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Kalisz

Kalisz is a city in central Poland with 100,975 inhabitants making it the second-largest city in the Greater Poland Voivodeship. It is the capital city of the Kalisz Region. Situated on the Prosna river in the southeastern part of the Greater Poland Voivodeship, the city forms a conurbation with the nearby towns of Ostrów Wielkopolski and Nowe Skalmierzyce. Kalisz is an important regional commercial centre with many notable factories; the city is a centre for traditional folk art. The town was the site of the former'Calisia' piano factory, until it went out of business in 2007; the building was transformed into the Calisia One Hotel which opened in 2019. The name Kalisz is thought to stem from the Slavic term "kal", meaning marsh. There are many artifacts from Roman times in the area of Kalisz, indicating that the settlement had once been a stop of the Roman caravans heading for the Baltic Sea along the trade route of the Amber Trail. Calisia had been mentioned by Ptolemy in the 2nd century AD, although the connection is doubted by some historians who claim that the location mentioned by Ptolemy was situated in the territory of the Diduni in Magna Germania.

Archaeological excavations have uncovered early mediaeval settlement from the Piast dynasty period, c. 9th-12th centuries. Modern Kalisz was most founded in the 9th century as a provincial capital castellany and a minor fort. In 1106 Bolesław III Wrymouth made it a part of his feudal domain. Between 1253 and 1260 the town was incorporated according to the German town law called the Środa Śląska Law, a local variation of the Magdeburg Law, soon started to grow. One of the richest towns of Greater Poland, during the feudal fragmentation of Poland it formed a separate duchy ruled by a local branch of the Piast dynasty. After Poland was reunited, the town became a notable centre of weaving and wood products, as well as one of the cultural centres of Greater Poland. There are records of Khalyzian settlements from 1139. In 1282 the city laws were confirmed by Przemysł II of Poland, in 1314 it was made the capital of the Kalisz Voivodeship by king Władysław I the Elbow-high. Located in the centre of Poland, Kalisz was a notable centre of trade.

Because of its strategic location, King Casimir III the Great signed a peace treaty with the Teutonic Order there in 1343. As a royal town, the city managed to defend many of its initial privileges, in 1426 a new town hall was built; the Polish king Mieszko III the Old was buried in Kalisz. In 1574 the Jesuits came to Kalisz and in 1584 opened a Jesuit College, which became one of the most notable centres of education in Poland; the economic development of the area was aided by a large number of Protestant Czech Brothers, who settled in and around Kalisz after being expelled from Bohemia in 1620. In 1792, a fire destroyed much of the city centre; the following year, in the second partition of Poland, the Kingdom of Prussia absorbed the city, called "Kalisch" in German. In 1801, Wojciech Bogusławski set up one of the first permanent theatre troupes in Kalisz. In 1807, Kalisz became a provincial capital within the Duchy of Warsaw. During Napoleon's invasion of Russia, following Yorck's Convention of Tauroggen of 1812, von Stein's Treaty of Kalisz was signed between Russia and Prussia in 1813, confirming that Prussia now was on the side of the Allies.

After the defeat of Napoleon Bonaparte, Kalisz became a provincial capital of Congress Poland and the capital of a province of the Russian Empire. Prussia and Russia held joint military exercises near the town in 1835; the proximity to the Prussian border accelerated economic development of the city and Kalisz started to attract many settlers, not only from other regions of Poland and other provinces of the Russian Empire, but from German states. In 1902, a new railway linked Kalisz to Warsaw and Łódź. With the outbreak of World War I, the proximity of the border proved disastrous for Kalisz. Between 2 and 22 August, Kalisz was shelled and burned to the ground by German forces under Major Hermann Preusker though Russian troops had retreated from the city without defending it and German troops – many of them ethnic Poles – had been welcomed peaceably. Eight hundred men were arrested and several of them slaughtered, while the city was set on fire and the remaining inhabitants were expelled. Out of 68,000 citizens in 1914, only 5,000 remained in Kalisz a year later.

By the end of the Great War, much of the city centre had been more or less rebuilt and many of the former inhabitants had been allowed to return. After the war Kalisz became part of the newly independent Poland; the reconstruction continued and in 1925 a new city hall was opened. In 1939 the population of Kalisz was 89,000. After the German invasion of Poland in 1939, the proximity of the border once again proved disastrous. Kalisz was captured by the Wehrmacht instantly and without much fighting, the city was annexed by Germany. By the end of World War II 30,000 local Jews had been murdered. An additional 20,000 local Catholics were either murdered or expelled to the German-occupied territories or to Germany as slave workers. In 1945 the population of the city was 43,000 – half the pre-war figure. Following the war, Jewish Holocaust survivors returned to the city, by 1946 numbering some 500. By the late 1940s only

Dunyazad (crater)

Dunyazad is a large crater on Saturn's moon Enceladus first discovered by the Voyager 2 spacecraft. It is named after the sister of Scheherazade in The Book of One Thousand and One Nights. Dunyazad is located at 41.9°N 200.6°W / 41.9. It is the southernmost crater of a prominent crater triplet on Enceladus' anti-Saturnian hemisphere; the craters to its north are Shahrazad, Al-Haddar. Voyager 2 discovery images of this crater revealed an up-domed floor at Dunyazad, suggesting that the crater had been modified by viscous relaxation. Higher resolution views of Dunyazad taken by the Cassini Spacecraft during a close flyby on March 9, 2005 reveal not only an up-domed floor, but numerous tectonic fractures as well within the dome and northeastern crater rim

American Libraries (collection)

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