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Kamehameha III

Kamehameha III was the third king of the Kingdom of Hawaii from 1825 to 1854. His full Hawaiian name is Keaweaweʻula Kīwalaʻō Kauikeaouli Kaleiopapa and lengthened to Keaweaweʻula Kīwalaʻō Kauikeaouli Kaleiopapa Kalani Waiakua Kalanikau Iokikilo Kīwalaʻō i ke kapu Kamehameha when he ascended the throne. Under his reign Hawaii evolved from an absolute monarchy to a constitutional monarchy with the signing of both the 1840 Constitution, the first Hawaiian Language Constitution, the 1852 Constitution, he was the longest reigning monarch in the history of the Kingdom, ruling for 29 years and 192 days, although in the early part of his reign he was under a regency by Queen Kaʻahumanu and by Kaʻahumanu II. His goal was the careful balancing of modernization by adopting Western ways, while keeping his nation intact. Kauikeaouli was born at Keauhou Bay, on Hawaiʻi island, the largest island of the Hawaiian Islands archipelago, he was the second son of King Kamehameha I and his highest ranking wife, Queen Keōpūolani, born in Maui.

Early historians suggested June or July 1814, but one accepted date is August 11, 1813. Biographer P. Christiaan Klieger cites 17 March 1814 as his birthday, he was of the highest kapu lineage. Kauikeaouli was about 16 years younger than his brother Liholiho, who ruled as Kamehameha II starting in 1819, he was named Kauikeaouli Kaleiopapa Kuakamanolani Mahinalani Kalaninuiwaiakua Keaweaweʻulaokalani after his maternal grandfather Kīwalaʻō. He was promised to Kuakini in adoption, but as at birth he appeared to be delivered stillborn, Kuakini did not wish to take him, but Chief Kaikioʻewa summoned his kaula Kapihe. Kauikeaouli was cleansed, laid on a rock, prayed over and sprinkled with water until he breathed and cried; the prayer of Kapihe was to Kaʻōnohiokalā, "Child of God". The rock is preserved as a monument at Keauhou Bay, he was given to Kaikioʻewa to raise. Kauikeaouli had a troubled childhood, he was torn between the Puritan Christian guidelines imposed on the kingdom by the kuhina nui, his stepmother Kaʻahumanu, the desires to honor the old traditions.

Under the influence of Oʻahu's governor, a young Hawaiian-Tahitian priest named Kaomi, Kauikeaouli's aikāne partner, he rebelled against his Christian teachings, created the secret order of Hulumanu, named Kaomi his co-ruler in place of Kīnaʻu. By 1835 he had returned to ways of the missionaries; when Kauikeaouli came to the throne in 1835, the native population numbered about 150,000, less than one third of the Hawaiian population at the time of Captain Cook's arrival to Hawaii in 1778. During his reign, that number would be halved again, due to a series of epidemics. In ancient Hawaii, upper classes considered a marriage with a close royal family member to be an excellent way to preserve pure bloodlines, his brother Liholiho and his Queen Kamāmalu were a brother couple. He had loved his sister Nāhiʻenaʻena and planned to marry her since childhood, but the union was opposed by the missionaries due to their perceptions of incest, it was proposed in 1832 that Kamanele, the daughter of Governor John Adams Kuakini, would be the most suitable in age and education for his queen.

Kamanele died in 1834. Instead Kamehameha III chose to marry Kalama Hakaleleponi Kapakuhaili, against the wishes of Kīnaʻu. Kalama's father was Naihekukui. After his sister's death in late 1836, he married Kalama February 1837 in a Christian ceremony. Kamehameha III and Kalama had two children: Prince Keaweaweʻulaokalani I and Prince Keaweaweʻulaokalani II who both died while infants, he and his mistress Jane Lahilahi, a daughter of his father's advisor John Young, had twin illegitimate sons: Kīwalaʻō, who Kamehameha took to raise, died young, while the other twin Albert Kūnuiākea survived and was adopted by Kamehameha and his wife Queen Kalama. Kūnuiākea died childless. In 1838, senior advisor Hoapili convinced former missionary William Richards to resign from the church and become a political advisor. Richards gave classes to Kamehameha III and his councilors on the Western ideas of rule of law and economics, their first act was a declaration of human rights in 1839. In 1839, under a French threat of war, Roman Catholicism was legalized in the Edict of Toleration and the first statutory law code was established.

