Fokker was a Dutch aircraft manufacturer named after its founder, Anthony Fokker. The company operated several different names, starting out in 1912 in Schwerin, Germany. During its most successful period in the 1920s and 1930s, it dominated the civil aviation market, Fokker went into bankruptcy in 1996, and its operations were sold to competitors. At age 20, while studying in Germany, Anthony Fokker built his initial aircraft, Fokker capitalized on having sold several Fokker Spin monoplanes to the German government and set up a factory in Germany to supply the German Army. His first new design for the Germans to be produced in any numbers was the Fokker M, when it was realized that arming these scouts with a machine gun firing through the propeller was desirable, Fokker developed a synchronization gear similar to that patented by Franz Schneider. Fitted with a version of this gear, the M.2. Later in the war, after the Fokker D, as this partnership proved to be troublesome, it was eventually dissolved again.
In 1919, owing large sums in back taxes, returned to the Netherlands and founded a new company near Amsterdam with the support of Steenkolen Handels Vereniging and he chose the name Nederlandse Vliegtuigenfabriek to conceal the Fokker brand because of his World War I involvement. Despite the strict disarmament conditions in the Treaty of Versailles, Fokker did not return home empty-handed. In 1919, he arranged an export permit and brought six entire trains of parts, and 180 types of aircraft across the Dutch-German border, among them 117 Fokker C. Is, D. VIIs and this initial stock enabled him to set up shop quickly. After his companys relocation, many Fokker C. I and C. IV military airplanes were delivered to Russia and the still clandestine German air force. Success came on the market, with the development of the Fokker F. VII. Fokker continued to design and build aircraft, delivering planes to the Royal Netherlands Air Force. Foreign military customers eventually included Finland, Denmark, Switzerland and these countries bought substantial numbers of the Fokker C.
V reconnaissance aircraft, which became Fokkers main success in the late 1920s and early 1930s. In the 1920s, Fokker entered its glory years, becoming the worlds largest aircraft manufacturer by the late 1920s and its greatest success was the 1925 F. VIIa/3m trimotor passenger aircraft, which was used by 54 airline companies worldwide and captured 40% of the American market in 1936. A serious blow to Fokkers reputation came after the 1931 TWA Flight 599 disaster in Kansas, notre Dame legendary football coach Knute Rockne was among the fatalities, prompting extensive media coverage and technical investigation. As a result, all Fokkers were grounded in the USA, in 1931, discontented at being totally subordinate to GM management, Fokker resigned. On December 23,1939, he died in New York City, the Fokker factories were confiscated by the Germans and were used to build Bücker Bü181 Bestmann trainers and parts for the Junkers Ju 52 transport
Qantas Airways is the flag carrier airline of Australia and its largest airline by fleet size, international flights and international destinations. It is the third oldest airline in the world, after KLM and Avianca having been founded in November 1920, the Qantas name comes from QANTAS, an acronym for its original name and Northern Territory Aerial Services, and it is nicknamed The Flying Kangaroo. Qantas is a member of the Oneworld airline alliance. The airline is based in the Sydney suburb of Mascot with its hub at Sydney Airport. As of March 2014, Qantas had a 65% share of the Australian domestic market and carried 14. 9% of all passengers travelling in, various subsidiary airlines operate to regional centres and on some trunk routes within Australia under the QantasLink banner. Its subsidiary Jetconnect provides services between Australia and New Zealand, flying under the Qantas brand, Qantas was founded in Winton, Queensland on 16 November 1920 as Queensland and Northern Territory Aerial Services Limited.
The airlines first aircraft was an Avro 504K, in 1920 Queensland and Northern Territory Aerial Services Ltd had its headquarters in Winton before moving to Longreach, Queensland in 1921 and Brisbane in 1930. In 1934, QANTAS and Britains Imperial Airways formed a new company, the new airline commenced operations in December 1934, flying between Brisbane and Darwin. QEA flew internationally from May 1935, when the service from Darwin was extended to Singapore, after World War II began, enemy action and accidents destroyed half of the fleet of ten, when most of the fleet was taken over by the Australian government for war service. Flying boat services were resumed in 1943, with flights between Swan River and Koggala lake in Ceylon and this linked up with the British Overseas Airways Corporation service to London. Qantas kangaroo logo was first used on the Kangaroo Route, begun in 1944, from Sydney to Karachi, in 1947, QEA was nationalised by the Australian government led by Labor Prime Minister Ben Chifley.
