Kali Yuga

In Hinduism, Kali Yuga is the last of the four stages the world goes through as part of a'cycle of yugas' described in the Sanskrit scriptures. The other ages are called Satya Yuga, Treta Yuga, Dvapara Yuga; the "Kali" of Kali Yuga means "strife", "discord", "quarrel" or "contention" and Kali Yuga is associated with the demon Kali. According to Puranic sources, Krishna's departure marks the end of Dvapara Yuga and the start of Kali Yuga, dated to 17/18 February 3102 BCE. Based on a start year of 3102 BCE and a duration of 432,000 years, Kali Yuga started 5,121 years ago with 426,879 years remaining as of 2020 CE. According to the Surya Siddhanta, Kali Yuga began at midnight on 18 February 3102 BCE; this is considered the date on which Krishna left the earth to return to Vaikuntha. This information is placed at the temple of the place of this incident. According to the astronomer and mathematician Aryabhata the Kali Yuga started in 3102 BCE, he finished his book Aryabhattiyam in 499 CE, in which he gives the exact year of the beginning of Kali Yuga.

He writes that he wrote the book in the "year 3600 of the Kali Age" at the age of 23. As it was the 3600th year of the Kali Age when he was 23 years old, given that Aryabhata was born in 476 CE, the beginning of the Kali Yuga would come to = 3102 BCE. According to K. D. Abhyankar, the starting point of Kali Yuga is an rare planetary alignment, depicted in the Mohenjo-daro seals. Going by this alignment the year 3102 BCE is off; the actual date for this alignment is 7 February 3104 BCE. There is sufficient proof to believe that Vrdhha Garga knew of precession at least by 500 BCE. Garga had calculated the rate of precession to within 30 % of; the common belief until Swami Sri Yukteswar Giri had analyzed the dating of the yuga cycles was that the Kali Yuga would last for 432,000 years after the end of the Dwapara Yuga. This originated during the puranic times when the famous astronomer Aryabhata recalculated the timeline by artificially inflating the traditional 12,000 year figure with a multiplication of 360, represented as the number of "human years" that make up a single "divine year".

This was a purposeful miscalculation due to conflicts with one of the preeminent astronomer of the time Brahmagupta. However, both the Mahabharata and the Manu Smriti have the original value of 12,000 years for one half of the yuga cycle. Contemporary analysis of historical data from the last 11 millennia matches with the indigenous Saptarishi Calendar; the length of the transitional periods between each yuga is unclear, can only be estimated based on historical data of past cataclysmic events. Using a 300 year period for transitions, Kali Yuga has either ended in the past 100 to 200 years, or is to end soon sometime in the next 100 years. Other authors, such as the revered Hindu guru Swami Sri Yukteswar in his book The Holy Science, as well as the influential Yogi Paramhansa Yogananda, believe that the Kali Yuga has ended, that we are now in an ascending Dvapara Yuga; this calculation is supported by modern-day self-styled spiritual promoters such as Jaggi Vasudev. Hindus believe. Common attributes and consequences are spiritual bankruptcy, mindless hedonism, breakdown of all social structure and materialism, unrestricted egotism and maladies of mind and body.

Hinduism symbolically represents morality as an Indian bull. In Satya Yuga, the first stage of development, the bull has four legs, but in each age morality is reduced by one quarter. By the age of Kali, morality is reduced to only a quarter of that of the golden age, so that the bull of Dharma has only one leg; the Kurukshetra War and the decimation of Kauravas thus happened at the Yuga-Sandhi, the point of transition from one yuga to another. The scriptures mention Narada as having momentarily intercepted the demon Kali on his way to the Earth when Duryodhana was about to be born in order to make him an embodiment of arishadvargas and adharma in preparation of the era of decay in values and the consequent havoc. A discourse by Markandeya in the Mahabharata identifies some of the attributes of Kali Yuga. In relation to rulers, it lists: Rulers will become unreasonable: they will levy taxes unfairly. Rulers will no longer see it as their duty to promote spirituality, or to protect their subjects: they will become a danger to the world.

People will start seeking countries where wheat and barley form the staple food source. "At the end of Kali-yuga, when there exist no topics on the subject of God at the residences of so-called saints and respectable gentlemen of the three higher varnas and when nothing is known of the techniques of sacrifice by word, at that time the Lord will appear as the supreme chastiser." (Srimad-Bhagavatam With regard to human relationships, Markandeya's discourse says: Avarice and wrath will be common. Humans will display animosity towards each other. Ignorance of dharma will occur. Religion, cleanliness, mercy, physical strength and memory diminish with each passing day. People will see nothing wrong in that. Lust will be viewed as acceptable and sexual intercourse will be seen as the central requirement of life. Sin will increase exponentially, while vi

Sidirokastro (Achaea)

Sidirokastro was a castle in Achaea, situated between the villages Krini and Kallithea. It is located on one of the foothills of the Panachaiko, the Omplos, near the Omblos Monastery in Zoitada. Little remains of the castle, it is unknown when it was built, most by the Franks of the Principality of Achaea. It was used for the defense of Patras, around which the Venetians had built many small castle-fortresses, it was first mentioned in a list of castles of Achaea in 1364. Nothing is known about its history, although it was situated in a strategical location next to the old road to Kalavryta, known as the Makelarias Road, it is believed that the iron gate of the Omplos Monastery is from the castle. The name "Sidirokastro" comes from the slate stones in the vicinity, that are called "sideropetra" by the locals. Kostas Triandafyllos Patras Historic Dictionary, Third edition, Patras 1995 Stefanos Thomopoulos, History of the Cities of Patras, Patras 1999, Achaikes ekdoseis, Volume II


The greenbuls are a group of birds within the bulbul family Pycnonotidae, found only within Africa. They are all drab olive-green above, paler below, with few distinguishing features; the "aberrant greenbuls" of the genera Bernieria and Xanthomixis are Malagasy warblers. To recognize this, they are called bernieria and tetrakas rather than greenbuls; the golden greenbul is not a typical greenbul, but the representative of a distinct and ancient lineage of bulbuls, which might include the black-collared bulbul. A few species within some of the genera in this group are called leafloves. Genus Phyllastrephus Grey-olive greenbul Pale-olive greenbul Baumann's olive greenbul Toro olive greenbul Sassi's olive greenbul Fischer's greenbul Cabanis's greenbul Placid greenbul Cameroon olive greenbul Icterine greenbul Xavier's greenbul White-throated greenbul Yellow-streaked greenbul Sharpe's greenbul Grey-headed greenbul Lowland tiny greenbul Montane tiny greenbul Genus Arizelocichla Shelley's greenbul Kakamega greenbul Cameroon greenbul Western greenbul Olive-breasted greenbul Mountain greenbul Uluguru greenbul Black-browed greenbul Yellow-throated greenbul Stripe-cheeked greenbul Olive-headed greenbul Stripe-faced greenbul Genus Eurillas Little greenbul Little grey greenbul Ansorge's greenbul Plain greenbul Yellow-whiskered greenbul Genus Stelgidillas Slender-billed greenbul Genus Andropadus Sombre greenbul Genus Criniger Western bearded greenbul Eastern bearded greenbul Red-tailed greenbul White-bearded greenbul Yellow-bearded greenbul Genus Thescelocichla Swamp palm bulbul Genus Chlorocichla Joyful greenbul Prigogine's greenbul Yellow-bellied greenbul Falkenstein's greenbul Simple greenbul Genus Ixonotus - tentatively placed here Spotted greenbul Genus Baeopogon Honeyguide greenbul Sjöstedt's greenbul Genus Calyptocichla - not a typical bulbul Golden greenbul