He enacted the Constitution of 1840, Hawaii's first. This laid the groundwork for the establishment of judicial and executive branches of government, a system of land ownership was implemented under the Mahele in 1848. Over the next few years, he moved the capital from Lahaina to Honolulu. In September 1840 Charles Wilkes arrived on the United States Exploring Expedition. Kamehameha III was happy to support the explorers, appointed missionary doctor Gerrit P. Judd to serve as translator. Judd treated many of the sailors. Wilkes vastly underestimated the task, did not leave until March 1841. In February 1843, British Captain Lord George Paulet pressured Kamehameha III into surrendering the Hawaiian kingdom to the British crown, but Kamehameha III alerted London of the captain's rogue actions which restored the kingdom's independence. Less than five months British Admiral Richard Thomas rejected Paulet's actions and the kingdom was restored on July 31, it was at the end of this period of uncertainty that the king uttered the phrase that became Haw


The machzor is the prayer book used by Jews on the High Holy Days of Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur. Many Jews make use of specialized ‘‘machzor’’s on the three "pilgrimage festivals" of Passover and Sukkot; the machzor is a specialized form of the siddur, intended for use in weekday and Shabbat services. The word machzor means "cycle"; the term "machzor" referred to a book containing prayers for the entire year, including weekdays and Shabbat as well as holidays. A distinction developed between the siddur which included weekday and Shabbat prayers, the machzor which included festival prayers; some of the earliest formal Jewish prayerbooks date from the tenth century. However, due to the many liturgical differences between the ordinary, day-to-day services and holiday services, the need for a specialized variation of the siddur was recognized by some of the earliest rabbinic authorities, the first ‘‘machzor’’s were written incorporating these liturgical variations and additions; the machzor contains not only the basic liturgy, but many piyyutim, which are liturgical poems specific to the holiday for which the machzor is intended.

Many of the prayers in the machzor, including those said daily or weekly on the Sabbath, have special melodies sung only on the holidays. Most "machzor" s contain no musical notation. Koren Sacks Machzor Series – A growing body of Hebrew-English holiday prayer books that fuses the translation and commentary of Chief Rabbi Jonathan Sacks with the unique design and layout of Koren Publishers Jerusalem; the liturgy includes a modern English translation and features prayers for the State of Israel, Israel’s Defense Forces, Welfare of the Government and the Safety of the American Military Forces. The Koren Sacks Rosh HaShana ‘‘machzor’’ was released in 2011 and was named a 2011 National Jewish Book Award finalist by The Jewish Book Council; the Koren Sacks Yom Kippur ‘‘machzor’’ was released in 2012 and the Koren Sacks Pesah ‘‘machzor’’ was released in March 2013. The Jewish Press calls the introduction to the Koren Sacks Pesah ‘‘machzor’’ "a thematic and theological entree to the essence of Passover."

Artscroll Machzor - Very popular ‘‘machzor’’s published by ArtScroll and used both in the Haredi and Modern Orthodox Jewish community. The text has English translations, scriptural sources, choreography Many versions are available. Machzor HaShalem: High Holiday Prayerbook - Edited by Philip Birnbaum. Still used in the Modern Orthodox Jewish community, for a time in some Conservative/Masorti synagogues; the text has English translations, scriptural sources. This book is only now going out after having been used for the last 50 years. Many congregations still use it. Machzor: High Holiday Prayerbook - Edited by Conservative Rabbi Morris Silverman, this machzor became the de facto Conservative Jewish machzor for 30 years; the text has explanatory notes and supplementary readings. It is still in use in some congregations today. Published by the Prayer Book Press. Machzor for Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur, Ed. Jules Harlow, the official machzor of Conservative Judaism from the early 1970s until 2009. 816 pages.

Unlike previous ‘‘machzor’’s published in the 20th century, this text has much less commentary and instruction. The editors focused on the translation, feeling in most places it would be sufficient, it has somewhat fewer poems than other conservative "machzor" s. The translations are less literal. In 2009 the Rabbinical Assembly and the United Synagogue of Conservative Judaism announced a new successor volume, Machzor Lev Shalem intended to replace this edition. Machzor Lev Shalem - The new official machzor of the Conservative movement in Judaism; this prayerbook presents a complete liturgy, restoring many traditional prayers that had not been included in the Silverman or Harlow editions of the machzor, yet offers options to use the creative liturgical developments presenting the theology and gender-equality of non-Orthodox Judaism. It contains a variety of commentaries from classical and modern-day rabbis, gender-sensitive translations, choreography instructions It offers more literal translations of the prayers than previous non-Orthodox ‘‘machzor’’s.

English transliterations are offered for all lines recited aloud by the congregation. The page layout surrounds prayers with a variety of English commentaries and readings, as one finds in classical rabbinic commentaries; this book was designed to be used by Conservative, non-denominational and Traditional-Egalitarian synagogues and chavurot, by leaving out certain texts and choosing the included options, it can be used in Orthodox or Reform congregations. Machzor Hadash - A machzor edited by two Conservative rabbis, Sidney Greenberg and Jonathan D. Levine, using gender-neutral translations, used by Conservative, non-denominational and Traditional-Egalitarian synagogues and chavurot. Kol Haneshama: Prayerbook for the Days of Awe, published by the Reconstructionist Press; this is the official machzor of the Reconstructionist movement in Judaism. Gates of Repentance: The New Union Prayerbook - the official prayerbook of the Reform movement in Judaism. While smaller and less complete than any of the above books, this prayerbook features a wider range of excerpts and selections from the traditional machzor than any other Reform work in the 20th century.



