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Kalamazoo, Michigan

Kalamazoo is a city in the southwest region of the U. S. state of Michigan. It is the county seat of Kalamazoo County; as of the 2010 census, Kalamazoo had a population of 74,262. Kalamazoo is the major city of the Kalamazoo-Portage Metropolitan Statistical Area, which has a population of 335,340 as of 2015. Kalamazoo is equidistant from the major American cities of Chicago and Detroit, each less than 150 miles away. One of Kalamazoo's most notable features is the Kalamazoo Mall, an outdoor pedestrian shopping mall; the city created the mall in 1959 by closing part of Burdick Street to auto traffic, although two of the mall's four blocks have been reopened to auto traffic since 1999. Kalamazoo is home to Western Michigan University, a large public university, Kalamazoo College, a private liberal arts college, Kalamazoo Valley Community College, a two-year community college. Known as Bronson in the township of Arcadia, the names of both the city and the township were changed to "Kalamazoo" in 1836 and 1837, respectively.

The name “Kalamazoo” comes from a Potawatomi word, first found in a British report in 1772. However, the Kalamazoo River, which passes through the modern city of Kalamazoo, was located on the route between Detroit and Fort Saint-Joseph. French-Canadian traders and military personnel were quite familiar with this area during the French era and thereafter; the name for the Kalamazoo River was known by Canadians and French as La rivière Kikanamaso. The name "Kikanamaso" was recorded by Father Pierre Potier, a Jesuit missionary for the Huron-Wendats at the Assumption mission, while en route to Fort Saint-Joseph during the fall of 1760. Legend has it that "Ki-ka-ma-sung", meaning "boiling water", referring to a footrace held each fall by local Native Americans, who had to run to the river and back before the pot boiled; the word negikanamazo, purported to mean "otter tail" or "stones like otters" has been cited as a possible origin of the name. Another theory is that it means "the mirage or reflecting river".

Another legend is that the image of "boiling water" referred to fog on the river as seen from the hills above the current downtown. The name was given to the river that flows all the way across the state; the name Kalamazoo, which sounds unusual to English-speaking ears, has become a metonym for exotic places, as in the phrase "from Timbuktu to Kalamazoo". Today, T-shirts are sold in Kalamazoo with the phrase "Yes, there is a Kalamazoo"; the area on which the modern city of Kalamazoo stands was once home to Native Americans of the Hopewell culture, who migrated into the area sometime before the first millennium. Evidence of their early residency remains in the form of a small mound in downtown's Bronson Park; the Hopewell civilization was replaced by other groups. The Potawatomi culture lived in the area. René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, passed just southeast of the present city of Kalamazoo in late March 1680; the first Europeans to reside in the area were itinerant fur traders in the late 18th and early 19th century.

There are records of several traders wintering in the area, by the 1820s at least one trading post had been established. During the War of 1812, the British established a prison camp in the area; the 1821 Treaty of Chicago ceded the territory south of the Grand River to the United States federal government. However, the area around present-day Kalamazoo was reserved as the village of Potawatomi Chief Match-E-Be-Nash-She-Wish. Six years as a result of the 1827 Treaty of St. Joseph, the tract that became the city of Kalamazoo was ceded. In 1829, Titus Bronson from Connecticut, became the first white settler to build a cabin within the present city limits of Kalamazoo, he platted the town in 1831 and named it the village of Bronson—not to be confused with the much smaller Bronson, about fifty miles to the south-southeast of Kalamazoo. Bronson described as "eccentric" and argumentative, was run out of town; the village was renamed Kalamazoo in 1836, due in part to Bronson's being fined for stealing a cherry tree.

Today, a downtown park, among other things, are named for Bronson. Kalamazoo was incorporated as a village in 1838 and as a city in 1883; the fertile farmlands attracted prosperous Yankee farmers who settled the surrounding area, sent their sons to Kalamazoo to become businessmen and entrepreneurs who started numerous factories. Most of the original settlers of Kalamazoo were from upstate New York. In the 1940s, the city became the first to install curb cuts. In 1959, the city created the Kalamazoo Mall, the first outdoor pedestrian shopping mall in the United States, by closing part of Burdick Street to auto traffic; the Mall was designed by Victor Gruen, who designed the country's first enclosed shopping mall, which had opened three years earlier. Two of the mall's four blocks were reopened to auto traffic in 1999 after much debate. An F3 tornado struck downtown Kalamazoo on May 13, 1980, killing five and injuring 79. On February 20, 2016, Kalamazoo became the site of a random series of shootings in which six people were killed.

