Kallanai Dam

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Kallanai Dam
Grand Anicut kallanai.JPG
The present structure of the dam
Kallanai Dam is located in Tamil Nadu
Kallanai Dam
Location of Kallanai Dam in Tamil Nadu
LocationThanjavur District
Coordinates10°49′49″N 78°49′08″E / 10.830166°N 78.818784°E / 10.830166; 78.818784Coordinates: 10°49′49″N 78°49′08″E / 10.830166°N 78.818784°E / 10.830166; 78.818784
Construction beganc. 100 BC – c. 100 AD
Built byKarikala chola
Dam and spillways
Type of damComposite Dam and Reservoir
Length0.329 km (1,079 ft)
Width (base)20 m (66 ft)

Kallanai (also known as the Grand Anicut) is an ancient dam, which is built (in running water) across the Kaveri river in Thogur - Koviladi village, Budalur Taluk in Thanjavur District in the state of Tamil Nadu in India. Located at a distance of 15 km from Tiruchirappalli, the dam was originally constructed by the Chola king Karikalan in c. 100 BC – c. 100 AD.[1][2][3] It is located on Kaveri river approximately 20 KM from Trichy city, the dam comes under Thanjavur district,[4][5] it is the fourth-oldest water-diversion or water-regulator structures in the world and the oldest in India which is still in use.[6][7]


The dam was originally built by King Karikalan of the Chola Dynasty in c. 100 BC – c. 100 AD. It is located on the River Kaveri in Thogur, Budalur taluk in Thanjavur District, approximately 20km from the city of Tiruchirapalli; the idea behind the construction of the dam was to divert the river to the delta districts thereby boosting irrigation.[1][2][3] The dam was re-modeled by the British during the 19th century. In 1804, Captain Caldwell, a military engineer, was appointed by the British to make a study on the Kaveri river and promote irrigation for the delta region,[8] he found that a large amount of water passed onto the Kollidam leaving behind a small volume for irrigation purposes.[8] Caldwell initially proposed a solution by raising the dam and hence raised the dam stones to a height of 69 centimetres (27 in), thus increasing the capacity of the dam.[1] Following this, Major Sim proposed the idea of undersluices across the river with outlets leading to the Kollidam River (Coleroon) thus preventing formation of silt;[1] the Lower Anaicut built by Sir Arthur Cotton in the 19th century CE across Coleroon, the major tributary of Cauvery, is said to be a replicated structure of Kallanai.[1]


The Kaveri river splits into two at a point 20 miles (32 km) west of Kallanai; the two rivers form the island of Srirangam before joining at Kallanai. The northern channel is called the Kollidam (Coleroon); the other retains the name Kaveri, and empties into the Bay of Bengal at Poompuhar. On the seaward face of its delta are the seaports of Nagapattinam and Karaikal.[9]


The purpose of the Kallanai was to divert the waters of the Kaveri across the fertile delta region for irrigation via canals and to its northern delta branch Kollidam/Coleroon. Downstream of the barrage, the river Kaveri splits into four streams known as Kollidam Aru, Kaveri, Vennaru and Puthu Aru. However, the flood waters can be allowed, by opening the barrage/anaicut gates, to pass through the other three delta branches also to join the sea,[10] it is constructed from unhewn stone spanning the Kaveri and is 329 m (1,079 ft) long, 20 m (66 ft) wide and 5.4 m (18 ft) high.[11] The dam is still in excellent condition, and supplied a model to later engineers, including Sir Arthur Cotton's 19th-century dam across the Kollidam, the major tributary of the Kaveri;[12] the area irrigated by the ancient irrigation network is about 69,000 acres (28,000 ha). By the early 20th century, the irrigated area had been increased to about one million acres (400,000 ha).[13]

The delta farmers of Tamil Nadu have demanded that the Tamil Nadu government honour Karikala Cholan, who built the Kallanai.


See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c d e Syed Muthahar Saqaf (10 March 2013). "A rock solid dam that has survived 2000 years". The Hindu. Retrieved 13 November 2013.
  2. ^ a b DelhiAugust 26, India Today Online New; August 26, 2013UPDATED:; Ist, 2013 16:49. "Incredible India! A 2,000-year-old functional dam". India Today. Retrieved 15 February 2019.CS1 maint: extra punctuation (link)
  3. ^ a b "Karikalan cholan memorial inaugurated - Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 15 February 2019.
  4. ^ "Flowing waters for fertile fields". The Hindu. India. 29 August 2011.
  5. ^ Singh, Vijay P.; Ram Narayan Yadava (2003). Water Resources System Operation: Proceedings of the International Conference on Water and Environment. Allied Publishers. p. 508. ISBN 81-7764-548-X.
  6. ^ Christopher V. Hill (2008). South Asia: An Environmental History. ABC-CLIO. pp. 33–. ISBN 978-1-85109-925-2.
  7. ^ "Kallanai Dam || Thanjavur Tourism". www.thanjavurtourism.com. Retrieved 2 November 2018.
  8. ^ a b Skempton 2002, p. 114.
  9. ^ Wiebe E. Bijker (19 September 2006). "Dikes and Dams, Thick with Politics". Maastricht University. Retrieved 7 November 2011.
  10. ^ "Grand Anicut A00677". WRIS, India. Retrieved 7 November 2016.
  11. ^ "Places to visit". IIM-Trichy, India. Retrieved 7 November 2011.
  12. ^ Govindasamy Agoramoorthy; Sunitha chaudhary; Minna J. HSU. "The Check-Dam Route to Mitigate India's Water Shortages" (PDF). Law library — University of New Mexico. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 July 2013. Retrieved 7 November 2011.
  13. ^ "Fit case for World Heritage status". The Hindu. Trichy, India. 10 September 2007.


Further reading[edit]