Adoniram, the son of Abda, was the tax collector in the United Kingdom of Israel for over forty years, from the late years of King David's reign until the reign of Rehoboam. In the language of the Tanakh, he was "over the tribute", i.e. forced labor. He was in charge of conscripted timber cutters during the building of King Solomon's temple. According to the biblical narrative, he was stoned to death by the people of Israel when Rehoboam sent him in an attempt to collect taxes; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Matthew George. "Adoniram". Easton's Bible Dictionary. T. Nelson and Sons

Peru at the 2010 Winter Olympics

Peru sent a delegation to compete in the 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada from 12–28 February 2010. This marked Peru's debut at the Winter Olympics; the Peruvian delegation consisted of three athletes: two alpine skiers—Manfred Oettl Reyes and Ornella Oettl Reyes—and the cross-country skier Roberto Carcelen. The nation's best performance in any event was 67th place in the men's giant slalom alpine skiing event by Manfred Oettl Reyes. Peru first competed at the Summer Olympics at the 1936 Berlin Games, with the exception of the 1952 Helsinki Games, has participated in every Summer Games since; these Vancouver Olympics, would mark the nation's first participation in a Winter Olympic Games. The Peruvian delegation consisted of three athletes, the alpine skiers and siblings Manfred Oettl Reyes and Ornella Oettl Reyes, cross-country skier Roberto Carcelen. Carcelen was chosen as the flag bearer for the closing ceremony. Manfred Oettl Reyes was 16 years old at the time of the Games.

He was born to a German father, a Peruvian mother, at the time, said he had only been to Peru twice in his life. HIs first event, the giant slalom, was held on 23 February, he posted 1 minute and 32 seconds. This saw him in 67th place out of 81 competitors. On 27 February, he was disqualified during the first run of the slalom. Ornella Oettl Reyes was 18 years old at the time of the Vancouver Olympics. During 24–25 February, she took part in the weather-impacted giant slalom, finishing the first run in a time of 1 minute and 27 seconds, but she failed to finish the second run and went unplaced in the final standings; the next day, she had a similar experience in the giant slalom, finishing the first run in a time of 59 seconds, but failing to complete the second run. Roberto Carcelen was 39 years old at the time of the Vancouver Olympics, he took up skiing at the age of 34, after meeting his wife on an online dating site and moving from Peru to Seattle, Washington. He secured qualification at an event held at the Silver Star Mountain Resort in British Columbia.

In his race, the 15 kilometre freestyle, he finished with a time of 45 minutes and 53 seconds, placing 94th out of 95 competitors

Tomb of Bruno the Priest

The Tomb of Bruno the Priest is grave monument, an outstanding example of Romanesque stonework and composition. It was set up after 1194 and is located on the south wall of the choir of Hildesheim Cathedral not far from the Thousand-year rose. Bruno is found in the records as a member of the Hildesheim cathedral chapter in the role of steward and as a donor for the years 1181-1194. Nothing further is known of his life; the more than two metre high grave plaque of unusual liveliness and vitality is divided into three scenes full of figures. The bottom scene, which takes up about half of the plaque, shows the dead man wrapped in the funerary shroud with his eyes closed, but with a smile on his face, he is surrounded by six small people depicted in profile, who mourn him: two clerics affectionately lay him to rest, four penitents participate in the funeral and touching him out of gratitude and reverence. Above the scene is written BRVNO. PRBR – "Bruno the Priest"; the middle scene shows the soul of the deceased in the form of a naked child with a blissful expression and hands opened forwards in adoration.

He is borne away to Heaven in a piece of cloth by two angels floating on either side of him. The upper scene shows Jesus Christ as judge and saviour, covered by a trefoil arch whose central arch forms his halo. Jesus welcomes the deceased with a gesture of blessing and speaks the words which can be read in the book in his left hand: VENITE BENED PATRIS MEI "Come, blessed by my father". Further Latin inscriptions surround the images: Below Christ:QD. VNI. EX. MI. M. FE. MI. F "What you have done to the least of my people, you have done to me". Surrounding the plaque:+BRVNONI. CVIVS. SPECIEM. MONSTRAT. LAPIS. ISTEQVI. SVA. PAVPERIBVS. TRIBVIT. DA GAVDIA. CHRISTETo Bruno, whose face this stone displays, who left his things to the poor, Christ give joy. Christian Schuffels. Das Brunograbmal im Dom zu Hildesheim. Kunst und Geschichte einer romanischen Skulptur, Regensburg 2011, ISBN 978-3-7954-2255-4 Christian Schuffels. "Das Grabmal des Presbyters Bruno im Hildesheimer Domkreuzgang", Göttinger Beiträge zur Kunstgeschichte Vol. 5, Münster 1997, ISBN 978-3-8258-2661-1 Christian Schuffels.