A prime suspect was apprehended by police without incident. In the past, Kalamazoo was known for its production of windmills, buggies, cigars, stoves and paper products. Agriculturally, it once was noted for celery. Although much of it has become suburbanized, the surrounding area still produces farm crops corn and soybeans. Kalamazoo was the original home of Gibson Guitar Corporation, which spawned the st

Art Seaberg

Arthur W. "Art" Seaberg is a former American state legislator who served in the Minnesota House of Representatives. An attorney by profession, he represented District 38B in Dakota County as an Independent-Republican; as a legislator he was an advocate for domestic abuse victims, he passed several bills increasing protections for them. Seaberg attended Central High School in nearby St. Paul, he received a B. A. in political science from Minnesota State University, Mankato in 1961. He went on to receive a LL. B. and J. D. from William Mitchell College of Law. He lived in Mendota Eagan during his House tenure. Seaberg has a wife and six children, three of whom belonged to second wife Joanne. Seaberg has 10 grandchildren. After five terms in the Minnesota House, Seaberg made an unsuccessful run for the Minnesota Senate. Seaberg lost. In 2010, he publicly endorsed Independence Party candidate Tom Horner for governor, leading him to be temporarily banned from the state Republican Party; the Independents, continue to support the choices and public personae of Mr. Seaberg

Paul Smith (American actor, born 1929)

Paul Smith is an American comic character actor with a perpetually perplexed or, bemused expression, during the 1950s, 1960s, 1970s and early 1980s, appeared in scores of television episodes sitcoms, including regular roles in five series, was seen in numerous theatrical features, television films and commercials in brief, sometimes unbilled, comedic bits. Born in Pennsylvania's second-largest city, Arthur Paul Smith moved to Los Angeles and, by the time of his 22nd birthday in 1951, began an uninterrupted 25-year acting career which lasted until his retirement, at age 47, in 1976. During the 1950s, he was seen in twenty-four theatrical features, from 1951's I Want You to 1959's The FBI Story, with his work in eleven of those being unbilled and the remainder providing him with small parts which were credited near the bottom of the cast list. One exception, in 1957, was a sixth-billed role in Elvis Presley's first starring vehicle, Loving You in which he plays Skeeter, a comical member of Elvis' backup band, who talks to his friend Matilda, the band's caged parrot.

Smith was in 21 television episodes encompassing fourteen series, from 1955's Navy Log and The 20th Century Fox Hour to 1959's Dinah Shore Show, in addition to a regular role on the 1959 sitcom Fibber McGee and Molly. In the first of his five sitcoms, Smith plays the McGees' next-door neighbor Roy Norris, a family man with a wife and 11-year-old daughter; the actors playing the McGees could not, duplicate the long-running unique ambiance of the original radio McGees and the Tuesday night NBC series folded in January 1960 after airing 13 filmed episodes. In the course of the 1960s, which became his busiest decade, Smith was, continually employed, appearing in nine features: one in 1960, Visit to a Small Planet, one in 1961, The Silent Call, two in 1964, Advance to the Rear and Bikini Beach, one in 1965, The Great Race, two in 1968, Disney's The Horse in the Gray Flannel Suit and the independent Stranger and the Dead Season, two additional independents in 1969, The Erotic Adventures of Robin Hood and The Assassination of the Dog.

Aside from the three independents and one credited bit in Bikini Beach, his remaining five appearances, which were in major studio films, went unbilled. Although in comparison to twenty-four titles in the 1950s, his theatrical output dropped to nine, all of his remaining work schedule was consumed by television where his output increased exponentially. Seen in episodes of thirty series, starting, in 1960, with Johnny Midnight, Markham and Thriller, ending in 1969 with Ironside and Adam-12, he was a cast member in four sitcoms, among those series, a semi-regular on a fifth, ABC's Bewitched, between 1966 and 1972, he appeared in nine episodes playing a befuddled or exasperated cop, flummoxed by the magical witchcraft of Samantha; the size of his roles was small and he did not receive billing in the credits of some of his TV installments. Smith's earliest 1960s sitcom was CBS' Mrs. G. Goes to College, which marked Gertrude Berg's return to series TV in October 1961, after having portrayed a character, coincidentally named "Molly", Molly Goldberg, on her long-running ethnic family sitcom, The Goldbergs, which predated the McGees' Molly by six years, having begun on radio in 1929, moved to CBS television in 1949 and ended in 1956.

The plot centers around Sarah Green, a widow in her early sixties, who decides to acquire higher education, matriculates in her hometown college and interacts with, among others, her Cambridge University exchange professor and next-door neighbor George Howell, a character analogous to Smith's Roy Norris from Fibber McGee and Molly, replete with a no-nonsense wife. As with Fibber McGee, the new series could not come close to the success of the original and, after thirteen episodes, a midseason move from Tuesday to Wednesday night, along a title change designed to emphasize Berg's name, The Gertrude Berg Show, was unable to improve the ratings for the remaining thirteen episodes and abruptly ended its run in April 1962, without showing any repeats. Although the show did receive two Emmy nominations, Outstanding Continued Performance by an Actress in a Series for Gertrude Berg and Outstanding Performance in a Supporting Role by an Actress for Mary Wickes, co-star Cedric Hardwicke, in a 1962 TV Guide article which focuses on his work in the series, references him as "Sir Cedric", is quoted as commenting, "if you're going to work in rubbish, you might as well get paid for it".

