The Kalenjin are an ethnolinguistic group indigenous to East Africa, residing in what was the Rift Valley Province in Kenya. They are estimated to number a little over 4.9 million individuals as per the Kenyan 2009 census and are divided into the Kipsigis, Keiyo, Sabaot, Tugen, Terik and Ogiek. They speak the Kalenjin language, which belongs to the Nilotic language family Linguistic evidence points to the eastern Middle Nile Basin south of the Abbai River, as the nursery of the Nilotic languages; that is to say south-east of present-day Khartoum. It is thought that beginning in the second millennium B. C. particular Nilotic speaking communities began to move southward into present-day South Sudan where most settled and that the societies today referred to as the Southern Nilotes pushed further on, reaching what is present-day north-eastern Uganda by 1000 B. C. Linguist Christopher Ehret proposes that between 1000 and 700 BC, the Southern Nilotic speaking communities, who kept domestic stock and cultivated sorghum and finger millet, lived next to an Eastern Cushitic speaking community with whom they had significant cultural interaction.
The general location of this point of cultural exchange being somewhere near the common border between Sudan, Uganda and Ethiopia. He suggests that the cultural exchange perceived in borrowed loan words, adoption of the practice of circumcision and the cyclical system of age-set organisation dates to this period; the arrival of the Southern Nilotes on the East African archaeological scene is correlated with the appearance of the prehistoric lithic industry and pottery tradition referred to as the Elmenteitan culture. The bearers of the Elmenteitan culture developed a distinct pattern of land use and pastoralism on the western plains of Kenya during the East African Pastoral Neolithic, its earliest recorded appearance dates to the ninth century BC. Certain distinct traits of the Southern Nilotes, notably in pottery styles, lithic industry and burial practices, are evident in the archaeological record. Linguist Christopher Ehret suggests that around the fifth and sixth centuries BC, the speakers of the Southern Nilotic languages split into two major divisions - the proto-Kalenjin and the proto-Datooga.
The former took shape among those residing to the north of the Mau range while the latter took shape among sections that moved into the Mara and Loita plains south of the western highlands. The material culture referred to as Sirikwa is seen as a development from the local pastoral neolithic, as well as a locally limited transition from the Neolithic to the Iron Age. Radiocarbon dating of archaeological excavations done in Rongai have ranged in date from around 985 to 1300 A. D and have been associated with the early development phase of the Sirikwa culture. Lithics from Deloraine Farm site show that people were abandoning previous technological strategies in favor of more expedient tool production as iron was entering common use; the spread of iron technology led to the abandonment of many aspects of Pastoral Neolithic material culture and practices. From the Central Rift, the culture radiated outwards toward the western highlands, the Mt. Elgon region and into Uganda; the Sirikwa culture was the predominant Kenyan hinterland archaeological culture of the Pastoral Iron Age, c.2000 BP.
The name Sirikwa derives from a community that occupied the Uasin Gishu plateau as late as the 17th or 18th century. Some accounts from the Kipsigis suggests that the Sirikwa people migrated Southward towards what would be today's Tanzania, hence implicating either the Datoog or the Iraqw. Seen to have developed out of the Elmenteitan culture of the East African Pastoral Neolithic c.3300-1200 BP, this culture was followed in much of its area by the Kalenjin, Maa and central Kenyan communities of the 18th and 19th centuries. Archaeological evidence indicates a sedentary way of life and a cultural commitment to a closed defensive system for both community and livestock during the Iron Age. Family homesteads featured small individual family stock pens, elaborate gate-works and sentry points and houses facing into the homestead. Coins of Indian and English origin, some dating to this period have been found at the Hyrax Hill archaeological site and may indicate contacts with international trade networks.
At their greatest extent, their territories covered the highlands from the Chepalungu and Mau forests northwards as far as the Cherangany Hills and Mount Elgon. There was a south-eastern projection, at least in the early period, into the elevated Rift grasslands of Nakuru, taken over permanently by the Maasai no than the seventeenth century. A body of oral traditions from various East African communities points to the presence of at least four significant Kalenjin-speaking population groups present prior to the 19th century; the earliest mention appears to be of the Lumbwa. Meru oral history describes the arrival of their ancestors at Mount Kenya where they interacted with this community; the Lumbwa occupied the lower reaches of Mount Kenya though the extent of their territory is presently unclear. North-east of this community, across the Rift Valley, a community known as the Chok occupied the Elgeyo escarpment. Pokot oral history describes their way of life, as that of the Chemwal whose country may have been known as Chemngal, a community that appears to have lived in association with the Chok.
Invictus is a 2009 American-South African biographical sports drama film directed by Clint Eastwood and starring Morgan Freeman and Matt Damon. The story is based on the John Carlin book Playing the Enemy: Nelson Mandela and the Game That Made a Nation about the events in South Africa before and during the 1995 Rugby World Cup; the Springboks were not expected to perform well, the team having only returned to high-level international competition following the dismantling of apartheid—the country was hosting the World Cup, thus earning an automatic entry. Freeman and Damon play the South African President Nelson Mandela and François Pienaar, respectively. François was the captain of the Springboks. Invictus was released in the United States on December 11, 2009; the title refers to the Roman divine epithet Invictus and may be translated from the Latin as "undefeated" or "unconquered". "Invictus" is the title of a poem, referred to in the film, by British poet William Ernest Henley. The film was met with positive critical reviews and earned Academy Award nominations for Freeman and Damon.
