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Kaliningrad

Kaliningrad is the largest city and the administrative centre of Kaliningrad Oblast, a Russian exclave on the Baltic Sea. At the 2010 Census, Kaliningrad's population was 431,902. Situated between Poland and Lithuania, both now in the European Union, Kaliningrad was strategically of importance during the Cold War. Following the de facto annexation of the territory, Soviet authorities built a new city that erased most historic links to the old city. In some districts, a few pre-war monuments remain; the history of the city may be divided into three periods: the Old Prussian settlement known as Twangste before 1255. In 1946 the settlement was renamed Kaliningrad in honour of the Soviet leader Mikhail Kalinin and was re-populated with ethnic Russians. Königsberg was preceded by a Sambian fort called meaning Oak Forest. During the conquest of the Sambians by the Teutonic Knights in 1255, Twangste was destroyed and replaced with a new fortress named Königsberg in the honour of Bohemian king Ottokar II.

The declining Old Prussian culture became extinct around the 17th century, after the surviving Old Prussians were integrated through assimilation. The settlement on the site of present-day Kaliningrad was founded as a military fortress in 1255 after the Prussian Crusade by the Teutonic Knights against Baltic Prussians; the new settlement was named in honour of the Bohemian King Ottokar II. The crusade was followed by other regions of Western Europe; the city and surrounding area became predominantly German, with Polish and Latvian minorities. After the secularization of the Teutonic Order in 1525, Königsberg became the capital of the Duchy of Prussia, a fiefdom of the Polish king; as a symbol of its dependence, the black Prussian eagle had a crown thrust around its neck bearing the letter "S" from the Latinised name of the king, "Sigismundus". In 1618 the Duchy of Prussia passed under the control of the Electors of Brandenburg and in 1657 it became a sovereign state independent of the Polish king, controlled in personal union with Brandenburg.

From 1701, Brandenberg-Prussia became a Kingdom and the entire area was referred to as the Kingdom of Prussia. While the Brandenberg portion was a part of the Holy Roman Empire and the German Confederation, Prussia was not included within those territorial boundaries. In the ensuing two centuries the city, first as part of the Kingdom of Prussia from 1866 as part of the North German Confederation, from 1871 as part of the German Empire, continued to flourish and many iconic landmarks of Königsberg were built; the city had around 370,000 inhabitants and was a cultural and administrative center of Prussia and the German Empire. Immanuel Kant and E. T. A. Hoffmann, the notable sons of the city, were born during this time. In World War II the city of Königsberg was damaged by a British bombing attack in 1944 and the massive Soviet siege in spring 1945. At the end of World War II in 1945, the city became part of the Soviet Union. At the Potsdam Conference in 1945 the Allies agreed on the Soviet annexation pending the final determination of territorial questions at the peace settlement: The Conference has agreed in principle to the proposal of the Soviet Government concerning the ultimate transfer to the Soviet Union of the City of Koenigsberg and the area adjacent to it as described above subject to expert examination of the actual frontier.

The U. S. President Harry Truman and the British Prime Minister Clement Attlee declared that they would support the proposal of the Conference at the forthcoming peace settlement. On 4 July 1946 the Soviet authorities renamed Königsberg to Kaliningrad following the death on 3 June 1946 of the Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, Mikhail Kalinin, one of the original Bolsheviks; the surviving German population was forcibly expelled in 1946–1949, the city was repopulated with Soviet citizens. The city's language of administration was changed from German to Russian; the city was rebuilt, as the westernmost territory of the USSR, the Kaliningrad Oblast became a strategically important area during the Cold War. The Soviet Baltic Fleet was headquartered in the city in the 1950s; because of its strategic importance, Kaliningrad Oblast was closed to foreign visitors. In 1957 an agreement was signed and came into force which delimited the border between Poland and the Soviet Union.

The town of Baltiysk, just outside Kaliningrad, is the only Russian Baltic Sea port said to be "ice-free" all year round, the region hence plays an important role in maintenance of the Baltic Fleet. Due to the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, the Kaliningrad Oblast became an exclave, geographically separated from the rest of Russia; this isolation from the rest of Russia became more pronounced politically when Poland and Lithuania became members of NATO and subsequently the European Union in 2004. All military and civilian land links between the region and the rest of Russia have to pass through members of NATO and the EU. Special travel arrangements for the territory's inhabitants have been made through the Facilitated Transit Document and Facilitated Rail Transit Document. While in the 1990s many Soviet-era city names commemorating Communist leaders were changed, Kaliningrad remains named as it was. Since the early 1990s, the Kaliningrad oblast h

WECS

WECS is a College radio station based in Windham, Connecticut, on the campus of Eastern Connecticut State University. The station broadcasts on 90.1 MHz with an effective radiated power of 430 watts at a height above average terrain of 116 meters. WECS began in the 1970s as a turntable mounted in a 3x4' square of plywood which sat atop a work sink in a janitor's closet in an old dormitory; this was not a licensed station. It ran at 10 watts and was a pirate broadcaster. At the time, Eastern Connecticut State University was not yet accredited as a university. In the late 1970s, a movement was afoot to get a legitimate radio station for the communications department; this was orchestrated by former WCBS announcer Prof. John Zatowski. By 1982, test broadcasts had begun, by 1984, WECS-FM was on air. In the succeeding decades, a number of long-time DJs have come and gone: Joe Standby, Robbo Retro, Mark E. Ramone, James'DJ Ras J' McGurk, Gabriel Silverman and others. Marko and Jeffrey Nash remain. Despite the stations minor stature, a good number of its staff have moved on to work in the media industry.

At present, WECS is a National Public Radio affiliate and John Zatowski the general manager. In July 2008, WECS moved into its new air studio. Connecticut Public Radio Eastern Connecticut State University Campus radio https://web.archive.org/web/20170609172838/http://www.wecsfm.com/schedule/ Query the FCC's FM station database for WECS Radio-Locator information on WECS Query Nielsen Audio's FM station database for WECS

Dingnan Jiedushi

Dingnan Jiedushi known as Xiasui Jiedushi, was a military post known as a jiedushi created in 787 by the Tang dynasty and lasted until the early Song dynasty when its rulers declared the Western Xia. It was headquartered in Shaanxi, its rulers were of Tangut stock starting from Li Sigong, they ruled the circuit in de facto independence despite its nominal submission to the central Chinese dynasties. Attempts by Later Tang and Song to dislodge the family from its rule of Dingnan Circuit were unsuccessful, the region became the independent state of Western Xia. Han Tan Han Quanyi Yang Huilin Li Yuan Zhang Xu Tian Jin Li Ting Li You Fu Liangbi Li Huan Dong Zhongzhi Li Changyan Liu Yuan Li E Mi Ji Li Ye Cui Mou Li Fu Zheng Zhu Tian Zaibin Li Yanyuan Hu Mou Li Xuanli Zhuge Shuang Li Sigong Li Sijian Li Yichang Li Renfu Li Yichao Li Yixing Li Kerui Li Jiyun Li Jipeng Li Jiqian Li Deming Li Yuanhao New Book of Tang, vol. 221, part 1. Old History of the Five Dynasties, vol. 132. New History of the Five Dynasties, vol.

40. History of Liao, vol. 115. History of Song, vols. 485, 486. History of Jin, vol. 134. History/Song - Chinaknowledge