The Thule or proto-Inuit were the ancestors of all modern Inuit. They developed in coastal Alaska by 1000 and expanded eastwards across Canada, reaching Greenland by the 13th century. In the process, they replaced people of the earlier Dorset culture that had inhabited the region; the appellation "Thule" originates from the location of Thule in northwest Greenland, facing Canada, where the archaeological remains of the people were first found at Comer's Midden. The links between the Thule and the Inuit are biological and linguistic. Evidence supports the idea that the Thule were in contact with the Vikings, who had reached the shores of Canada in the 11th century. In Viking sources, these peoples are called the Skrælingjar; some Thule migrated southward, in the "Second Expansion" or "Second Phase". By the 13th or 14th century, the Thule had occupied an area inhabited by the Central Inuit, by the 15th century, the Thule replaced the Dorset. Intensified contacts with Europeans began in the 18th century.
Compounded by the disruptive effects of the "Little Ice Age", the Thule communities broke apart, the people were henceforward known as the Eskimo, Inuit. The Thule Tradition lasted from about 200 B. C. to 1600 A. D. around the Bering Strait, the Thule people being the prehistoric ancestors of the Inuit who now live in Northern Labrador. Thule culture was mapped out by Therkel Mathiassen, following his participation as an archaeologist and cartographer of the Fifth Danish Expedition to Arctic America in 1921–1924, he excavated sites on Baffin Island and the northwestern Hudson Bay region, which he considered to be the remains of a developed Eskimo whaling culture that had originated in Alaska and moved to Arctic Canada 1000 years ago. There are three stages of development leading up to Thule culture; these groups of peoples have been referred to as "Neo-Eskimo" cultures, which are differentiated from the earlier Norton Tradition. There are several stages of the Thule tradition: Old Bering Sea Stage, Punuk Stage, Birnirk Stage.
These stages represent variations of the Thule Tradition. The Thule Tradition replaced the Dorset Tradition in the Eastern Arctic and introduced both kayaks and umiaks, or skin covered boats, into the archaeological record as well as developed new uses for iron and copper and demonstrated advanced harpoon technology and use of bowhead whales, the largest animal in the Arctic. and spread across the coasts of Labrador and Greenland. It is the most recent "neo-Eskimo" culture; the Old Bering Seas stage was first characterized by Diamond Jenness, on the basis of a collection of patinated decorated ivory harpoon heads and other objects dug up by natives on the St. Lawrence and Diomede Islands. Jenness identified the Bering Sea culture as a developed Inuit culture of northeastern Asiatic origin and pre-Thule in age. A strong maritime adaptation is characteristic of the Thule, the OBS stage, can be seen in the archaeological evidence. Both Kayaks and umiaks appear in the archaeological record for the first time.
The toolkits of the people of the time are dominated by polished-slate rather than flaked-stone artifacts, including lanceolate knives, projectile heads, the ulu transverse-bladed knife. The people made a crude form of pottery and there was much use of bone and antlers to use as heads on harpoons, as well as to make darts, snow goggles, blubber scrapers, needles and mattocks walrus shoulder-blade snow shovels. There are many important innovations. Harpoon mounted ice picks were used for seal hunting, as well as ivory plugs and mouthpieces for inflating harpoon line floats, which enabled them to recover larger sea mammals when dispatched; these people relied on seal and walrus for subsistence. It is easy to pick out OBS technology because of the artistic curvilinear dots and shorter lines that were used to decorate their tools; the chronological relationship between the Okvik and Old Bering Seas cultures has been the subject of debate and remains undecided, based on art styles. Some consider it to be a distinct culture pre-dating Old Bering Sea, but the close similarity and overlapping radiocarbon dates suggest Okvik and Old Bering Sea are best considered as contemporaneous, with regional variants.
