Industrial Symbiosis a subset of industrial ecology. Although geographic proximity is often associated with industrial symbiosis, it is necessary nor sufficient—nor is a singular focus on physical resource exchange. This in turn creates business opportunities, reduces demands on the earth’s resources, industrial symbiosis is a subset of industrial ecology, with a particular focus on material and energy exchange. Eco-industrial development is one of the ways in which industrial ecology contributes to the integration of economic growth and it is aimed to include initiatives that focus on achieving utility sharing and symbiosis among diverse sectors of industry. It is the diversity and the openness of industrial symbiosis that makes it an approach to eco-industrial development. Industrial symbiosis engages traditionally separate industries in an approach to competitive advantage involving physical exchange of materials, water. The keys to industrial symbiosis are collaboration and the possibilities offered by geographic proximity.
The sharing of information is more critical with the emergence of virtual globes such as Google Earth. These tools can greatly simplify the analysis involved in determining potential IS opportunities. Industrial symbiosis systems collectively optimize material and energy use at efficiencies beyond those achievable by any individual process alone, there are examples of industrial symbiosis being approached as national / regional initiatives with some significant success particularly in Europe. Often, access to information on available by-products is non-existent and these by-products are considered waste and typically not traded or listed on any type of exchange. This is because synergies have been identified for co-locating glass manufacturing, the waste heat from glass manufacturing can be used in industrial-sized greenhouses for food production. Even within the PV plant itself a secondary chemical recycling plant can reduce environmental impact while improving performance for the group of manufacturing facilities.
The chlorine and ethylene produced are utilised to form PVC compounds, hydrochloric Acid is prepared by direct synthesis where The pure chlorine gas can be combined with hydrogen to produce hydrogen chloride in the presence of UV light
Frederik Louis Wilhelm Hellesen was a Danish inventor and industrialist. In 1887 he designed what is thought to be the first dry cell battery based on the Leclanché cell design, the same year he founded the company W. Hellesen In 1889 he sold his first batteries to the Danish Telephone Company. The same year a young chemist Valdemar Ludvigsen came to the factory helping by the development of the batteries. When Frederik Hellesen died in 1892 his widow took over the company with the help of Ludvigsen, in 1906 V. Ludvigsen became the sole owner of the factory with the name A/S Hellesens Enke & V. Ludvigsen. Today the Hellesens brand name is owned by Duracell, in 1992 the Danish company was sold to GP Batteries International in Singapore belonging to Gold Peak Industries Ltd. In 2005 the last factory in Thisted was closed and all machinery were shipped to a new factory in Malaysia
Rococo artists and architects used a more jocular and graceful approach to the Baroque. Their style was ornate and used light colours, asymmetrical designs, unlike the political Baroque, the Rococo had playful and witty themes. By the end of the 18th century, Rococo was largely replaced by the Neoclassic style. In 1835 the Dictionary of the French Academy stated that the word Rococo usually covers the kind of ornament and design associated with Louis XVs reign and it includes therefore, all types of art from around the middle of the 18th century in France. The word is seen as a combination of the French rocaille and coquilles, the term may be a combination of the Italian word barocco and the French rocaille and may describe the refined and fanciful style that became fashionable in parts of Europe in the 18th century. The Rococo love of shell-like curves and focus on decorative arts led some critics to say that the style was frivolous or merely modish, when the term was first used in English in about 1836, it was a colloquialism meaning old-fashioned.
While there is some debate about the historical significance of the style to art in general. Italian architects of the late Baroque/early Rococo were wooed to Catholic Germany and Austria by local princes, an exotic but in some ways more formal type of Rococo appeared in France where Louis XIVs succession brought a change in the court artists and general artistic fashion. By the end of the long reign, rich Baroque designs were giving way to lighter elements with more curves. These elements are obvious in the designs of Nicolas Pineau. During the Régence, court life moved away from Versailles and this change became well established, first in the royal palace. The delicacy and playfulness of Rococo designs is seen as perfectly in tune with the excesses of Louis XVs reign. The 1730s represented the height of Rococo development in France, the style had spread beyond architecture and furniture to painting and sculpture, exemplified by the works of Antoine Watteau and François Boucher. The Rococo style was spread by French artists and engraved publications, william Hogarth helped develop a theoretical foundation for Rococo beauty.
