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Kalu Pande

Vamshidhar Pande known by sobriquet Kalu Pande was a Nepalese politician and military general, appointed as Kaji of The Gorkha Kingdom. He was born in 1713 A. D in Gorkha.. He was the commander of the Gorkhali forces during the Expansion Campaign of Nepal, he died in the first Battle of Kirtipur in 1757 A. D, his real name was Banshidhar Pande. He was a son of Kaji Bhimraj Pande, minister during reign of King Prithivipati Shah of Gorkha, he was descendant of Dravya Shah's accomplice Ganesh Pande. He had three sons: Dewan Kajisaheb Vamsharaj Pande, Sardar Ranasur Pande and Mulkaji Sahib Damodar Pande. Kalu Pande was made the Commander-in-Chief of the Gorkhali Army after Biraj Thapa Magar and his first major Battle was the Battle of Kirtipur. Despite his initial resentment to the fact that the valley kings were well prepared and the Gorkhalis were not, Pande gave a'Yes' to the operation, due to being insisted by Prithvi Narayan Shah; the Gorkhalis had set up a base on Naikap, a hill on the valley's western rim, from where they were to mount their assaults on Kirtipur.

They were armed with swords and arrows and muskets. The Valley Kings brought a large number of Doyas from Indian Plains under Shaktiballabh sardar. During the first assault in 1757, the Gorkhali army killed 1200 enemies Doyas, but were badly beaten themselves. Both sides suffered heavy losses; as they advanced towards Kirtipur, the combined force of Valley Kings under Kaji Gangadhar Jha, Kaji Gangaram Thapa and Sardar Shaktiballabh brought Havoc to the outnumbered Gorkhalis. The two forces fought on the plain of Tyangla Phant in the northwest of Kirtipur. Surapratap Shah, the King's brother lost his right eye to an arrow while scaling the city wall; the Gorkhali commander Kaji Kalu Pande was surrounded and killed, the Gorkhali king himself narrowly escaped with his life into the surrounding hills disguised as a saint. King Prithvi Narayan Shah's letter to Sardar Ramakrishna Kunwar mentioned by historian Baburam Acharya quotes disheartenment of King Prithvi over death of Kalu Pande: "When Kalu Pande was killed in Kirtipur, I had felt disheartened, thinking that I had not been able to conquer the three towns of Nepal..."

Consumer Credit Act 1974

The Consumer Credit Act 1974 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that reformed the law relating to consumer credit within the United Kingdom. Prior to the Consumer Credit Act, legislation covering consumer credit was slapdash and focused on particular areas rather than consumer credit as a whole, such as moneylenders and hire-purchase agreements. Following the report of the Crowther Committee in 1971 it was decided that wide-ranging reform of consumer credit law was needed, a bill to do this was introduced to Parliament. Despite its progress through Parliament being disrupted by a general election, the bill passed through the legislative process thanks to support from both the government and the opposition, coming into law on 31 July 1974; the Act introduces new protection for consumers and new regulation for bodies trading in consumer credit and related industries. Such traders must have full licenses from the Office of Fair Trading, which may be suspended or revoked in the event of irregularities.

The Act regulates what may be taken as security, limits the ways in which credit organisations can advertise and gives the county court the ability to intercede in the case of unfair or unjust credit agreements. It gives additional rights to the debtor, including certain limited rights to cancel concluded agreements; the Act was amended by the Consumer Credit Act 2006. Consumer credit regulation was ignored by both Parliament and the courts for over 800 years, with the judges and Members of Parliament taking the attitude that there was no reason to interfere with concluded contracts; the first piece of legislation to deal with consumer credit was the Bills of Sale Act 1854, which required bills of sale to be registered. This allowed the courts to intervene for the first time, since an unregistered bill of sale was void and could not be claimed by creditors; this act was followed by the Bills of Sale Act 1878 and the Bills of Sale Act Amendment Act 1882, which provided limited protection for debtors.

Outside of these acts, little was done between 1854 and 1900, moneylenders used this to their advantage, sometimes abusively. As a result of this report the Moneylenders Act 1900 was passed, which required registration for moneylenders and allowed the courts to dissolve "unfair" moneylending agreements; this act had two main weaknesses, however. Secondly, the Act only focused on specific types of lenders. In 1927 a second Moneylenders Act was passed, which required licensing as well as registration and forbade moneylenders from employing agents, canvasses or sending out unsolicited advertisements; the 1900 and 1927 Acts covered commercial transactions, since people lending money in a commercial area were not excluded as banks were, a slight infraction could make a loan irrecoverable. This was solved with the passing of the Companies Act 1967, which allowed the Board of Trade to give individual moneylenders licenses saying that they were acting as banks, not moneylenders; as a result of the restrictions on business caused by the Moneylenders Act 1927, the idea of hire-purchase developed.

These were first regulated by the Hire-Purchase and Small Debt Act 1932, which only covered Scotland. The 1965 Act applied to all hire-purchase agreements worth less than £2,000 and when the hirer and buyer was not a corporation. In 1965 the Crowther Committee was established to look at the state of consumer credit law in the United Kingdom. Chaired by Lord Crowther, the Committee began sitting in December that year and extended their review to cover consumer credit rather than just the bills of sale and moneylending they had been concerned with, their report was published in March 1971; the report discussed the economical and legal aspects of consumer credit, concluded that the existing law was so confused and unsatisfactory that it was not worth amending. Instead it recommended the complete repeal of all existing legislation and its replacement with two new acts: a Lending and Security Act, which would regulate legitimate business transactions, a Consumer Sale and Loan Act which would regulate consumer credit and establish a licensed system for its use.