The Punuk stage is a development of Old Bering Sea stage, with distribution along the major Strait islands and along to shores of the Chukchi Peninsula. The Punuk culture was defined by Henry Collins in 1928 from a 16 ft deep midden on one of the Punuk Islands. Excavation on St Lawrence Island confirmed Jenness's ideas on the Bering Sea culture, demonstrated a continual cultural sequence on the island from Old Bering Sea, to Punuk, to modern Eskimo culture. Punuk is differentiated with Old Bering Sea through its artifact styles and house forms, as well as harpoon styles and whale hunting. Punuk settlements were more common than earlier villages, they were square or rectangular dwellings with wooden floors. The house was held up by whale jaw-bones, covered in skins and snow; these houses were nicely insulated, would have been only visible to the occupants. Whaling has a greater emphasis in the Punuk stage. Hunters would kill whales in narrow ice leads as well as in the open sea in the fall. Open sea whaling required skilled leadership, teams of expert boatmen and hunters, the cooperation of several boats.
The whaleboat captain, t
History of Greenland
The history of Greenland is a history of life under extreme Arctic conditions: an ice cap covers about 80 percent of the island, restricting human activity to the coasts. The first humans are thought to have arrived in Greenland around 2500 BC, their descendants died out and were succeeded by several other groups migrating from continental North America. There has been no evidence discovered that Greenland was known to Europeans until the 10th century, when Icelandic Vikings settled on its southwestern coast, which seems to have been uninhabited when they arrived; the ancestors of the Inuit Greenlanders who live there today appear to have migrated there around 1200 AD, from northwestern Greenland. While the Inuit survived in the icy world of the Little Ice Age, the early Norse settlements along the southwestern coast disappeared, leaving the Inuit as the only inhabitants of the island for several centuries. During this time, Denmark-Norway believing the Norse settlements had survived, continued to claim sovereignty over the island despite the lack of any contact between the Norse Greenlanders and their Scandinavian brethren.
In 1721, aspiring to become a colonial power, Denmark-Norway sent a missionary expedition to Greenland with the stated aim of reinstating Christianity among descendants of the Norse Greenlanders who may have reverted to paganism. When the missionaries found no descendants of the Norse Greenlanders, they baptized the Inuit Greenlanders they found living there instead. Denmark-Norway developed trading colonies along the coast and imposed a trade monopoly and other colonial privileges on the area. During World War II, when Germany invaded Denmark, Greenlanders became and economically less connected to Denmark and more connected to the United States and Canada. After the war, Denmark resumed control of Greenland and in 1953, converted its status from colony to overseas amt. Although Greenland is still a part of the Kingdom of Denmark, it has enjoyed home rule since 1979. In 1985, the island decided to leave the European Union, which it had joined as a part of Denmark in 1973; the prehistory of Greenland is a story of repeated waves of Paleo-Eskimo immigration from the islands north of the North American mainland.
Because of Greenland's remoteness and climate, survival there was difficult. Over the course of centuries, one culture succeeded another as groups died out and were replaced by new immigrants. Archaeology can give only approximate dates for the cultures that flourished before the Norse exploration of Greenland in the 10th century; the earliest known cultures in Greenland are the Saqqaq culture and the Independence I culture in northern Greenland. The practitioners of these two cultures are thought to have descended from separate groups that came to Greenland from northern Canada. Around 800 BC, the so-called Independence II culture arose in the region where the Independence I culture had existed, it was thought that Independence II was succeeded by the early Dorset culture, but some Independence II artifacts date from as as the 1st century BC. Recent studies suggest that, in Greenland at least, the Dorset culture may be better understood as a continuation of Independence II culture. Artefacts associated with early Dorset culture in Greenland have been found as far north as Inglefield Land on the west coast and the Dove Bugt area on the east coast.