QANTAS Limited was wound up, after nationalisation, Qantas remaining domestic network, in Queensland, was transferred to the nationally owned Trans Australian Airlines, leaving Qantas with a purely international network. Shortly after nationalisation, QEA began its first services outside the British Empire – to Tokyo, Services to Hong Kong began around the same time. In 1957 a head office, Qantas House, opened in Sydney, in June 1959 Qantas entered the jet age when the first Boeing 707-138 was delivered. On 14 September 1992, Qantas merged with nationally owned domestic airline, the airline started to be rebranded to Qantas in the following year. Qantas was gradually privatised between 1993 and 1997, under the legislation passed to allow the privatisation, Qantas must be at least 51% owned by Australian shareholders. In 1998, Qantas co-founded the oneworld alliance with American Airlines, British Airways, Canadian Airlines, the main domestic competitor to Qantas, Ansett Australia, collapsed on 14 September 2001.
Market share for Qantas immediately neared 90%, but with the entry of new budget airline Virgin Blue into the domestic market, in 2004, the Qantas group expanded into the Asian budget airline market with Jetstar Asia Airways, in which Qantas owns a minority stake
KLM Royal Dutch Airlines, legally Koninklijke Luchtvaart Maatschappij N. V. is the flag carrier airline of the Netherlands. KLM is headquartered in Amstelveen, with its hub at nearby Amsterdam Airport Schiphol and it is part of the Air France–KLM group, and is a member of the SkyTeam airline alliance. KLM was founded in 1919, it is the oldest airline in the still operating under its original name and had 32,505 employees as of 2013. KLM operates scheduled passenger and cargo services to approximately 130 destinations, in 1919, a young aviator lieutenant named Albert Plesman sponsored the ELTA aviation exhibition in Amsterdam. The exhibition was a success, after it closed several Dutch commercial interests intended to establish a Dutch airline. In September 1919, Queen Wilhelmina awarded the yet-to-be-founded KLM its Royal predicate, Plesman became its first administrator and director. The first KLM flight took place on 17 May 1920, KLMs first pilot, Jerry Shaw, flew from Croydon Airport, London, to Amsterdam.
The flight was using a leased Aircraft Transport and Travel De Haviland DH-16, registration G-EALU. In 1920, KLM carried 440 passengers and 22 tons of freight, in April 1921, after a winter hiatus, KLM resumed its services using its own pilots, and Fokker F. II and Fokker F. III aircraft. In 1921, KLM started scheduled services, KLMs first intercontinental flight took off on 1 October 1924. The final destination was Jakarta, Java, in the Dutch East Indies, in September 1929, regular scheduled services between Amsterdam and Batavia commenced. Until the outbreak of the Second World War in 1939, this was the worlds longest-distance scheduled service by airplane. By 1926, it was offering flights to Amsterdam, Brussels, London, Copenhagen, in 1930, KLM carried 15,143 passengers. The Douglas DC-2 was introduced on the Batavia service in 1934, the first experimental transatlantic KLM flight was between Amsterdam and Curaçao in December 1934 using the Fokker F. XVIII Snip. The first of the airlines Douglas DC-3 aircraft were delivered in 1936, KLM was the first airline to serve Manchesters new Ringway airport, starting June 1938.