The film grossed $122.2 million on a budget of $50–60 million. On 11 February 1990, Nelson Mandela is released from Victor Verster Prison after having spent 27 years in jail. Four years Mandela is elected the first black President of South Africa, his presidency faces enormous challenges in the post-Apartheid era, including rampant poverty and crime, Mandela is concerned about racial divisions between black and white South Africans, which could lead to violence. The ill will which both groups hold towards each other is seen in his own security detail where relations between the established white officers, who had guarded Mandela's predecessors, the black ANC additions to the security detail, are frosty and marked by mutual distrust. While attending a game between the Springboks, the country's rugby union team, England, Mandela recognises that some black people in the stadium are cheering for England, not their own country, as the mostly-white Springboks represent prejudice and apartheid in their minds.
Knowing that South Africa is set to host the 1995 Rugby World Cup in one year's time, Mandela persuades a meeting of the newly black-dominated South African Sports Committee to support the Springboks. He meets with the captain of the Springboks rugby team, François Pienaar, implies that a Springboks victory in the World Cup will unite and inspire the nation. Mandela shares with François a British poem, "Invictus", that had inspired him during his time in prison. François and his teammates train. Many South Africans, both black and white, doubt that rugby will unite a nation torn apart by nearly 50 years of racial tensions, as for many black people the radicals, the Springboks symbolise white supremacy. Both Mandela and Pienaar, stand behind their theory that the game can unite the South African country. Things begin to begin a friendship with them. During the opening games, support for the Springboks begins to grow among the black population. By the second game, the whole country comes together to support the Springboks and Mandela's efforts.
Mandela's security team grows closer as the racially diverse officers come to respect their comrades' professionalism and dedication. As Mandela watches, the Springboks defeat one of their arch-rivals—Australia, the defending champions and known as the Wallabies—in their opening match, they continue to defy all expectations and, as Mandela conducts trade negotiations in Taiwan, defeat France in heavy rain to advance to the final against their other arch-rival: New Zealand, known as the All Blacks. New Zealand and South Africa were universally regarded as the two greatest rugby nations, with the Springboks the only side to have a winning record against the All Blacks, since their first meeting in 1921. Before the game, the Springbok team visits Robben Island, where Mandela spent the first 18 of his 27 years in jail. There, Pienaar is inspired by Mandela's will and his idea of self-mastery in "Invictus". François mentions his amazement that Mandela "could spend thirty years in a tiny cell, come out ready to forgive the people who put there".
Supported by a large home crowd of all races at Ellis Park Stadium in Johannesburg, Pienaar motivates his teammates for the final. Mandela's security detail receives a scare when, just before the match, a South African Airways Boeing 747-200 jetliner flies in low over the stadium, it is not an assassination attempt though, but a demonstration of patriotism, with the message "Good Luck, Bokke"—the Springboks' Afrikaans nickname—painted on the undersides of the plane's wings. Mandela famously arrives onto the field before the match wearing a Springbok cap and a replica of Pienaar's #6 jersey; the Springboks complete their run by beating the All Blacks 15–12 in extra time, thanks to a drop goal from fly-half Joel Stransky. Mandela and Pienaar meet on the field together to celebrate the improbable and unexpected victory, Mandela hands Pienaar the William Webb Ellis Cup, signaling that the Springboks are indeed rugby union's world champions. Mandela's car drives away in the traffic-jammed streets leaving the stadium.
As Mandela watches South Africans celebrating together in the street from his car, his voice is heard reciting "Invictus" again. Morgan Freeman as Nelson Mandela, the head of the African National Congress, who has become the first black President of South Africa Matt Damon as Francois Pienaar, the Springboks' captain and blindside flanker Tony Kgoroge as Jason T
"Nightsong" is the second segment of the twenty-seventh episode (the third episode of the second season of the television series The Twilight Zone. Nighttime radio disc-jockey Andie is in a funk after a short relationship with a fellow D. J. One night, she discovers a record in her library by Simon Locke, a former lover, whom she broke up with five years earlier. After starting the track from the album "Nightsong" during her shift, Simon shows up at the station, she confronts him angrily about how he never came back. She turns and he's gone; when leaving the station after work, a motorcycle hits her but Simon saves her in time. He follows her and they begin rehashing their relationship. At a coffee shop and Andie discuss their past and she questions why he hasn't produced anything since they broke up, they discuss the good and bad times of their relationship, she realizes that she doesn't want to get played by Simon so she leaves the cafe. At home, she can't seem to get away from "Nightsong", she discovers Simon and talks to him again but this time she asks him about his songs, which detailed their relationship.
