Korean Peninsula, Jeju has warm weather during much of the year; the city is a well-known resort, with prestigious public casino facilities. In 2011, 9.9 million passengers flew between the two cities of Seoul and Jeju, making the Gimpo–Jeju route the world's busiest passenger air route. Jeju welcomes over ten million visitors from mainland Korea and China every year; the population of Jeju City is 205,386 households. The population density is 470.03. The area of the city has played a central role in Jeju since before recorded history; the Samseonghyeol, holes from which the three ancestors of the Jeju people are said to have come, are located in downtown Jeju City. The city has grown quite since the 1970s. Shin Jeju, or "new Jeju", was created some decades ago, up the hill from the airport and houses many government buildings; the thatched roof buildings that were common throughout the city until the 1970s are disappearing.
The city was separated from Bukjeju County in 1955. However, in 2005 Jeju Province voters approved a proposal to merge the city with Bukjeju County merging Seogwipo with Namjeju County to create two large cities directly administered by the province; that change was put into effect in July 2006. In 2012 Sang-Oh Kim became mayor. Jeju City is the principal transportation center for Jeju Province, it is home to Jeju International Airport. In addition, its port is the largest on the island, serving the great majority of passenger and cargo vessels that visit the island, it stands at the center of the island's road network. To travel throughout the city and island, various buses are available and affordably priced running at 1,000 won for one ride. A bus ride from Jeju City to Seogwipo is an hour. Due to its central position in transportation, Jeju City sees the main share of tourist traffic to the island. Many tourists arrive at the city through the port terminal or airport, stay in the tourist hotels of the Sinjeju neighborhood, stay within the city to visit various Jeju tourist attractions.
These include Dragon's Head Rock along the coast. The city sells lots of oranges for which Jeju is famous. Jeju City is surrounded by mandarin farms. Jeju Air has its headquarters in Jeju City. In its former boundaries, Jeju City was 19.3 kilometers from east to west, 10.2 kilometers from north to south. To the north, it looks across the Korea Strait at the southern coast of South Jeolla Province. To the south, it meets Seogwipo at the top of the island's sole mountain. Jeju City has a humid subtropical climate with warm summers and cool winters. Due to its location, Jeju City is one of the warmest cities in Korea. However, ocean effect snow brings winter precipitation such as snow showers with strong wind during the winter. Precipitation is significant throughout the year, but is much wetter in summer, with more than 180 millimetres of rain falling in each month from June to September; the highest temperature recorded is 37.5 °C on 25 July 1942 while the lowest temperature recorded is −6.0 °C on 16 February 1977.
Jeju is divided into 19 neighbourhoods, 4 towns, 3 townships: Guilin, China Yangzhou, China Kunshan, China Laizhou, China Hunchun, China Rouen, France Loreley, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany Arakawa, Japan Beppu, Ōita, Japan Sanda, Hyōgo, Japan Wakayama, Japan Santa Rosa, United StatesJeju has a "Memorandum of Understanding" with Ulm, Baden-Württemberg, Germany. List of cities in South Korea Geography of South Korea City government website Jeju City at Encyclopedia of Korean Local Culture