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Kalibangan

Kalibangān is a town located at 29.47°N 74.13°E / 29.47. It is identified as being established in the triangle of land at the confluence of Drishadvati and Sarasvati Rivers; the prehistoric and pre-Mauryan character of Indus Valley Civilization was first identified by Luigi Tessitori at this site. Kalibangan's excavation report was published in its entirety in 2003 by the Archaeological Survey of India, 34 years after the completion of excavations; the report concluded that Kalibangan was a major provincial capital of the Indus Valley Civilization. Kalibangan is distinguished by its unique fire altars and "world's earliest attested ploughed field"; the Kalibangan pre-historic site was discovered by an Italian Indologist. He was doing some research in ancient Indian texts and was surprised by the character of ruins in that area, he sought help from Sir John Marshall of the Archaeological Survey of India. At that time the ASI was conducting excavations at Harappa, but they were unaware of the significance of the ruins.

In fact, Tessitori was the first person to recognize that the ruins were'Prehistoric' and pre-Mauryan. Luigi Pio Tessitori pointed out the nature of the culture, but at that time it was not possible to guess that the ruins of Kalibangan lay within the Indus Valley Civilisation, he died. After India's independence, both the major Harappan cities together with the Indus became a part of Pakistan and Indian archaeologists were compelled to intensify the search for Harappan sites in India. Amlānand Ghosh was the first person to recognise this site as Harappan and marked it out for excavations. Under the leadership of B. B. Lal, Balkrishna Thapar, M. D. Khare, K. M. Shrivastava and S. P. Jain carried out excavations for 9 years in 9 successive excavation sessions. Two ancient mounds were excavated, spread over half a kilometre. On the western side is the smaller mound, 9 meters high and known as the citadel; the Eastern mound, higher and bigger, is known as the lower city. The excavation unexpectedly brought to light a twofold sequence of cultures, of which the upper one belongs to the Harappan, showing the characteristic grid layout of a metropolis and the lower one was called pre-Harappan but is now called "Early Harappan or antecedent Harappan".

Other nearby sites belonging to IVC include Balu, Banawali etc. Traces of pre-Harappan culture have been found only at the lower levels of the western mound. According to archaeological evidence, the Indus Valley culture existed at the site from the proto-Harappan age to the Harappan age; this earlier phase is labelled Kalibangan-I or Period-I. Similarity of pottery relates Kalibangan-I with the Sothi culture because a lot of this pottery was discovered at Sothi village in North Western India. In this phase, the settlement was fortified, using dried mud bricks, from the beginning of occupation; this fort had been built twice in different periods. Earlier, fort wall had a thickness of 1.9 meters, raised to 3.7-4.1 meters during reconstruction in this phase. Brick size was 20 × 20 × 10 cm in both construction-phases; the citadel mound is a parallelogram about 130 meters on the east-west axis and 260 meters on the north-south. Town planning was like that of Harappa; the direction of houses and brick sizes was markedly different from that used in the Harappan phase.

Within the walled area, the houses were built of mud bricks of the same size as used in the fort wall. Some burnt wedge shaped bricks have been found. B. B. Lal, former DG of ASI writes, "Kalibangan in Rajasthan has given the evidence of the earliest ploughed agricultural field revealed through an excavation.". It has been found south east outside the fort. "Kalibangan excavations in present western Rajasthan shows a ploughed field, the first site of this nature in the world. It shows a grid pattern of furrows, placed about 30 cm apart running east-west and other spaced about 190 cm apart running north-south, a pattern remarkably similar to the one practiced now.". Today, similar ploughing is used for two simultaneous crops in this region, esp. of mustard and gram. In order to preserve it, this excavated ploughed field area was refilled after excavation and the area was marked by concrete pillar posts; the distinguishing mark of this early phase is pottery, characterized by six fabrics labelled A, B, C, D, E and F, which were identified at Sothi in North Western India.

Fabrics A, B, D can be clubbed together. They are red. Fabric-A is carelessly potted in spite of use of potter's wheel, it contains designs in light-black decorated with white lines. Lines, grids, flowers, leaves and squares were favourite motifs. Fabric-B shows marked improvement in finishing. Flowers, animals were painted in black on red background. Fabric-D contained designs of slanted semicircles in some, while most pots were plain, but Fabric-C pottery was thicker and stronger. Fabric-C was distinguished by fine polish, with designs in black.

