Kamakura shogunate

The Kamakura Shogunate was the feudal military government of Japan during the Kamakura period from 1185 to 1333. The Kamakura Shogunate was established by Minamoto no Yoritomo after victory in the Genpei War and appointing himself as Shōgun. Yoritomo governed Japan as military dictator from the eastern city of Kamakura with the Emperor of Japan and his Imperial Court in the official capital city of Heian-kyō as figureheads; the Kamakura Shōguns were members of the Minamoto clan until 1226, the Fujiwara clan until 1252, the last six were minor princes of the Imperial family. The Hōjō clan were the de facto rulers of Japan as shikken of the Shōgun from 1203; the Kamakura Shogunate saw the Jōkyū War in 1221 and the Mongol invasions of Japan under Kublai Khan in 1274 and 1281. The Kamakura Shogunate was overthrown in the Kenmu Restoration under Emperor Go-Daigo in 1333, re-establishing Imperial rule until Ashikaga Takauji overthrew the Imperial government and founded the Ashikaga Shogunate in 1336.

In Japan, the power of civilian government was held by the ruling Emperor of Japan and their regents appointed from the ranks of the Imperial Court and the aristocratic clans that vied for influence there. Military affairs were handled under the auspices of the civil government. From 1180 to 1185, the Genpei War was fought between the Taira and Minamoto clans as part of a longstanding violent rivalry for influence over the Emperor and his court. Minamoto no Yoritomo defeated the Taira clan, but in his victory seized power from the civil aristocracy, politically relegating the Emperor and his court to symbolic figureheads. In 1192, Yoritomo and the Minamoto clan established a military government in Kamakura. After Yoritomo's death, Hōjō Tokimasa, the clan chief of Yoritomo's widow, Hōjō Masako, former guardian of Yoritomo, claimed the title of regent to Yoritomo's son Minamoto no Yoriie making that claim hereditary to the Hōjō clan. Tokimasa deposed Yoriie, backed up his younger brother, Minamoto no Sanetomo, as a new shōgun, assumed the post of shikken.

The Minamoto clan remained the titular shōguns, with the Hōjō holding the real power. In 1219, Sanetomo was assassinated by his nephew Kugyō. Since Sanetomo died childless, the line of shōguns from the Minamoto clan ended with him. With the Regency, what was an unusual situation became more anomalous when the Hōjō usurped power from those who had usurped it from the Emperor, descending from Emperor Kōkō, who usurped it from the children of Emperor Seiwa; the new regime nonetheless proved to be stable enough to last a total of 135 years, 9 shōguns and 16 regents. With Sanetomo's death in 1219, his mother Hōjō Masako became the shogunate's real center of power; as long as she lived, regents and shōguns would go, while she stayed at the helm. Since the Hōjō family did not have the rank to nominate a shōgun from among its members, Masako had to find a convenient puppet; the problem was solved choosing Kujo Yoritsune, a distant relation of the Minamoto, who would be the fourth shōgun and figurehead, while Hōjō Yoshitoki would take care of day-to-day business.

However powerless, future shōguns would always be chosen from either Fujiwara or imperial lineage to keep the bloodline pure and give legitimacy to the rule. This succession proceeded for more than a century. In 1221 Emperor Go-Toba tried to regain power in what would be called the Jōkyū War, but the attempt failed; the power of the Hōjō remained unchallenged until 1324, when Emperor Go-Daigo orchestrated a plot to overthrow them, but the plot was discovered immediately and foiled. The Mongols under Kublai Khan attempted sea-borne invasions in 1274 and 1281. Fifty years before, the shogunate had agreed to Korean demands that the Wokou be dealt with to stop their raids, this bit of good diplomacy had created a cooperative relationship between the two states, such that the Koreans, helpless with a Mongol occupation army garrisoning their country, had sent much intelligence information to Japan, so that along with messages from Japanese spies in the Korean peninsula, the shogunate had a good picture of the situation of the pending Mongol invasion.

The shogunate had rejected Kublai's demands to submit with contempt. The Mongol landings of 1274 met with some success, however there was no rout of the Japanese defenders, who in any case outnumbered the 40,000 combined invasion force of Mongols and Korean conscripts. Noting an impending storm, the Korean admirals advised the Mongols to re-embark so that the fleet could be protected away from shore. After the surviving forces returned to Mongol territory, Kublai was not dissuaded from his intentions on bringing Japan under Mongol control, once again sent a message demanding submission, which infuriated the Hōjō leadership, who had the messengers executed, they responded with decisive action for defense—a wall was built to protect the hinterland of Hakata Bay, defensive posts were established, garrison lists were drawn up, regular manning of the home provinces was redirected to the western defenses, ships were constructed to harass the invaders' fleet when they appeared. The Mongols returned in 1281 with a force of some 50,000 Mongol-Korean-Chinese along with some 100,000 conscripts from the defeated Song empire in south China.

This force embarked and fought the Japanese for some seven weeks at several locations in Kyushu, but the defenders held, the Mongols made no strategic headway. Again, a typhoon approached, the Koreans and Chinese re-embarked the combined Mongol invasion forces in an attempt to deal with the storm in the open sea. At least one-third of the Mon

2019–20 Stumptown Athletic season

The 2019–20 Stumptown Athletic season is the club's inaugural season in the National Independent Soccer Association, a newly established third division soccer league in the United States. On October 23, 2018, NISA announced Charlotte, North Carolina as the association's third team market. On June 28, 2019, Stumptown Athletic was unveiled as one of ten founding members of the new association and one of the eight that would take part in the inaugural 2019–20 season; the team plans to use various fields around the city with the hope of making the Sportsplex at Matthews its permanent home venue. On July 21, the team announced Mark Steffens as its first head coach. Stumptown announced its first two player signings, Jamaican national team midfielder Michael Binns and midfielder Jared Odenbeck, in late August. Prior to the season Hummel International was announced as Stumptown's official apparel and ball supplier. Donald Benamna became the first Stumptown player to receive and international call-up when he was rostered for the Central African Republic's October 2019 friendly against Niger.