Though not intentionally referencing the movement, he argued in his Analysis of Beauty that the lines and S-curves prominent in Rococo were the basis for grace. The development of Rococo in Great Britain is considered to have connected with the revival of interest in Gothic architecture early in the 18th century. The beginning of the end for Rococo came in the early 1760s as figures like Voltaire and Jacques-François Blondel began to voice their criticism of the superficiality, Blondel decried the ridiculous jumble of shells, reeds, palm-trees and plants in contemporary interiors. By 1785, Rococo had passed out of fashion in France, replaced by the order, in Germany, late 18th century Rococo was ridiculed as Zopf und Perücke, and this phase is sometimes referred to as Zopfstil
1936 Summer Olympics
The 1936 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XI Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event that was held in 1936 in Berlin, Germany. Berlin won the bid to host the Games over Barcelona, Spain, on 26 April 1931 and it marked the second and final time the International Olympic Committee gathered to vote in a city that was bidding to host those Games. To outdo the Los Angeles games of 1932, Adolf Hitler had built a new 100, 000-seat track and field stadium, six gymnasiums, the games were the first to be televised, and radio broadcasts reached 41 countries. Filmmaker Leni Riefenstahl was commissioned by the German Olympic Committee to film the Games for $7 million and her film, titled Olympia, pioneered many of the techniques now common in the filming of sports. When threatened with a boycott of the Games by other nations, total ticket revenues were 7.5 million Reichsmark, generating a profit of over one million marks. The official budget did not include outlays by the city of Berlin or outlays of the German national government and these were the final Olympics under the presidency of Henri de Baillet-Latour and the final Olympic Games for 12 years because of World War II.
The next Olympic Games would be held in 1948, the bidding for these Olympic Games was the first to be contested by IOC members casting votes for their own favorite host cities. The vote occurred in 1931, during the Weimar Republic, before Adolf Hitler, many other cities around the world wanted to host the Summer Olympics for that year, but except for Barcelona they did not receive any IOC votes. The other cities competing to hold the games were Alexandria, Buenos Aires, Dublin, Helsinki, Nuremberg, Rio de Janeiro and Rome. The selection procedure marked the second and final time that the International Olympic Committee would gather to vote in a city which was bidding to host those Games, the only other time this occurred was at the inaugural IOC Session in Paris, France, on 24 April 1894. Then and Paris were chosen to host the 1896 and 1900 Games, after the Nazis took control and began instituting anti-Semitic policies, the IOC held private discussions among its delegates about changing the decision to hold the Games in Berlin.
However, Hitlers regime gave assurances that Jewish athletes would be allowed to compete on a German Olympic team, in September 1934, the US Olympic committee publicly accepted the invitation to go to the Berlin games, halting any further IOC attempts to quietly revise the decision. The next scheduled games in 1940 were awarded to Tokyo, the Japanese military even demanded that venues should be built from wood because metal was needed for its wars in Manchuria. The Olympic torch relay – itself pioneered as part of the 1936 Summer Games – was to fly the Olympic flame from Olympia to Tokyo in a specially-designed long-range aircraft. In 1938 the Japanese rejected hosting the games because they saw the Olympics and he promoted the idea that the use of sports would harden the German spirit and instill unity among German youth. At the same time he believed that sports was a way to weed out the weak, Jewish. Among Diems ideas for the Berlin Games was the introduction of the Olympic torch relay between Greece and the host nation, the 1936 Summer Olympics torch relay was the first of its kind, following on from the reintroduction of the Olympic Flame at the 1928 Games.