After the Early Dorset culture disappeared by around 1 AD, Greenland was uninhabited until Late Dorset people settled on the Greenlandic side of the Nares strait around 700. The late Dorset culture in the north of Greenland lasted until about 1300. Meanwhile the Norse arrived and settled in the southern part of the island in 980. Europeans became aware of Greenland's existence in the early 10th century, when Gunnbjörn Ulfsson, sailing from Norway to Iceland, was blown off course by a storm and sighted some islands off Greenland. During the 980s, explorers led by Erik the Red set out from Iceland and reached the southwest coast of Greenland, found the region uninhabited, subsequently settled there. Erik named the island Greenland - in effect as a marketing device. Both the Book of Icelanders and the Saga of Eric the Red state "He named the land Greenland, saying that people would be eager to go there if it had a good name."According to the sagas, the Icelanders had exiled Erik the Red for three years for committing murder c.
982. He sailed to Greenland, where he claimed certain regions as his own, he returned to Iceland to persuade people to join him in establishing a settlement on Greenland. The Icelandic sagas say that 25 ships left Iceland with Erik the Red in 985, that only 14 of them arrived safely in Greenland; this date has been confirmed by radiocarbon dating of remains at the first settlement at Brattahlid, which yielded a date of about 1000. According to the sagas, it was in the year 1000 that Erik's son, Leif Eirikson, left the settlement to explore the regions around Vinland, which historians assume to have been located in what is now Newfoundland; the Norse established settlements along Greenland's fjords. Excavations have shown that the fjords
Sofie Petersen is a Greenlandic Lutheran bishop. She was born on 23 November 1955 in Greenland, she studied theology and graduated from the University of Copenhagen in 1986. On 28 May 1995, at the age of 39, Petersen was ordained as the Bishop of Greenland in the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Denmark, she was ordained at Hans Egede Church, the cathedral of Greenland in the presence of Queen Margrethe II. She is the second Inuit bishop and the second woman to become a bishop in the Danish Lutheran church. Petersen is an outspoken advocate for climate justice, she lives in Nuuk. Article about Sofie Petersen, Indigenous Communion
The sperm whale or cachalot is the largest of the toothed whales and the largest toothed predator. It is the only living member of genus Physeter and one of three extant species in the sperm whale family, along with the pygmy sperm whale and dwarf sperm whale of the genus Kogia; the sperm whale is a pelagic mammal with a worldwide range, will migrate seasonally for feeding and breeding. Females and young males live together in groups, while mature males live solitary lives outside of the mating season; the females cooperate to nurse their young. Females give birth every four to twenty years, care for the calves for more than a decade. A mature sperm whale has few natural predators, although calves and weakened adults are sometimes killed by pods of orcas. Mature males average 16 metres in length but some may reach 20.5 metres, with the head representing up to one-third of the animal's length. Plunging to 2,250 metres, it is the second deepest diving mammal, following only the Cuvier's beaked whale.
The sperm whale uses vocalization as loud as 230 decibels underwater. It has the largest brain on Earth, more than five times heavier than a human's. Sperm whales can live for more than 60 years. Spermaceti, from which the whale derives its name, was a prime target of the whaling industry, was sought after for use in oil lamps and candles. Ambergris, a solid waxy waste product sometimes present in its digestive system, is still valued as a fixative in perfumes, among other uses. Beachcombers look out for ambergris as flotsam. Sperm whaling was a major industry in the nineteenth century, immortalised in the novel Moby Dick; the species is protected by the International Whaling Commission moratorium, is listed as vulnerable by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. The name sperm whale is a truncation of spermaceti whale. Spermaceti mistakenly identified as the whales' semen, is the semi-liquid, waxy substance found within the whale's head; the sperm whale is known as the "cachalot", thought to derive from the archaic French for "tooth" or "big teeth", as preserved for example in cachau in the Gascon dialect.