Football at the 1961 Maccabiah Games

Football at the 1961 Maccabiah Games was held in several stadiums in Israel starting on 30 August. The competition was open for men's teams only. Teams from 6 countries participated. For the first time since the establishment of Israel, the hosts didn't win the tournament, as Israel lost in the medals group to the team from United Kingdom, who went on to win the title; as part of the closing ceremony, an exhibition match was played between Israel and Juventus F. C. which resulted with a 3–3 draw. The six teams were divided into each team playing the others once; the top two qualified for the medals group. 1. The match between South Africa and Brazil was abandoned at the 80th minute, due to a brawl between the players. 1. The match between United Kingdom and Switzerland was postponed as the pitch at Rehovot wasn't fit for matches; as both teams qualified for the semi-finals, the re-arranged match was played as a semi-final match

New York State Route 73

New York State Route 73 is a 27.55-mile-long state highway located within Essex County, New York, in the United States. The highway begins at an intersection with NY 86 in the village of Lake Placid and ends at a junction with U. S. Route 9 north of the hamlet of Underwood in the extreme southwestern corner of the town of Elizabethtown. NY 73 meanders through a mountainous region of Adirondack Park and passes by several named peaks, including Porter Mountain and Lower Wolfjaw Mountain. Along the way, the route has a short concurrency with NY 9N in the town of Keene. In the early 19th century, Lake Placid and Keene were connected by the North West Bay Road, an east–west highway linking Hopkinton to Westport; the highway was a crude, impassable road. A highway linking Keene to Underwood was constructed by 1846; the latter road became the basis for most of modern US 9. NY 73 was assigned as part of the 1930 renumbering of state highways in New York from NY 28N in Tahawus to NY 22 in Ticonderoga; the portion of the route from Tahawus to North Hudson followed the Blue Ridge Road.

At the time, modern NY 73 was designated as New York State Route 86A from Lake Placid to Keene. By the following year, the remainder of current NY 73 had become New York State Route 427. NY 73 was cut back to Schroon c. 1936 while NY 427 was replaced by an extended NY 86A c. 1938. In 1952, NY 73 was extended northward to Lake Placid, supplanting NY 86A; the eastern terminus of NY 73 was moved to the vicinity of Underwood c. 1973, the former routing of NY 73 from Schroon to Ticonderoga became NY 74. NY 73 begins at a traffic light along NY 86 near the eastern end of the village of Lake Placid in the town of North Elba; the highway heads towards passing homes as Sentinel Road. At the intersection with Mill Pond Road, NY 73 passes a small pond, crossing over an associated creek. For that short time, the highway takes on a more southerly direction to the southeast; the surroundings of the highway remain. NY 73 exits Lake Placid, where it passes Lake Placid Airport. There, County Route 35 merges from the northwest, providing a bypass around the village of Lake Placid to NY 86.

Just south of North Elba, NY 73 passes the Lake Placid Olympic Ski Jumping Complex, accessible via John Brown Road to nearby John Brown's Farm at the intersection with CR 35. The highway crosses the West Branch of the Ausable River, intersecting with CR 21 at an elevation of 1,800 feet. Cascade Road makes several turns. After the golf course, NY 73 climbs in elevation, up to 2,000 feet; the highway turns from the southeast to the east, to the southeast once more as it rounds Round Lake, where it intersects Bobsled Run Lane. The road passes Mud Pond. Pitchoff Mountain is directly to the northwest as NY 73 passes Upper Cascade and Lower Cascade Lakes. NY 73 begins to NY 73 heads into Keene. After crossing the East Branch of the Ausable River, NY 73 merges in with NY 9N; the two roads continue to drop in elevation and circling mountains as they head along. After Norton Cemetery, NY 9N splits off to the east and NY 73 continues southward. NY 73 now runs along the East Branch, intersecting with county and local roads as it heads southward.