He attempts to seduce her but stops and says that they can't have their relationship back and while she's angry he tries to explain why they can't get back together. Simon takes Andie toward the ocean on a back road and he tells her that maybe he was running from her and success the whole time, he careens off onto a dirt road and they stop to get out near the edge of a cliff. He takes her down the hillside and tells her how after she played his song he decided to come back to explain to her what happened, he pulls back some brush to reveal a wrecked motorcycle and a skeleton. It is revealed. While she is at work she gets a call requesting "Nightsong" to be played, she tags the song with "from Andrea to Simon with love." The song, "Nightsong" was written by Stephen Stills and Neil Young, performed by Stills. The song, with additional overdubs, was included as the last track on the 1988 Crosby, Nash & Young album, American Dream. "Nightsong" on IMDb "Nightsong" at TV.com
Sion Michel, ACS is an American cinematographer based in Los Angeles, United States. Michel is notable for his cinematography work with Dion Beebe in the films Memoirs of a Geisha and Collateral. In addition, he has performed extensive cinematography work for various other films Hong Kong films, as well as on different film and video projects with Steven Spielberg, Rob Marshall and Nike, he is the founder of Mettafilm, a film production company. Sion Michel was born in the United States, has spent much of his life in Australia. Michel obtained an M. A. in Cinematography from the Australian Film and Radio School in 1992. He has been working in cinematography and photography since the 1990s. Sion Michel has been an active cinematographer in the film industry since 1986. Michel was Cinematographer for many notable films, including Sons of the Neon Night, Heartfall Arises, Shanghai Noir, Like a Dream. Other production roles include cinematography work for the films Chasing Rabbits, WPPI 2013, Laura Smiles.
Michel founded the film production company Mettafilm in 2005, where he serves as Director of Photography. Sion Michel is a member of the Australian Cinematographers Society. Sion Michel's selected cinematography credits include: Sion Michel's cinematography work for Beyond The Fatal Shore, Tony Bennett: An American Classic, Like A Dream have been nominated for various awards, including the Primetime Emmy Award and BAFTA Film Awards. 2002 – British Academy Award for Best Cinematography winner, for the BBC documentary series Beyond The Fatal Shore 2007 – Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Technical Direction, Video Control for a Limited Series, Movie, or Special nomination for Tony Bennett: An American Classic, directed by Rob Marshall. 2009 – 46th Golden Horse Awards Best Cinematography nomination for the feature Like A Dream, directed by Clara Law. Official website Penumbraman, B&W photography by Sion Michel "Sion Michel". IMDb. "Sion Michel". Production Hub. "Sion Michel" – via Vimeo. "Sion Michel".
LinkedIn. "Sion Michel". Angel
The 1st constituency of the Landes is a French legislative constituency in Landes département. Like the other 576 French constituencies, it elects one MP using the two-round system, with a run-off if no candidate receives over 50% of the vote in the first round. From 16 May 2012 to 31 March 2014, Alain Vidalies was Minister for Parliamentary Relations in the Ayrault Government, he is replaced by Florence Delaunay. From 26 August 2014 to 10 May 2017, Alain Vidalies was Secretary of State for Transport, the Sea and Fisheries in the Second Valls government and the Cazeneuve government, he is replaced by Florence Delaunay. On 21 June 2017, Geneviève Darrieussecq becomes Secretary of State to the Minister of the Armed Forces in the Second Philippe government, she is replaced by his substitute, Fabien Lainé. Results of legislative elections since 1958
The Tulpehocken Station Historic District is a historic area in the Germantown neighborhood of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Large suburban houses were built in the area from about 1850 to 1900 in a variety of styles including Carpenter Gothic and Bracketed as part of the Picturesque Movement of architecture. In the 1870s styles moved toward Second Empire; the district was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1985, it covers about six square blocks, bounded by McCallum Street on the north, the Pennsylvania Railroad tracks on the south, Tulpehocken Street on the west, Walnut Lane on the east. Thirty-seven buildings in the district are considered to be significant and 118 are considered to be contributing, with only 13 considered to be intrusions. Among the 80-acre district's 155 contributing properties are: Comawaben, aka Charles Currie House, 50 West Walnut Lane, built 1899 Conyers Button House, 143 W. Walnut Lane, c. 1875 Kimball House, 144 West Walnut Lane, built 1860 Lister Townsend House, 6015 Wayne Ave. built 1887 Ebenezer Maxwell House, 200 W. Tulpehocken St. built 1859 Mitchell House, 200 W. Walnut Lane, built c. 1856 Morris House, 131 W. Walnut Lane, c. 1853 George T. Pearson Residence, 125 West Walnut Lane, 1852–54, altered 1893 St. Peter's Episcopal Church of Germantown, 6000 Wayne Ave. built 1873 Tulpehocken Station, 314 West Tulpehocken St. built 1878 Van Dyke Residence, 150 West Walnut Lane, built c. 1860 Awbury Historic District Colonial Germantown Historic District Rittenhousetown Historic District Chestnut Hill Historic District Description at LivingPlaces.com