The etymological dictionary of Corominas says the origin is uncertain, but it suggests that it comes from the Vulgar Latin cappula, plural of cappulum, "sword hilt". The word cachalot came to English via French from Spanish or Portuguese cachalote from Galician/Portuguese cachola, "big head"; the term is retained in the Russian word for the animal, кашалот, as well as in many other languages. The scientific genus name Physeter comes from Greek physētēr, meaning "blowpipe, blowhole", or – as a pars pro toto – "whale"; the specific name macrocephalus is Latinized from the Greek makrokephalos, from makros + kephalē. Its synonymous specific name catodon means odṓn. Another synonym australasianus was applied to sperm whales in the southern hemisphere; the sperm whale belongs to the order Cetartiodactyla, the order containing all cetaceans and even-toed ungulates. It is a member of the unranked clade Cetacea, with all the whales and porpoises, further classified into Odontoceti, containing all the toothed whales and dolphins.
It is the sole extant species of Physeter, in the family Physeteridae. Two species of the related extant genus Kogia, the pygmy sperm whale Kogia breviceps and the dwarf sperm whale K. simus, are placed either in this family or in the family Kogiidae. In some taxonomic schemes the families Kogiidae and Physeteridae are combined as the superfamily Physeteroidea; the sperm whale is one of the species described by Linnaeus in 1758 in his eighteenth century work, Systema Naturae. He recognised four species in the genus Physeter. Experts soon realised that just one such species exists, although there has been debate about whether this should be named P. catodon or P. macrocephalus, two of the names used by Linnaeus. Both names are still used, although most recent authors now accept macrocephalus as the valid name, limiting catodon's status to a lesser synonym; until 1974, the species was known as P. catodon. In that year, Husson & Holthuis proposed that the correct name should be P. macrocephalus, the second name in the genus Physeter published by Linnaeus concurrently with P. catodon.
This proposition was based on the grounds that the names were synonyms published and, the ICZN Principle of the First Reviser should apply. In this instance, it led to the choice of P. macrocephalus over P. catodon, a view re-stated in Holthuis, 1987. This has been adopted by most subsequent authors, although Schevill argued that macrocephalus was published with an inaccurate description and that therefore only the species catodon was valid, rendering the principle of "First Reviser" inapplicable; the most recent version of ITIS has altered its usage from P. catodon to P. macrocephalus, following L. B. Holthuis and more recent discussions with relevant experts. Furthermore, The Taxonomy Committee of the Society for Marine Mammalogy, the largest international association of marine mammal scientists in the world uses Physeter macrocephalus when publishing their definitive list of marine mammal species; the sperm whale is the largest toothed whale, with adult males measuring up to 20.5 metres long and
Greenland is an autonomous constituent country of the Kingdom of Denmark between the Arctic and Atlantic oceans, east of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Though physiographically a part of the continent of North America, Greenland has been politically and culturally associated with Europe for more than a millennium; the majority of its residents are Inuit, whose ancestors began migrating from the Canadian mainland in the 13th century settling across the island. Greenland is the world's largest island. Three-quarters of Greenland is covered by the only permanent ice sheet outside Antarctica. With a population of about 56,480, it is the least densely populated territory in the world. About a third of the population live in the capital and largest city; the Arctic Umiaq Line ferry acts as a lifeline for western Greenland, connecting the various cities and settlements. Greenland has been inhabited at intervals over at least the last 4,500 years by Arctic peoples whose forebears migrated there from what is now Canada.
Norsemen settled the uninhabited southern part of Greenland beginning in the 10th century, having settled Iceland to escape persecution from the King of Norway and his central government. These Norsemen would set sail from Greenland and Iceland, with Leif Erikson becoming the first known European to reach North America nearly 500 years before Columbus reached the Caribbean islands. Inuit peoples arrived in the 13th century. Though under continuous influence of Norway and Norwegians, Greenland was not formally under the Norwegian crown until 1262; the Norse colonies disappeared in the late 15th century when Norway was hit by the Black Death and entered a severe decline. Soon after their demise, beginning in 1499, the Portuguese explored and claimed the island, naming it Terra do Lavrador. In the early 18th century, Danish explorers reached Greenland again. To strengthen trading and power, Denmark–Norway affirmed sovereignty over the island; because of Norway's weak status, it lost sovereignty over Greenland in 1814 when the union was dissolved.