The highway heads along the base of Porter Mountain and into Keene Valley, crosses Johns Brook and heads through downtown. Lower Wolfjaw Mountain, which averages the same height as Porter, is nearby. NY 73 continues crossing the Ausable River branch coming in the towns of Elizabethtown and North Hudson. There are a few more ponds and mountains before NY 73 ends at an intersection with US 9. According to estimates made by the New York State Department of Transportation in 2009, NY 73 serves an average of 1,950 vehicles per day from US 9 to the east end of the NY 9N overlap in Keene; the overlap with NY 9N accumulated an average of 4,360 vehicles, with the stretch up to the control station at having a less amount of traffic. After NY 913Q, the average increases; the area, now known as the hamlet of Keene—the modern junction of NY 9N and NY 73—was first settled at the beginning of the 19th century. Many of the early settlers arrived in the region by traveling along a rough and nearly unusable highway connecting what became Keene to Jay in the north and Lewis in the east.

By 1810, part of the crude roadway had been supplanted by a funded highway leading westward from Westport to at least North Elba and to Saranac Lake by way of Keene. On April 5, 1810, the New York State Legislature passed an act establishing a new state highway linking Westport to Hopkinton by way of Keene and Saranac Lake; the highway incorporated the entirety of the pre-existing roadway between Saranac Lake. The state highway was poorly constructed and impassable, mirroring the condition of the roadways that preceded it. An act passed by the state legislature on June 19, 1812, indicated that the funds, allocated to the highway were "entirely inadequate to open and improve" the road. On April 17, 1816, the state attempted to correct the issue by approving a measure that appointed two sets of commissioners to oversee the reconstruction of the highway; each set was to work on opposite ends of the route and converge at

Indium halides

There are three sets of Indium halides, the trihalides, the monohalides, several intermediate halides. In the monohalides the oxidation state of indium is +1 and their proper names are indium fluoride, indium chloride, indium bromide and indium iodide; the intermediate halides contain indium with oxidation states, +1, +2 and +3. In all of the trihalides the oxidation state of indium is +3, their proper names are indium fluoride, indium chloride, indium bromide, indium iodide; the trihalides are Lewis acidic. Indium trichloride is a starting point in the production of trimethylindium, used in the semiconductor industry. InF3 is a white crystalline solid with mp 1170 °C, its structure contains 6 coordinate indium. InCl3 is a white crystalline solid mp 586 °C, it has the same structure as AlCl3. InBr3 is a pale yellow crystalline solid, m.p. 435 °C. It has the same structure as AlCl3. InBr3 is finding some use in organic synthesis as a water tolerant Lewis acid. InI3 is a coloured crystalline solid described as orange.

Distinct yellow and a red forms are known. The red form undergoes a transition to the yellow at 57 °C; the structure of the red form has not been determined by X-ray crystallography, however spectroscopic evidence indicates that indium may be six coordinate. The yellow form consists of In2I6 with 4 coordinate indium centres, it is used as an "iodide getter" in the Cativa process. A surprising number of intermediate chlorides and bromides are known, but only one iodide, no difluoride. Rather than the apparent oxidation state of +2, these compounds contain indium in the +1 and +3 oxidation states, thus the diiodide is described as InIInIIIX4. It was some time that the existence of compounds containing the anion In2Br2− were confirmed which contains an indium-indium bond. Early work on the chlorides and bromides involved investigations of the binary phase diagrams of the trihalides and the related monohalide. Many of the compounds were misidentified as many of them are incongruent and decompose before melting.

The majority of the reported chlorides and bromides have now either had their existence and structures confirmed by X Ray diffraction studies or have been consigned to history. The most unexpected case of mistaken identity was the surprising result that a careful reinvestigation of the InCl/InCl3 binary phase diagram did not find InCl2; the reason for this abundance of compounds is that indium forms 4 and 6 coordinate anions containing indium e.g. InBr−, InCl3− as well as the anion In2Br2− that contains an indium-indium bond. In7Cl9 is yellow solid stable up to 250oC, formulated InI6 Cl3In7Br9 has a similar structure to In7Cl9 and can be formulated as InI6 Br3 In5Br7 is a pale yellow solid, it is formulated InI3 Br. The InII2Br6 anion has an eclipsed ethane like structure with a metal-metal bond length of 270 pm. In2Cl3 is colourless and is formulated InI3 InIIICl6 In contrast In2Br3 contains the In2Br6 anion as present in In5Br7, is formulated InI with a structure similar to Ga2Br3. In4Br7 is near colourless with a pale greenish yellow tint.