When Germany invaded the Netherlands on 10 May 1940, a number of KLM aircraft—mostly DC-3s, five DC-3s and one DC-2 were taken to England. During the war, these aircraft and crew members flew scheduled flights between Bristol and Lisbon under BOAC registration. Some KLM aircraft and their crews ended up in the Australia-Dutch East Indies region, after the end of the Second World War in August 1945, KLM immediately started to rebuild its network
National Stadium, Singapore
The National Stadium is a multi-purpose stadium, located in Kallang, Singapore. It opened its doors on 30 June 2014, replacing the former National Stadium at the same site and it takes approximately 48 hours to reconfigure seating arrangements to suit an upcoming event. For the first time since 2006, the National Day Parade,2016 made its return to the National Stadium on 9 August 2016, construction work for the sports hub started in 2010 due to the delays caused by the 2008 financial crisis and soaring construction costs. By September 2011, the pilling and the foundation of the stadium was completed, the stadium was set to be completed in April 2014, however, In February 2014, Sports Hub CEO Philippe Collin Delavaud announced that the National Stadiums completion was pushed back to June 2014. The stadium has configurable spectator tiers depending on the event that will be hosted, namely Football/Rugby mode, Cricket mode, the National Stadium currently holds the record of the largest dome structure in the world.
The retractable roof itself will take an approximate 25 minutes to open or close, at night, the retractable roof doubles as a giant projector screen on both sides, which can display images such as the Singapore Flag during the National Day Parade. Desso GrassMaster was installed as the grass pitch when the stadium opened. In October 2014, Brazil coach Dunga criticised the state of the pitch, which had not improved much since the Juventus match, although Brazil won the match 4–0, he said after the match that the sandy pitch had prevented his side from playing their best football. Eventually, the grass still failed to grow well and was replaced by the Eclipse Stabilised Turf in May 2015, the stadium is located above the underground Stadium MRT Station on the Circle Line. Trains arrive every five to six minutes during off-peak hours, other MRT stations nearby are Kallang MRT Station which can be accessed using a sheltered walkway, and Mountbatten MRT Station. Both of these stations are within 600 metres of the stadium, bus stops are located around the Sports Hub complex along Stadium Walk, Stadium Boulevard and Nicoll Highway, with buses serving nearby districts and the city.
Taxi stands are available near the National Stadium, Singapore Indoor Stadium. The National Stadium hosted the ceremony and other events during the 2015 Southeast Asian Games. The friendly match between Brazil and Japan in October 2014 is the first-ever sell-out crowd of 55,000 at the stadium and it hosted the 2014 AFF Suzuki Cup in November 2014. It is the venue of all the matches of the 2015 Barclays Asia Trophy that is held in Singapore, the stadium was the venue for the 2016 National Day Parade. From June 2014 onwards, the stadium host cricket with day-night One-Day Internationals. There is a prospect of international fixtures and is the possibility of the International Cricket Council moving its headquarters from Dubai to Singapore. Concerts from international artists are highlighted in light blue, list of stadiums in Singapore Sport in Singapore Singapore Sports Council official website Singapore Sports Hub official website
Tengah Air Base
Tengah Air Base is a military airbase of the Republic of Singapore Air Force located in the Western Water Catchment, in the western part of Singapore. The airfield goes by the motto of Always Vigilant, which is supported by its main motif, the sword represents wars heraldic sword of destruction, while the state is depicted by the castle. Prior to Singapores independence, it was a flying Royal Air Force station known as RAF Tengah, RAF Tengah was opened in 1939. Tengah airfield was the target of carpet bombing when 17 Japanese Navy bombers conducted the first air raid on Singapore and it was the first airfield to be captured when Japanese forces invaded Singapore. In 1958 they were joined by 45 Squadron and No.75 Squadron RNZAF, the RAAF retained their Lincolns, with 1 Squadron, until the end of the emergency. During the period of Indonesia–Malaysia confrontation, the RAF deployed 74 Squadron with its English Electric Lightning F, on 3 September 1964, an Indonesian Air Force C-130 Hercules crashed into the Straits of Malacca while trying to evade interception by a Javelin FAW.9 of No 60 Squadron.