The team won. As of March 5, 2019 Mark Steffens – Head coach Patrick Daka – Assistant coach Details for the 2019 NISA Spring season were announced July 25, 2019. Details for the 2020 NISA Spring season were announced January 27, 2020. Stumptown will enter the 2020 tournament with the rest of the National Independent Soccer Association teams in the Second Round, it was announced on 29 January that their first opponent would be USL Championship side Charlotte Independence. On February 3, Charlotte announced that the game at the Sportsplex at Matthews, which both teams use as a home venue, would be free for the public to attend; as of Match played 6 March 2020Note: This includes caps for players who were subbed in during the September 14 game against Atlanta SC, not reflected on the Stumptown player pages but is confirmed by the team 2019–20 NISA season

Skelmersdale railway station

Skelmersdale railway station was a station located on the Skelmersdale branch at Skelmersdale, England. The station was named Blague Gate, having its name changed to Skelmersdale on 8 August 1874 and carried passengers from 1858 to 1956; the station was one of several built by the East Lancashire Railway on their branch line from Ormskirk to Rainford Junction. It opened on 1 March 1858, but after a year became part of the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway system when the ELR was taken over by that company; the station consisted of two platforms with the main building on the northbound side. A wooden signal box was provided to control the adjacent level crossing, passing loop and nearby goods yard; the line towards Ormskirk was subsequently doubled in 1875, the year. Throughout its life the route operated as a self-contained branch, though connections were available for Preston, Liverpool & Blackpool at Ormskirk and for St Helens Central, Wigan Wallgate and Manchester Victoria at Rainford; the service was generous, with the L&Y running a steam railmotor service of 19 trains per day in each direction from 1906.

A similar pattern continued after the route became part of the London and Scottish Railway in January 1923, but increasing road competition after World War II and the subsequent nationalisation of the railways in 1948 saw traffic levels decline. The station was closed to passenger traffic by the British Transport Commission on 5 November 1956, with the line south to Rainford closing on 16 November 1961 and the rest on 4 November 1963, when goods traffic at the station ceased; the track was lifted in 1968 and station was demolished soon afterwards. This was done just as the town was undergoing a significant increase in population levels and associated housing development, having been designated as one of the second wave of new towns in 1961. Skelmersdale has been described as the largest town in North-West England that doesn't have a railway station, although Leigh in Greater Manchester, which has no station is larger. There have been many discussions about reopening a railway station in Skelmersdale.

This would require a three-mile rail restoration. In January 2009, the Liverpool Echo newspaper reported that recommendations have been put to councillors to endorse the £60m plan to build a new railway station in Skelmersdale, reconnecting the town with Liverpool. In June 2009, the Association of Train Operating Companies, in its Expanding Access to the Rail Network report, called for funding for the reopening of this station as part of a £500m scheme to open 33 stations on 14 lines closed in the Beeching Axe, including seven new parkway stations; the report proposes extending the line from Ormskirk by laying 3 miles of new single track along the previous route to the town, at a cost estimated to be in the region of £31million. The route is intact, though a deviation north of Westhead would be required; the proposed station would be on the north west corner of town near the Skelmersdale Ring Road, right next to where the old station once was. A feasibility study on the project jointly funded by Merseytravel, Lancashire County Council & West Lancs Borough Council was due to begin in the autumn of 2013.

Lancashire County Council approved the initiation of a more detailed evaluation on 1 June 2015. This option selection process will take the project to completing Network Rail's GRIP stage 3 level of development in January 2017; the evaluation is to be developed in partnership with Network Merseytravel. Network Rail has suggested a construction date commencing in April 2021, with services beginning from December 2023, once the single option development and detailed design stages in the GRIP process have been achieved; the route for the new link is southwards to join the Kirkby branch line between Upholland and Rainford rather than the original plans to go north via Ormskirk, so as to enable trains to travel to Wigan & Manchester as well as to Liverpool. In February 2017 Lancashire County Council confirmed that the preferred site for Skelmersdale railway station was the former site of Glenburn Sports College/Westbank Campus. County Council Transport portfolio holder John Fillis said that the site "is big enough to provide a high quality station with scope to expand to meet future demand.".

By September, Merseytravel announced that they would be committing £765,000 to the study into the reopening, estimating that the station could be open within a decade with a lot of additional funding. Merseytravel's plan would see a new station built at Headbolt Lane in Kirkby, it has been proposed a new station at Skelmersdale would act as the terminus for Merseyrail's Northern Line, with connections available to Wigan and Manchester. Initial estimates suggest. On page 36 of the Liverpool City Region Combined Authority, Long Term Rail Strategy document of October 2017, it states that Merseytravel is working with Lancashire County Council and Network Rail to develop a plan to extend the Merseyrail network from Kirkby through to Skelmersdale, with work completed in 2019, they are considering 3rd rail electrification and other alternatives with a new station at Headbolt Lane to serve the Northwood area of Kirkby. The document on page 37 states two trials of electric 3rd rail/battery trains will be undertaken in 2020, this is one of the "alternatives".

Lancashire County Coucil approved a plan in May 2019 to commission an outline business case into reopening the station which will be presented to the government. James, Lancashire's Lost Railways, Stenlake Publishing