Greenland became Danish in 1814, was integrated in the Danish state in 1953 under the Constitution of Denmark. In 1973, Greenland joined the European Economic Community with Denmark. However, in a referendum in 1982, a majority of the population voted for Greenland to withdraw from the EEC, effected in 1985. Greenland contains the world's largest and most northerly national park, Northeast Greenland National Park. Established in 1974, expanded to its present size in 1988, it protects 972,001 square kilometres of the interior and northeastern coast of Greenland and is bigger than all but twenty-nine countries in the world. Greenland is divided into five municipalities – Sermersooq, Qeqertalik and Avannaata. Greenland does not have an independent seat at the United Nations. In 1979, Denmark granted home rule to Greenland, in 2008, Greenlanders voted in favor of the Self-Government Act, which transferred more power from the Danish government to the local Greenlandic government. Under the new structure, in effect since 21 June 2009, Greenland can assume responsibility for policing, judicial system, company law and auditing.
It retains control of monetary policy, providing an initial annual subsidy of DKK 3.4 billion, planned to diminish over time. Greenland expects to grow its economy based on increased income from the extraction of natural resources; the capital, held the 2016 Arctic Winter Games. At 70%, Greenland has one of the highest shares of renewable energy in the world coming from hydropower; the early Norse settlers named the island as Greenland. In the Icelandic sagas, the Norwegian-born Icelander Erik the Red was said to be exiled from Iceland for manslaughter. Along with his extended family and his thralls, he set out in ships to explore an icy land known to lie to the northwest. After finding a habitable area and settling there, he named it Grœnland in the hope that the pleasant name would attract settlers; the Saga of Erik the Red states: "In the summer, Erik left to settle in the country he had found, which he called Greenland, as he said people would be attracted there if it had a favorable name."The name of the country in the indigenous Greenlandic language is Kalaallit Nunaat.
The Kalaallit are the indigenous Greenlandic Inuit people. In prehistoric times, Greenland was home to several successive Paleo-Eskimo cultures known today through archaeological finds; the earliest entry of the Paleo-Eskimo into Greenland is thought to have occurred about 2500 BC. From around 2500 BC to 800 BC, southern and western Greenland were inhabited by the Saqqaq culture. Most finds of Saqqaq-period archaeological remains have been around Disko Bay, including the site of Saqqaq, after which the culture is named. From 2400 BC to 1300 BC, the Independence I culture existed in northern Greenland, it was a part of the Arctic small tool tradition. Towns, including Deltaterrassern
Nunatsiavut is an autonomous area claimed by the Inuit in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. The settlement area includes territory in Labrador extending to the Quebec border. In 2002, the Labrador Inuit Association submitted a proposal for limited autonomy to the government of Newfoundland and Labrador; the constitution was ratified on 1 December 2005, at which time the Labrador Inuit Association ceased to exist, the new Government of Nunatsiavut was established being responsible for health and cultural affairs. It is responsible for setting and conducting elections, the first of, executed in October 2006. An election for the Ordinary Members of the Nunatsiavut Assembly was held on 4 May 2010; the Nunatsiavut Assembly was dissolved on 6 April in preparation for the election. Its incumbent president is Johannes Lampe who assumed office in 2016. In Inuttitut, Nunatsiavut means "Our Beautiful Land"; this name was ratified by the Labrador Inuit Constitution and passed by the Labrador Inuit Association in 2002.