In August 1965,9 Squadron resumed RAFs Vulcan bomber detachment to Tengah, followed by 35 Squadron in December 1965, after June 1966,9 Squadron returned to Akrotiri following the end of the confrontation. The RAF station closed at the end of March 1971 and Tengah was handed over to the Singapore Air Defence Command by 1973, despite this, the airfield continued to host British and Commonwealth air forces and troops under the auspices of the Five Power Defence Arrangements until 1976. It was renamed RSAF Tengah in 1971, when it was handed over to the Singapore Air Defence Command, the air base houses aircraft such as the Lockheed Martin F-16C/D Fighting Falcons. Its purpose is to demonstrate the RSAF capability of generating air power as quickly as possible, the latest and seventh edition was held from the 10 to 13 November 2016. Data current as of October 2006, cyberPioneer TV, From road to runway — the preparation leading up to Exercise Torrent 2008 on YouTube, accessed 23 January 2009
The Douglas DC-3 is a fixed-wing propeller-driven airliner. Its cruise speed and range revolutionized air transport in the 1930s and 1940s and its lasting effect on the airline industry and World War II makes it one of the most significant transport aircraft ever made. The DC-3 was a twin-engine metal monoplane, developed as a larger and it had many exceptional qualities compared to previous aircraft. It was fast, had a range and could operate from short runways. It was reliable and easy to maintain and carried passengers in greater comfort, before the war it pioneered many air travel routes. Civil DC-3 production ended in 1942 with 607 aircraft being produced, together with its military derivative, the C-47 Skytrain, and with Russian- and Japanese-built versions, over 16,000 were built. Following the Second World War, the market was flooded with surplus C-47s and other transport aircraft. While the DC-3 was soon made redundant on main routes by more advanced such as the Douglas DC-6 and Lockheed Constellation.
Large numbers continue to see service in a variety of niche roles well into the 21st century. In 2013 it was estimated that approximately 2,000 DC-3s and military derivatives were still flying, the DC-3 was the culmination of a development effort that began after an inquiry from Transcontinental and Western Airlines to Donald Douglas. TWA asked Douglas to design and build an aircraft that would allow TWA to compete with United, Douglas design, the 1933 DC-1, was promising, and led to the DC-2 in 1934. The DC-2 was a success, but there was room for improvement, Douglas agreed to go ahead with development only after Smith informed him of Americans intention to purchase twenty aircraft. The new aircraft was engineered by a led by chief engineer Arthur E. Raymond over the next two years, and the prototype DST first flew on December 17,1935. Its cabin was 92 in wide, and a version with 21 seats instead of the 14–16 sleeping berths of the DST was given the designation DC-3, there was no prototype DC-3, the first DC-3 built followed seven DSTs off the production line and was delivered to American Airlines.
The DC-3 and DST popularized air travel in the United States, eastbound transcontinental flights could cross the U. S. in about 15 hours with three refueling stops, westbound trips against the wind took 17 1⁄2 hours. A few years such a trip entailed short hops in slower and shorter-range aircraft during the day. A variety of engines were available for the DC-3. Early-production civilian aircraft used Wright R-1820 Cyclone 9s, but used the Pratt & Whitney R-1830 Twin Wasp
According to the International Civil Aviation Organization, a runway is a defined rectangular area on a land aerodrome prepared for the landing and takeoff of aircraft. Runways may be a surface or a natural surface. Runways are named by a number between 01 and 36, which is generally the magnetic azimuth of the heading in decadegrees. This heading differs from true north by the magnetic declination. A runway numbered 09 points east, runway 18 is south, runway 27 points west, when taking off from or landing on runway 09, a plane would be heading 90°. A runway can normally be used in both directions, and is named for each separately, e. g. runway 33 in one direction is runway 15 when used in the other. The two numbers usually differ by 18, Runway Zero Three Left becomes Runway Two One Right when used in the opposite direction. In some countries, if parallel runways are too close to each other, at large airports with four or more parallel runways some runway identifiers are shifted by 10 degrees to avoid the ambiguity that would result with more than three parallel runways.