One of the episodes in the renamed series, "Goodbye, Mr. Howell", broadcast on February 15, 1962 centers around Paul Smith's character, as George Howell encounters unexpected problems and has to consider selling his house. Three years following Mrs. G. and, after having spent a couple of 1963 episodes playing Commander Carter in the World War II-set military sitcom McHale's Navy, Paul Smith was back in uniform as a clueless captain at Andrews Airforce Base, during peacetime, in No Time for Sergeants, his third regular role on a sitcom. Making its ABC debut on September 14, 1964, the series was based on a 1955 episode of the Golden Age of Television live anthology drama series, The United States Steel Hour, which starred Andy Griffith as Private Will Stockdale, a folksy storytelling southerner who has a commonsense remedy for every problem, thus frustrating his slow-burning, by-the-book sergeant; the play became a long-running 1955–57 Broadway play and a 1958 film, with star Andy Griffith continuing to repeat his

Moms (album)

Moms is the fifth studio album from the band Menomena. It was released on September 18, 2012. Following the release of their 2010 album Mines, member Brent Knopf left the group to focus on solo project Ramona Falls. Remaining members Danny Seim and Justin Harris continued on as a two piece. Seim and Harris planned their next album to deal with the topic of mothers. Compared to the process of recording Mines, "gruelling" according to Seim, the Moms sessions were "our most collaborative and peaceful"; the album received favorable reviews in music publications. On Metacritic, it received an 81/100 based on 23 reviews indicating "universal acclaim". Pitchfork Media gave the album an eight out of ten rating and commented that the album was "the most aggressive record Menomena have made". Allmusic felt the maternal theme was a "unifying" element and appreciated the album's "emotional depth"; the album peaked at # 150 at # 32 on the Independent Albums chart. All tracks are written by Menomena


Marmolada is a mountain in northeastern Italy and the highest mountain of the Dolomites. It lies between the borders of Veneto; the mountain is located about 100 kilometres north-northwest of Venice, from which it can be seen on a clear day. It consists of a ridge running west to east. Towards the south it breaks into sheer cliffs, forming a rock face several kilometres long. On the north side there is the only large glacier in the Dolomites; the ridge is composed of several summits, decreasing in altitude from west to east: Punta Penia 3,343 metres, Punta Rocca 3,309 metres, Punta Ombretta 3,230 metres, Monte Serauta 3,069 metres, Pizzo Serauta 3,035 metres. An aerial tramway goes to the top of Punta Rocca. During the ski season the Marmolada's main ski run is opened for skiers and snowboarders alike, making it possible to ski down into the valley. Paul Grohmann made the first ascent along the north route; the south face was climbed for the first time in 1901 by Beatrice Tomasson, Michele Bettega and Bartolo Zagonel.

Until the end of World War I the border between Austria-Hungary and Italy ran over Marmolada, so it formed part of the front line during that conflict. Austro-Hungarian soldiers were quartered in deep tunnels bored into the northern face's glacier, Italian soldiers were quartered on the south face's rocky precipices, it was the site of fierce mine warfare on the Italian Front. As glaciers retreat, soldiers' remains and belongings are discovered. White Friday List of Italian regions by highest point Computer generated summit panoramas North South Index Marmolada on

John E. Ferling

John E. Ferling is a professor emeritus of history at the University of West Georgia; as a leading historian in the American Revolution and founding era, he has appeared in television documentaries on PBS, the History Channel, C-SPAN Book TV, the Learning Channel. John Ferling was born in 1940 in West Virginia. Ferling grew up in Texas. Ferling attended Sam Houston State University, received a master's degree in history from Baylor University.. He earned his Ph. D. in history from West Virginia University in 1971. John Ferling taught for 39 years at the University of West Georgia. Ferling retired from teaching to spend more time writing. Lifetime Achievement Award Fraunces Tavern Book Award Outstanding Retired Faculty The Ascent of George Washington: The Hidden Political Genius of an American Icon Almost a Miracle: The American Victory in the War of Independence The Loyalist Mind: Joseph Galloway and the American Revolution A Wilderness of Miseries: War and Warriors in Early America The First of Men: A Life of George Washington Struggle for a Continent: The Wars of Early America John Adams: A Life Setting the World Ablaze: Washington, Adams and the American Revolution A Leap in the Dark: The Struggle to Create the American Republic Adams vs. Jefferson: The Tumultuous Election of 1800 Independence: The Struggle to Set America Free Jefferson and Hamilton: "The Rivalry That Forged A Nation"* Whirlwind: the American Revolution and the War that Won It.

Bloomsbury Press. 2015. ISBN 9781620401729. Apostles of Revolution: Jefferson, Paine and the Struggle Against the Old Order in America and Europe. 2018. ISBN 9781632862099. Appearances on C-SPAN In Depth interview with Ferling, July 5, 2009 Ferling discusses Almost a Miracle on September 27, 2007 at the Pritzker Military Museum & Library Official website