A primary objective of autonomy is for the preservation of the Inuit culture and language, as well as the environment through environmental stewardship. Nunatsiavut is counted in the census as Division 11; the Labrador Inuit Association had filed a land claim for portions of Labradorian land in 1977. In 1988, the Labrador Inuit Association, the government of Newfoundland and Labrador, the government of Canada began negotiations based on the land claim. An agreement-in-principle was achieved in 2001, on 26 May 2004, the agreement was ratified by over 75% of eligible voters subject to the land claim. On 22 January 2005, the Inuit of Nunatsiavut signed the Labrador Inuit Lands Claims Agreement with the federal and provincial governments covering 72,520 km2 of land, including the entire northern salient of Labrador north of Nain as well as a portion of the Atlantic coast south of there; the agreement includes 44,030 km2 of sea rights. Although the Inuit will not own the whole area, they were granted special rights related to traditional land use, they will own 15,800 km2 designated Labrador Inuit Lands.
The agreement establishes the Torngat Mountains National Park Reserve in the northern area of the land claim. The Labrador Inuit Lands Claims Agreement is a treaty between the Inuit of Labrador, the provincial government of Newfoundland and Labrador, the federal government of Canada, constitutionally protected under the aboriginal and treaty rights of Aboriginal peoples in Canada granted by section 35 of the Constitution Act, 1982; the self-governance agreement included a transfer of $130 million from the federal Government of Canada in compensation for the forced relocation of the Inuit in the 1950s. Unspecified benefits for Inuit in Labrador not within the settlement area were part of the agreement; the agreement was ratified by the Labrador Inuit, the House of Assembly of Newfoundland and Labrador, the Parliament of Canada, where it received Royal Assent on 23 June 2005. On 1 December 2005, the constitution was formally adopted, a swearing-in ceremony was held for the first cabinet, an interim government which consisted of members of the Labrador Inuit Association board of directors.
This day marked the official transfer of power from the provincial government to the newly formed Government of Nunatsiavut "to make their own laws relating to cultural affairs and health". In October 2006, Nunatsiavut held its first election to form a nine-member government, sworn in on 16 October in Hopedale; the land claim agreement provided for the establishment of the Government of Nunatsiavut to represent the residents of the land claim area and any Labrador Inuit living elsewhere in Canada. Nunatsiavut remained a part of Newfoundland and Labrador, but the Government of Nunatsiavut acquired the jurisdictional authority over health and justice in the land claim area. Nunatsiavut operates under a consensus government within the parliamentary system of Canada; the legislature of the government is based in Hopedale, its administrative centre is in Nain. It is subject to the Nunatsiavut Elections Act; the Nunatsiavut Assembly consists of a minimum 16 members, including: a president, who chairs the Nunatsiavut Executive Council, ten ordinary members the Angajukĸâk of each of the five Inuit Community Governments the Chairs of the Inuit Community Corporations.
There are two Inuit Community Corporations, NunaKatiget Inuit Community Corporation and Sivunivut Inuit Community Corporation, 18 members in the Assembly. From the Assembly, a member will be elected to act as First Minister; the Assembly would act as a forum for discussion of laws, it will oversee the Executive Council. The Nunatsiavut Executive Council will be appointed by the First Minister, it will implement laws and implement policy and prepare legislation, oversee the administration of the government, be accountable to the Assembly. Inuit Community Governments were established in Nain, Makkovik and Rigolet; each consists of a municipal council, elected from and by both Inuit and non-Inuit residents, is led by an Angajukĸâk, a chief executive officer and mayor, who must be Inuk. Large settlements of Labrador Inuit outside the settlement area will be represented by Inuit Community Corporations; the Angajukĸâk of each Inuit Community Govern
The Iñupiat are native Alaskan people, whose traditional territory spans Norton Sound on the Bering Sea to the Canada–United States border. Their current communities include seven Alaskan villages in the North Slope Borough, affiliated with the Arctic Slope Regional Corporation. Iñupiat Inyupik, is the plural form of the name for the people and the name of their language; the singular form is Iñupiaq, which sometimes refers to the language. Iñupiak is the dual form; the roots are iñuk "person" and -piaq "real", i.e. an endonym meaning "real people". The Iñupiat people are made up of the following communities, To equitably manage natural resources, Iñupiat people belong to several of the Alaskan Native Regional Corporations; these are the following. Arctic Slope Regional Corporation Bering Straits Native Corporation NANA Regional Corporation. Inupiat now speak only two native languages: Northwest Alaskan Inupiat. Many more dialects of these languages flourished prior to contact with European cultures.