It pioneered the modern convention of moving the flame via a system from Greece to the Olympic venue
Church of Our Lady, Kalundborg
The Church of Our Lady is a historical building in Kalundborg, northwestern Zealand, Denmark. The precise date of construction is not known with any certainty, with its five distinctive towers, it stands on a hill above the harbour, making it the towns most imposing landmark. The church is built of red brick, indicating that it was constructed no earlier than 1170 when brick was first used in Denmark, this is the date of nearby Esbern Snares castle, the sites first fortification. The architectural design, would indicate a date. At the time when the church was built, a medieval town stood on the hill. It was originally fortified by Snares castle but this was replaced in the 14th century by Kalundborg Castle, now in ruins, with its ring walls, much of this has now disappeared but the old churchyard walls are still intact. Two brick houses from 1500 form part of the boundary walls, the central tower of the church collapsed in 1827 due to structural flaws and incautious repairs inside the church.
Collapse did not cause any injuries but many medieval furnishings were destroyed, from the square nave, four arms of equal length stretch out to a polygon terminal. These proportions have been compared to the description of the New Jerusalem in the Book of Revelation, while the original barrel vaults of the transepts are still in place, the columns in the nave and the vaults have been reconstructed. The medieval sacristy along the wall of the chancel is well preserved. In about 1500 it was given an upper storey, the plan is in the form of a Greek cross with four arms of equal length. The window arches as well as the pilasters and sunken columns inside the church suggest the involvement of Lombard builders from northern Italy and it is said to be Denmarks most important contribution to architecture during the Middle Ages. The churchs central tower, known as Marys tower, is 44 m tall and square-shaped while the four lateral towers, each 34 m tall, are octagonal. The other towers are named after saints, St.
Annes to the east, St. Gertrudes to the west, St. Mary Magdalenes to the south. The four columns supporting the tower are made of granite. With five towers in all, the church is unique, the architecture reveals similarities with the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, as well as with grouped towers in the great churches of France and the Rhineland. In particular, both the age and its architectural style have much in common with Tournai Cathedral in the south of Belgium. The masonry, on the hand, is comparable to that of other early brick buildings in the area such as St. Bendts Church in Ringsted
Novo Nordisk is a Danish multinational pharmaceutical company headquartered in Bagsværd, with production facilities in eight countries, and affiliates or offices in 75 countries. Novo Nordisk is controlled by majority shareholder, Novo A/S, which holds approximately 25% of its shares, Novo Nordisk manufactures and markets pharmaceutical products and services. Key products include diabetes care medications and devices, Novo Nordisk is involved with hemostasis management, growth hormone therapy and hormone replacement therapy. The company makes several drugs under various names, including Levemir, NovoLog, Novolin R, NovoSeven, NovoEight. Novo Nordisk employs more than 40,000 people globally, the corporation was created in 1989 through a merger of two Danish companies which date back to the 1920s. The Novo Nordisk logo is the Apis bull, one of the animals of ancient Egypt. Novo Nordisk is a member of the European Federation of Pharmaceutical Industries. The company was ranked 25th among 100 best companies to work for in 2010 by Fortune, in January 2012, Novo Nordisk was named as the most sustainable company in the world by the business magazine Corporate Knights while spin-off company Novozymes was named fourth.
Novo Nordisk was ranked 72nd on “Fortune’s 100 Best Companies to Work For®” list within the U. S. state of New Jersey as of January 2014, behind Novo Nordisk lies a story about two Danish firms - Nordisk Insulinlaboratorium and Novo Terapeutisk Laboratorium. Nordisk Insulinlaboratorium was founded by Hans Christian Hagedorn, August Krogh, in 1922, August Krogh and his wife Marie Krogh travelled to the US. The couple had heard reports of people with diabetes being treated with insulin – a hormone discovered in 1921 by two Canadians, Frederick Banting and Charles Best, Marie Krogh was a doctor herself and had type 2 diabetes. The couple returned to Denmark with permission to manufacture and sell insulin in Scandinavia, with the economic help from August Kongsted – the owner of Leo Pharmaceutical Products - Insulin Leo was marketed in 1923. When Krogh and Hagedorn started manufacturing insulin, they hired Thorvald Pedersen, Thorvald Pedersen was fired from Nordisk and the two brothers decided to try to manufacture insulin themselves.