"Das Grabmal des Priesters Bruno – das steinerne Testament eines Hildesheimer Domherrn", in: Ego sum Hildensemensis. Bischof, Domkapitel und Dom in Hildesheim 815 bis 1810, edited by Ulrich Knapp, Petersberg 2000, pp. 321–330 Adolf Bertram. Geschichte des Bisthums Hildesheim, Vol. 1, Hildesheim 1899, pp. 207f. Abstract of Schuffels' 1997 work. On Schuffels' 2011 book. Description and complete inscription in Die Deutschen Inschriften

South Kent School

South Kent School, a private boarding school for boys in South Kent, United States, is located on a 650-acre campus in western Litchfield County. It is sited on Spooner Hill east of Bull's Bridge, overlooking the former Housatonic Valley rail-line, Hatch Pond, the'whistle-stop' South Kent station, is itself overlooked by Bull Mountain. South Kent has been ranked as the 42nd best private high school in Connecticut due to its curriculum and college placement record. From its inception, South Kent School was intended to offer a service-oriented education "at minimum cost for boys of ability and character, who on graduation must be self-supporting." Its motto is "Simplicity of life, Self-reliance, Directness of purpose". The hamlet of South Kent began in the mid-1700s on the "main road over Spooner Hill to Bull’s Bridge", where an important iron foundry had been established by Jacob Bull. By 1800, an ironworks and forge were set up near the outlet from Hatch Pond. By 1920, the township of Kent's population was reduced to half its pre-Revolution level, farm properties were to be had inexpensively.

The school was founded in 1923 as a joint venture between Reverend Frederick Herbert Sill, headmaster of Kent School, two of his recent graduates, Samuel Slater Bartlett and Richard M. Cuyler; the Straight farm was purchased from members of the Judd family, additions to the farmhouse were made to house a chapel, twenty-four students, faculty. From the start, students provided labor for daily cleaning and maintenance, as well as for unskilled construction. Over the years a number of buildings were added on the Straight property, additional acreage acquired. Most the defunct farm on the north end of Hatch Pond was purchased. Bartlett was followed as headmaster by conservationist L. Wynne Wister George M. Bartlett through 1989. Noble Richards'49 was headmaster until 2000 John C. Farr'58, who retired in 2003, followed by Andrew J. Vadnais through 2018. South Kent School's current Head of School is Lawrence A. Smith'73. Enrollment at the beginning of the 2017–18 school year was 170 young men from around the world in four "forms".

Foreign students from more than twenty nations, U. S. students from across America are represented. South Kent is a college-preparatory school. In 2017–18 the school has 35 faculty who offer 48 courses in 2 primary divisions, Math/Science and Humanities; the school year is divided into three terms: fall and spring. Students enroll in five major academic courses each term. Accelerated courses, including advanced placement, are offered in more than a dozen subjects. To graduate, a student must earn a minimum of 18 credits: 4 years of English; the South Kent chapter of the Cum Laude Society annually considers the academic achievements of sixth-form students for election to membership. ESL is a program for international students to improve and/or reinforce skills in written and oral English; the focus is on structure and conversation. In recent years nearly half of South Kent graduates have been non-native English speakers. Due in part to its rural setting, the school has established a learning track focused on environmental management and entrepreneurship.

Technologies range from historic architecture and building techniques to robotics and software design.. Students interact with farm animals, engage in sustainable practice, perform stewardship projects. Students live in eight dormitories supervised by upper-formers. All meals are eaten in the school dining hall: a breakfast buffet, family-style lunch shared with faculty where seating is assigned to ensure all students and faculty have an opportunity to engage, weekly formal dinners. An on-campus health center provides 24-hour infirmary services. Student leadership is developed with form councils, dorm supervisors, team captaincies, prefects. St. Michaels' Chapel holds daily Episcopal services. Students of all faiths are expected to attend the all-school services several times a week, but are not expected to disengage from their own faith. In common with many boys' boarding schools, every student must participate in a "fitness-oriented athletic offering" at least two seasons of the year. Sports include baseball, crew, ice hockey, running and tennis.

Football was not offered after the 2009–2010 school year. Competition is available at a variety of levels, so students can be serious about their activities. At the same time, a number of boys attend the school each year preparing for a life as a professional athlete. Facilities available to students include The Admiral James & Sybil Stockdale Arena, the Joseph J. Brown gymnasium, the Alumni Boathouse on Hatch Pond for rowing, the Anne H. Funnell cross-country trai