The reaction to the report from consumer and business organisations was overwhelmingly positive, but the government did nothing, since the Department of Trade and Industry wanted time to work out the particular details of any Acts. Their hand was forced by Baroness Phillips a year who initiated a debate in the House of Lords on the matter; the government's official statement was that they were willing to accept all the recommendations made about consumer credit, they did not wish to legislate on lending and securities. In February 1973 they created a Voluntary Code; the Code set out guidelines for disclosing the cost of the loan. In September 1973 the government issued a white paper titled Reform of the Law on Consumer Credit in which they indicated they were planning to implement all of the Crowther Committee's consumer

Bailey Banfield

Bailey Banfield is a professional Australian rules footballer playing for the Fremantle Football Club in the Australian Football League. He grew up in Broome went to Perth and studied at Scotch College from 2011-2015. Overlooked at the 2016 AFL draft, Banfield played for Claremont in the West Australian Football League, winning their 2017 best and fairest award, he was selected by Fremantle with their first selection, fifth overall, in the 2018 AFL rookie draft. Banfield made his AFL debut for Fremantle in the opening round of the 2018 AFL season after a series of impressive pre-season games, he signed a two-year contract extension, tying him to Fremantle until 2020. Banfield will be elevated to the senior list in 2019. Bailey Banfield's profile on the official website of the Fremantle Football Club Bailey Banfield's playing statistics from AFL Tables Bailey Banfield at AustralianFootball.com WAFL Player Profile and Statistics

Drummuir Curlers' Platform railway station

Drummuir Curlers' Platform railway station was a private station opened on the Keith and Dufftown Railway for the use of the curlers belonging to the Drummuir Curling Club who played on the nearby Loch Park in the parish of Botriphnie. The GNoSR line ran from Keith to Dufftown; the station had been opened by 1902 on the old Keith and Dufftown Railway line that had become part of the GNoSR and at grouping merged with the London and North Eastern Railway. It was not shown on maps, it was located near the Sawmill Cottage on the northern side of the line at the eastern end of the loch. The line itself has been re-opened by a preservation railway; the Aboyne Curling Club had a private station, Aboyne Curling Pond railway station that stood beside the Loch of Aboyne on the Deeside Railway. The loch is artificial, created by the Drummuir Castle estate; the Drummuir Curling Club was formed in 1884 and joined the Royal Caledonian Curling Club in 1886 however it had left by 1922 and folded shortly after, otherwise the last record of the club was in 1911.

The 1899 OS map shows the single short station platform, located on a straight section of the northern or loch side of this single track section of the branch not far from Sawmill Cottage. A road overbridge stood nearby and the lane gave direct access to the loch. Apart from advertised events such as bonspiels the stations use would not have been listed and it did not appear on the public timetables, the station being private and the sport had a seasonal and unpredictable requirement for train services; the station site has a lineside hut located on it. A new station to serve the water sports centre is being considered by the Keith and Dufftown Railway preservation society. Aboyne Curling Pond railway station Carsbreck railway station Butt, R. V. J.. The Directory of Railway Stations: details every public and private passenger station, halt and stopping place and present. Sparkford: Patrick Stephens Ltd. ISBN 978-1-85260-508-7. OCLC 60251199. Video footage & history of the curler' platform Aboyne Curlers' Platform

Basel Declaration Society

The Basel Declaration Society is a scientific association established on October 5, 2011, with the aim of promoting the dissemination and advancement of the Basel Declaration, the more important international manifest in favor of research, care for animal welfare, establishment of a transparent dialogue between scientists and stakeholders. The purpose of the Basel Declaration Society is «to strengthen public awareness of the importance of animal models in experimental biomedical research, to foster communication between researchers and the public and to enhance acceptance of the Basel Declaration», it is structured as a not for profit organization of Swiss law, based in Basel, whose participation is open to scientists and scientific institutions from the world over, which maintains independence and transparency being funded only through its associates' fees and overtly by sponsors Its current President is Professor Rolf Zeller, from the Basel University. A list of the board members can be reached via this link, while the Association Articles can be found here.

The significance of the Society is manifold. It has been created to establish a common forum of experts supporting the Basel Declaration, able to speak with a single and respected voice when research is at stake, to act as a credible interlocutor in public debates on research and animals; as of April, 2013, nearly 2000 researchers from over 30 nations are signatories of the Basel Declaration. The Basel Declaration Society coordinates their efforts to promote better science and animal welfare through continued revision and dissemination of the declaration. Board of the Society Associations articles for members Basel Declaration website and Wikipedia page

Khalid Alioua

Khalid Alioua is a Moroccan politician of the Socialist Union of Popular Forces party. He was Minister of Higher Education and Scientific Research in the cabinet of Driss Jettou and Minister of Social Development, Employment, Vocational Training and spokesperson of the Government in the first cabinet of Abderrahman el-Yousfi, he has a degree in accounting and has taught at the University of Hassan II. In early July 2012, he was arrested on charges of embezzlement during his time as president of the CIH bank. Cabinet of Morocco