English is spoken by the Iñupiat because in Native American boarding schools, Iñupiaq children were punished for speaking their own languages. Several Inupiat people developed pictographic writing systems in the early twentieth century, it is known as Alaskan Picture Writing. The University of Alaska Fairbanks offers an online course called Beginning Inupiaq Eskimo, an introductory course to the Inupiaq language open to both speakers and non-speakers of Inupiaq. Along with other Inuit groups, the Iñupiaq originate from the Thule culture. Circa 1000 B. C. the Thule migrated from islands in the Bering Sea to. Iñupiaq groups, in common with Inuit-speaking groups have a name ending in "miut," which means'a people of'. One example is a generic term for inland Iñupiaq caribou hunters. During a period of starvation and an influenza epidemic most of these people moved to the coast or other parts of Alaska between 1890 and 1910. A number of Nunamiut returned to the mountains in the 1930s. By 1950, most Nunamiut groups, such as the Killikmiut, had coalesced in Anaktuvuk Pass, a village in north-central Alaska.
Some of the Nunamiut remained nomadic until the 1950s. The Iditarod Trail's antecedents were the native trails of the Dena'ina and Deg Hit'an Athabaskan Indians and the Inupiaq Eskimos. Iñupiat people are hunter-gatherers. Iñupiat people continue to rely on subsistence hunting and fishing. Depending on their location, they harvest walrus, whale, polar bears and fish. Both the inland and coastal Iñupiat depend on fish. Throughout the seasons when they are available food staples include ducks, rabbits, berries and shoots; the inland Iñupiat hunt caribou, dall sheep, grizzly bear, moose. The coastal Iñupiat hunt walrus, beluga whales, bowhead whales. Cautiously, polar bear is hunted; the capture of a whale benefits each member of an Iñupiat community, as the animal is butchered and its meat and blubber are allocated according to a traditional formula. City-dwelling relatives, thousands of miles away, are entitled to a share of each whale killed by the hunters of their ancestral village. Maktak, the skin and blubber of Bowhead and other whales, is rich in vitamins A and C.
The Vitamin C content of meats is destroyed by cooking, so consumption of raw meats and these vitamin-rich foods contributes to good health in a population with limited access to fruits and vegetables. Since the 1970s, oil and other resources have been an important revenue source for the Iñupiat; the Alaska Pipeline connects the Prudhoe Bay wells with the port of Valdez in south-central Alaska. Because of the oil drilling in Alaska’s arid north, the traditional way of whaling is coming into conflict with one of the modern world’s most pressing demands: finding more oil; the Inupiat eat Ribes triste raw or cooked, mix them with other berries which are used to make a traditional dessert. They mix the berries with rosehips and highbush cranberries and boil them into a syrup. Traditionally, different Iñupiat people lived in sedentary communities; some villages in the area have been occupied by other indigenous groups for more than 10,000 years. The Nalukataq is a spring whaling festival among Iñupiat.
There is one Iñupiat culture-oriented institute of higher education, Iḷisaġvik College, located in Utqiagvik. Iñupiat people have grown more concerned in recent years that climate change is threatening their traditional lifestyle; the warming trend in the Arctic affects their lifestyle in numerous ways, for example: thinning sea ice makes it more difficult to harvest bowhead whales, seals and other traditional foods. The Inuit Circumpolar Council, a group representing indigenous peoples of the Arctic, has made the case that climate change represents a threat to their human rights; as of the 2000 U. S. Census, the Iñupiat population in the United States numbered more than 19,000. Most of them live in Alaska. North Slope Borough: Anaktuvuk Pass, Utqiagvik, Nuiqsut, Point Hope, Point Lay, Wainwright Northwest Arctic Borough: Ambler, Deering, Kian