It is light sensitive decaying to InBr2 and In metal. It is a mixed salt containing the InBr− and InBr3− anions balanced by In+ cations, it is formulated InI5 2 The reasons for the distorted lattice have been ascribed to an antibonding combination between doubly filled, non-directional indium 5s orbitals and neighboring bromine 4p hybrid orbitals. In5Cl9 is formulated as InI3InIII2Cl9; the In2Cl3− anion has two 6 coordinate indium atoms with 3 bridging chlorine atoms, face sharing bioctahedra, with a similar structure to Cr2Cl2− and Tl2Cl2−. InBr2 is a greenish white crystalline solid, formulated InIInIII Br4, it has the same structure as GaCl2. InBr2 is soluble in aromatic solvents and some compounds containing η6-arene In complexes have been identified.. With some ligands InBr2 forms neutral complexes containing an indium-indium bond. InI2 is a yellow solid, formulated InIInIIII4; the solid monohalides InCl, InBr and InI are all unstable with respect to water, decomposing to the metal and indium species.

They fall between gallium compounds, which are more reactive and thallium that are stable with respect to water. InI is the most stable. Up until recently the monohalides have been scientific curiosities, however with the discovery that they can be used to prepare indium cluster and chain compounds they are now attracting much more interest. InF only known as an unstable gaseous compound; the room temperature form of InCl is yellow, with a cubic distorted NaCl structure. The red high temperature has the β − TlI structure. InBr is a red crystalline solid, mp 285oC, it has the same structure as β − TlI, with an orthorhombic distorted rock salt structure. It can be prepared from indium metal and InBr3. InI is a deep red purple crystalline solid, it has the same structure as β − TlI. It can be made by direct combination of its constituent elements at high temperature. Alternatively it can be prepared from InI3 and indium metal in refluxing xylenes, it is soluble in some organic solvents. Solutions of InI in a pyridine/m-xylene mixture are stable below 243 K.

The trihalides are Lewis Acids and form addition compounds with ligands. For InF3 there are few examples known however for the other halides addition compounds with tetra

Judicial Conference of the State of New York

The Judicial Conference of the State of New York is an institution of the New York State Unified Court System responsible for surveying current practice in the administration of the state's courts, compiling statistics, suggesting legislation and regulations. Its members include the Chief Judge of the New York Court of Appeals and judges from the New York Supreme Court, Appellate Division, it was created by Laws of 1955, ch. 869, codified at New York Judiciary Law article 7-A. It is the successor body of the Judicial Council of the State of New York, abolished with the repeal of article 2-A of the Judiciary Law in Laws of 1955, ch. 869. That body was formed for the purpose of surveying current practice in the administration of the State's courts, compiling statistics, suggesting legislation

The Prince Eugen Culture Prize

The Prince Eugen Culture Prize is named after the Swedish Prince Eugén,who had a close connection to Norway and dedicated his life to strengthen the Swedish-Norwegian relations. Through his position as royalty, the artistic prince was well-connected to the Norwegian public and cultural life, which he followed while giving support to young artists, he was involved in the Norwegian and Swedish musical scene and was a member of the committee of the construction of Stockholm Concert Hall. He was well known in the Scandinavian literature circles, was an active reader of fiction and politics; the Prince Eugen Culture Prize was founded to celebrate the 100 year mark of the dissolution of the Swedish-Norwegian union in 1905 after an initiative from the Royal Norwegian Embassy in Stockholm, in cooperation with Crown Princess Märtha's Church Council in Stockholm and Princess Märtha Louise's Culture Fund. The Prince Eugen Culture Prize is awarded to one Norwegian and one Swedish artist who through their work have contributed to strengthen Swedish-Norwegian relations.

The award consists of 50 000 Swedish crowns. Through the years, the award has been presented by Queen Sonja of Norway, Crown Princess Victoria and Princess Madeleine of Sweden