For example, in Los Angeles, this results in runways 6L, 6R, 7L. At Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport, there are five parallel runways, named 17L, 17C, 17R, 18L, for clarity in radio communications, each digit in the runway name is pronounced individually, runway three six, runway one four, etc. A leading zero, for example in runway zero six or runway zero one left, is included for all ICAO, most U. S. civil aviation airports drop the leading zero as required by FAA regulation. This includes some military airfields such as Cairns Army Airfield and this American anomaly may lead to inconsistencies in conversations between American pilots and controllers in other countries. It is very common in a such as Canada for a controller to clear an incoming American aircraft to, for example, runway 04. In flight simulation programs those of American origin might apply U. S. usage to airports around the world, for example, runway 05 at Halifax will appear on the program as the single digit 5 rather than 05.
Runway designations change over time because the magnetic poles slowly drift on the Earths surface, depending on the airport location and how much drift takes place, it may be necessary over time to change the runway designation. As runways are designated with headings rounded to the nearest 10 degrees, for example, if the magnetic heading of a runway is 233 degrees, it would be designated Runway 23. If the magnetic heading changed downwards by 5 degrees to 228, if on the other hand the original magnetic heading was 226, and the heading decreased by only 2 degrees to 224, the runway should become Runway 22. Because the drift itself is slow, runway designation changes are uncommon
British Overseas Airways Corporation
British Overseas Airways Corporation was the British state-owned airline created in 1940 by the merger of Imperial Airways and British Airways Ltd. It continued operating overseas services throughout World War II, after the passing of the Civil Aviation Act of 1946, European and South American services passed to two further state-owned airlines, British European Airways and British South American Airways. BOAC absorbed BSAA in 1949, but BEA continued to operate British domestic, a 1971 Act of Parliament merged BOAC and BEA with effect from 31 March 1974, forming todays British Airways. On 24 November 1939, BOAC was created by Act of Parliament to become the British state airline, formed from the merger of Imperial Airways and British Airways Ltd. The companies had been operating together since war was declared on 3 September 1939, on 1 April 1940, BOAC started operations as a single company. Linking Britain to the Horseshoe Route taxed the resources of BOAC, although Spain denied access, Portugal welcomed BOACs civilian aircraft at Lisbon.
The Empire flying-boats were at their limit on the 1,900 mile Lisbon-Bathurst sector, refuelling at Las Palmas in the Canary Islands was permitted by Spain for some Empire flying-boat flights in 1940 and 1941. In 1941 longer range Consolidated Catalinas, Boeing 314As were introduced to guarantee non-stop Lisbon to Bathurst sectors, BOACs flying-boat base for Britain was shifted from Southampton to Poole, but many flights used Foynes in Éire, reached by shuttle flight from Whitchurch. Use of Foynes reduced the chance of interception or friendly fire incidents over the English Channel. BOAC had large bases at Durban, Alexandria and a school at Soroti. These were BOACs first New York services and this was the first sustained North Atlantic landplane service. By September 1944 BOAC had made 1,000 transatlantic crossings, in late 1942, the new hard-surface airport at Lisbon permitted the use of civil registered Liberators to North and West Africa and Egypt. Arguably, BOACs most famous wartime route was the Ball-bearing Run from Leuchars to Stockholm in neutral Sweden, initially flown with Lockheed 14s and Lockheed Hudson transports, the unsuitable Armstrong Whitworth Whitley civilianised bombers were used between 9 August and 24 October 1942.