Thorvald and Harald Pedersen managed to produce a stable liquid insulin, the brothers named their firm Novo Terapeutisk Laboratorium. Over the next decades the products were further improved, e. g, in 1982, Novo succeeded and launched the world’s first insulin preparation identical to human insulin. In 1989, Novo Industri A/S and Nordisk Gentofte A/S merged to become Novo Nordisk A/S, in 2000 the company demerged into NovoZymes A/S and Novo Nordisk A/S. In 2015, the company announced it would collaborate with Ablynx, jesper Brandgaard is the Executive Vice President and CFO of the global healthcare company Novo Nordisk A/S. Brandgaard has been the Vice Chairman of the board of directors in the Danish company SimCorp since 2007, Tresiba - is a Diabetes mellitus type 1 and Type 2 diabetes drug
Odsherred Painters is a term applied to Danish artists from various periods with connections to Odsherred in the northwest of Zealand, Denmark. Some were born there while others settled in the area or painted there and they include Karl Bovin, Kaj Ejstrup, Viggo Rørup, Ellen Krause, Lauritz Hartz, Povl Christensen, Victor Brockdorff and Sigurd Swane. With Karl Bovin and Kaj Ejstrup as central figures, the artists rediscovered Naturalism and Figurativism at a time when Modernism was prevalent, most of them knew each other from the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts. They settled in the small area developing friendships based on common artistic ambitions. Initially they rented accommodation in old farms and cottages, often just for the summer, the group were successful in reviving Naturalism in the 1930s, partly by arranging the Corner series of exhibitions in Copenhagen. The colony which started in the 1930s was led by Karl Bovin, members included Lauritz Hartz, Viggo Rørup and his wife Ellen Krause, Victor Brockdorff, Ernst Syberg, Povl Christensen, Alfred Simonsen, Ole Kielberg, Søren Hjorth Nielsen and Birthe Bovin.
Bovin, Hartz and Rørup spent their lives in Odsherred while the others returned for shorter or longer periods each summer. They were attracted by the landscape with its steep slopes. It coincided with their wish as naturalists to have a constant source of inspiration for their work, the open skies, extensive fields, rolling hills and coastal flats of Odsherred became the favourite subjects of their landscapes. Initially they were known as Mørkemalerne as a result of their sombre palette but they used brighter, the first painting of the Odsherred landscape was completed by Johan Thomas Lundbye in 1840. Typical of Denmarks Golden Age, it presents a scene north of Bjergsø with the Vejrhøj Hill, the Odsherred landscape has been depicted in the works of Vilhelm Kyhn, who painted Rørvig, and Theodor Philipsen, who painted the road near Fårevejle and Vejrhøj. There were a number of artists who had connections with Vallekilde Højskole in southwest Odsherred, the school was founded by Ernst Trier in 1885, producing several generations of artists.