The much faster civilian registered de Havilland Mosquitoes were introduced by BOAC in 1943, between 1939 and 19456,000 passengers were transported by BOAC between Stockholm and Great Britain. At the end of the war, BOACs fleet consisted of Lockheed Lodestars, lend-lease Douglas DC-3s, converted Sunderlands, and the first Avro Lancastrians, Avro Yorks, and Handley Page Haltons. The Short Empire, Short S.26 and Boeing 314A flying boats, the Corporations aircraft and personnel were scattered around the world, and it took a decade to reorganise it into an efficient unit at Heathrow. Whilst the major world airlines abandoned flying-boats at the end of WWII, BOAC continued with theirs until 1950, and even introduced the new Short Solent on the leisurely Nile route to South Africa. In 1948, the unpressurised Yorks were still operating passenger services as far afield as Nairobi, Accra and Calcutta, after its first six Lockheed 049 Constellations, BOAC had to use some ingenuity to increase its Constellation fleet
Jakarta /dʒəˈkɑːrtə/, officially the Special Capital Region of Jakarta, is the capital and most populous city of the Republic of Indonesia. Located on the northwest coast of the worlds most populous island of Java, Jakarta is the economic and political centre. The official metropolitan area, known as Jabodetabek, is the second largest in the world, established in the fourth century, the city became an important trading port for the Kingdom of Sunda. It was the de facto capital of the Dutch East Indies, the city has continued as the capital of Indonesia since the countrys independence was declared in 1945. Jakarta is listed as a city in the 2012 Globalization and World Cities Study Group. Based on the global metro monitor by the Brookings Institution, in 2014, Jakarta has grown more rapidly than Kuala Lumpur and Bangkok. Jakarta has been home to multiple settlements along with their names, Sunda Kelapa, Batavia, Djakarta. Its current name derives from the word Jayakarta, the origins of this word can be traced to the Old Javanese and ultimately to the Sanskrit language.
Jayakarta translates as victorious deed, complete act, or complete victory, Jakarta is nicknamed the Big Durian, the thorny strongly-odored fruit native to the region, as the city is seen as the Indonesian equivalent of the US city of New York. In the colonial era, the city was known as Koningin van het Oosten, initially in the 17th century for the urban beauty of downtown Batavias canals, mansions. After expanding to the south in the 19th century, this came to be more associated with the suburbs, with their wide lanes, many green spaces. The area in and around modern Jakarta was part of the fourth century Sundanese kingdom of Tarumanagara, following the decline of Tarumanagara, its territories, including the Jakarta area, became part of the Hindu Kingdom of Sunda. From 7th to early 13th century port of Sunda was within the sphere of influence of the Srivijaya maritime empire. According to the Chinese source, Chu-fan-chi, written circa 1225, Chou Ju-kua reported in the early 13th century Srivijaya still ruled Sumatra, the source reports the port of Sunda as strategic and thriving, pepper from Sunda being among the best in quality.
The people worked in agriculture and their houses were built on wooden piles, the harbour area became known as Sunda Kelapa and by the fourteenth century, it was a major trading port for Sunda kingdom. The first European fleet, four Portuguese ships from Malacca, arrived in 1513 when the Portuguese were looking for a route for spices, in 1527, Fatahillah, a Javanese general from Demak attacked and conquered Sunda Kelapa, driving out the Portuguese. Sunda Kelapa was renamed Jayakarta, and became a fiefdom of the Sultanate of Banten which became a major Southeast Asia trading centre, through the relationship with Prince Jayawikarta from the Sultanate of Banten, Dutch ships arrived in Jayakarta in 1596. In 1602, the English East India Companys first voyage, commanded by Sir James Lancaster, arrived in Aceh and this site became the centre of English trade in Indonesia until 1682
There were local partnership companies, Qantas in Australia. Imperial Airways was merged into the British Overseas Airways Corporation in 1939, the launch of the airline followed a burst of air route surveying in the British Empire after the First World War, and after some experimental long-distance flying to the margins of Empire. With this in view, a £1m subsidy over ten years was offered to encourage the merger, Sir Eric Geddes was appointed the chairman of the board with one director from each of the merged companies. The government had appointed two directors Hambling and Major J. W. Hills a former Treasury Financial Secretary, the land operations were based at Croydon Airport to the south of London. IAL immediately discontinued its predecessors service to north of London. Thereafter the only IAL aircraft operating North of Watford were charter flights, industrial troubles with the pilots delayed the start of services until 26 April 1924, when a daily London–Paris route was opened with a de Havilland DH.34.
The first new airliner ordered by Imperial Airways, was the Handley Page W8f City of Washington, in the first year of operation the company carried 11,395 passengers and 212,380 letters. In April 1925, the film The Lost World became the first film to be screened for passengers on an airliner flight when it was shown on the London-Paris route. On his return Cobham was awarded the Air Force Cross for his services to aviation, on 30 June 1926, Alan Cobham took off from the River Medway at Rochester in G-EBFO to make an Imperial Airways route survey for a service to Melbourne, arriving on 15 August 1926. He left Melbourne on 29 August 1926, after completing 28,000 nautical miles in 320 hours flying time over 78 days, Cobham was met by the Secretary of State for Air, Sir Samuel Hoare, and was subsequently knighted by HM King George V. On 27 December 1926, Imperial Airways de Havilland DH.66 Hercules G-EBMX City of Delhi left Croydon for a flight to India. The flight reached Karachi on 6 January 1927 and Delhi on 8 January 1927, the aircraft was named by Lady Irwin, wife of the Viceroy, on 10 January 1927.
The return flight left on 1 February 1927 and arrived at Heliopolis, the flying time from Croydon to Delhi was 62 hours 27 minutes and Delhi to Heliopolis 32 hours 50 minutes. The route was extended as far as Delhi on 29 December 1929, the route across Europe and the Mediterranean changed many times over the next few years but almost always involved a rail journey. In April 1931 an experimental London-Australia air mail took place, the mail was transferred at the Dutch East Indies. The move saw the establishment of an airport and rest house, Al Mahatta Fort, on 29 May 1933 an England to Australia survey flight took off, operated by Imperial Airways Armstrong Whitworth Atalanta G-ABTL Astraea. Major H G Brackley, Imperial Airways’ Air Superintendent, was in charge of the flight, Sydney was visited on 26 June, Canberra on 28 June and Melbourne on 29 June. There followed a rapid eastern extension, the first London to Hong Kong passengers departed London on 14 March 1936 following the establishment of a branch from Penang to Hong Kong
The worlds first, manually operated gas-lit traffic signal was short lived. Installed in London in December 1868, it exploded less than a month later, Traffic control started to seem necessary in the late 1890s and Earnest Sirrine from Chicago patented the first automated traffic control system in 1910. It used the words STOP and PROCEED, although neither word lit up, Traffic lights alternate the right of way accorded to users by displaying lights of a standard colour following a universal colour code. In the typical sequence of phases, The green light allows traffic to proceed in the direction denoted, if it is safe to do so. The amber light warns that the signal is about to change to red, in a number of countries – among them the United Kingdom – a phase during which red and yellow are displayed together indicates that the signal is about to change to green. A flashing amber indication is a warning signal, in the United Kingdom, a flashing amber light is used only at pelican crossings, in place of the combined red–amber signal, and indicates that drivers may pass if no pedestrians are on the crossing.
The red signal prohibits any traffic from proceeding, a flashing red indication is treated as a stop sign. In some countries traffic signals will go into a flashing mode if the Conflict Monitor detects a problem, the signal may display flashing yellow to the main road and flashing red to the side road, or flashing red in all directions. Flashing operation can be used during times of day when traffic is light, before traffic lights traffic police controlled the flow of traffic, a well-documented example being that on London Bridge in 1722. Three men were given the task of directing traffic coming in, each officer would help direct traffic coming out of Southwark into London and he made sure all traffic stayed on the west end of the bridge. A second officer would direct traffic on the east end of the bridge to control the flow of people leaving London and going into Southwark. The main reason for the light was that there was an overflow of horse-drawn traffic over Westminster Bridge which forced thousands of pedestrians to walk next to the Houses of Parliament.
The design combined three semaphore arms with red and green gas lamps for use, on a pillar. The gas lantern was manually turned by a police officer. The signal was 22 feet high, at night a red light would command Stop and a green light would mean use Caution. Although it was said to be successful at controlling traffic, its life was brief. It exploded on 2 January 1869, as a result of a leak in one of the gas lines underneath the pavement, injuring or killing the policeman who was operating it. In the first two decades of the 20th century semaphore traffic signals, like the one in London, were in use all over the United States with each state having its own design of the device, One good example was from Toledo, Ohio in 1908