They included Troels Trier and his sons Holmer and Ernst, paul Nyhuus had connections with the school. The artists Poul S. Nielsen, Julius Wederkinch and Johannes Carstensen lived in the west of Odsherred in the hills, anders Gudmundsen-Holmgreen painted scenes of summer life and bathing girls in Odsherred. From 1960, Lars Sylvest Jakobsen lived and painted in Nykøbing while Jørgen Brynjolf, Danish Artists Colonies, The Skagen Painters, the Funen Painters, the Bornholm Painters, the Odsherred Painters. Tidsskrift for Kunst 2011 #2, Tidsskrift om Odsherreds Kunstmuseum, Malergården og Huset i Asnæs, kulturkarrusellen - Odsherredmalerne, 30-minute TV programme on the Odsherred Painters from TV Øst
Johan Thomas Lundbye
Johan Thomas Lundbye was a promising young Danish painter and graphic artist, known for his animal and landscape paintings who died at the age of 29. He became one of his generation’s national romantic painters, along with P. C, skovgaard and Lorenz Frølich, to regularly depict the landscape of Zealand. He was born in Kalundborg to Joachim Theodor Lundbye and wife Catherine Bonnevie and he was sickly as a child. He studied privately under animal painter Christian Holm and at the age of 14 he came into J. L. Lund’s drawing school and the Royal Danish Academy of Art in Copenhagen, in the years to come he would focus his painting on depicting landscapes. His large Kystparti ved Isefjord was exhibited in 1843 and purchased by the Royal Painting Collection and he illustrated Hans Vilhelm Kaalunds Fabler for børn, a book of poetry for young children published in 1845. He received a grant from the Academy in 1845, which was renewed a year later. He returned to Denmark on 18 July 1846 after a year and he surprised his circle of friends and announced that he was going to live in the country for a year, and took a little farm near Helsingør.
The First War of Schleswig, known in Denmark as the Three Years War, however broke out and he died eight days on 26 April 1848. There is some question as to whether he died from an accidental shot, list of Danish painters KID—Kunst Index Danmark Dansk biografisk Leksikion
Kalundborg Radio is a major transmission facility for long- and mediumwave at the harbour of Kalundborg in Denmark. The site was inaugurated in 1927 and now has transmitters for 243 kHz longwave with 300 kW and 1062 kHz mediumwave with 250 kW plus a reserve transmitter. For the longwave transmitter an Alexanderson aerial is used, with two grounded 118 m steel lattice radiating towers connected by top capacitance wires. The northern tower is fed from the transmitter through a top coil, the medium wave transmitter uses an insulated guyed steel lattice mast aerial with a height of 147 metres. All mast virtually stand in the sea on the narrow Gisseløre peninsula, in 2007, analogue transmission on longwave from Kalundborg were suspended after 80 years of service. Longwave transmissions were resumed in DRM at reduced power on 3 October 2008 after substantial modifications to the aerial earlier that year. Analogue transmissions continued on mediumwave with a time schedule until 27 June 2011. The analogue transmissions on 243 kHz long wave will continue until at least the end of 2014
Lerchenborg is a manor house located 4 km south of Kalundborg on the west coast of Zealand, Denmark. It is the clubhouse for the Royal Tarok Club, the owner, a Tarok player himself, chairs the club, which was founded in 2008. The estate was established by Carl von Ahlefeldt when he closed down the village of Østrup to establish Østrupgård in 1704 from land used to belong to Kalundborg Castle. In 1742 it was acquired by general Christian Lerche, the large estate included 7 manors,13 churches and extensive woodlands, taking in practically all of Kalundborg Amt. Lerche constructed a new seat on the estate, probably assisted by Nicolai Eigtved, Lerche received the Order of the Elephant in 1748 and was given status of count in 1752. He renamed his estate Lerchenborg in 1754 but did not establish it as a county which, since he had no direct heirs, instead he founded a stamhus which secured succession rights for other lines of the Lerche family. In 1862, Hans Christian Andersen stayed at Lerchenborg for a week as guest of Count C.
A, the county was dissolved in 1923 and the Lerchenborg estate passed out of the Lerche familys ownership in 1927. However, in 1952 it was reacquired by a member of the family, Christian Albrecht Frederik Lerche-Lerchenborg and Asnæsgården were sold off in connection with the reacquission. Lerchenborg is a three-winged white-washed Rococo complex, consisting of a two-storey, seventeen bay main wing, the main wing has a three-bay median risilit with a triangular pediment and corner projections of two bays with rounded pediments, all with Rococo decorations. The rear side is basically of the same pattern, there is a central entrance on each side of the building. The house is notable for its fine Rococo interiors. The hipped roofs on all three buildings are of slate, although originally they had red tiles, the whole complex of main building, farm buildings and park form a strictly symmetrical unity in accordance with the aestetic principles of the Baroque. Today the park has an area of 20 hectares