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Kamikaze

Kamikaze Tokubetsu Kōgekitai, were a part of the Japanese Special Attack Units of military aviators who initiated suicide attacks for the Empire of Japan against Allied naval vessels in the closing stages of the Pacific campaign of World War II, designed to destroy warships more than possible with conventional air attacks. About 3,800 kamikaze pilots died during the war, more than 7,000 naval personnel were killed by kamikaze attacks. Kamikaze aircraft were pilot-guided explosive missiles, purpose-built or converted from conventional aircraft. Pilots would attempt to crash their aircraft into enemy ships in what was called a "body attack" in planes loaded with a combination of explosives and torpedoes. Accuracy was much higher than that of conventional attacks, the payload and explosion larger. A kamikaze could sustain damage that would disable a conventional attacker and still achieve its objective; the goal of crippling or destroying large numbers of Allied ships aircraft carriers, was considered by the Empire of Japan to be a just reason for sacrificing pilots and aircraft.

These attacks, which began in October 1944, followed several critical military defeats for the Japanese. They had long since lost aerial parity as a result of having outdated aircraft and enduring the loss of experienced pilots. Japan suffered from a diminishing capacity for war and a declining industrial capacity relative to that of the Allies. Japan was losing pilots faster than it could train their replacements; these combined factors, along with Japan's unwillingness to surrender, led to the use of kamikaze tactics as Allied forces advanced towards the Japanese home islands. While the term kamikaze refers to the aerial strikes, it has been applied to various other suicide attacks; the Japanese military used or made plans for non-aerial Japanese Special Attack Units, including those involving submarines, human torpedoes and divers. The tradition of death instead of defeat and shame was entrenched in Japanese military culture. One of the primary traditions in the samurai life and the Bushido code was loyalty and honor until death.

The Japanese word kamikaze is translated as "divine wind". The word originated from Makurakotoba of waka poetry modifying "Ise" and has been used since August 1281 to refer to the major typhoons that dispersed Mongol-Koryo fleets who invaded Japan under Kublai Khan in 1274. A Japanese monoplane that made a record-breaking flight from Tokyo to London in 1937 for the Asahi newspaper group was named Kamikaze, she was a prototype for the Mitsubishi Ki-15. In Japanese, the formal term used for units carrying out suicide attacks during 1944–1945 is tokubetsu kōgekitai, which means "special attack unit"; this is abbreviated to tokkōtai. More air suicide attack units from the Imperial Japanese Navy were called shinpū tokubetsu kōgeki tai. Shinpū is the on-reading of the same characters. During World War II, the pronunciation kamikaze was used only informally in the Japanese press in relation to suicide attacks, but after the war this usage gained acceptance worldwide and was re-imported into Japan; as a result, the special attack units are sometimes known in Japan as kamikaze tokubetsu kōgeki tai.

Before the formation of kamikaze units, pilots had made deliberate crashes as a last resort when their planes had suffered severe damage and they did not want to risk being captured, or wanted to do as much damage to the enemy as possible, since they were crashing anyway. Such situations occurred in both the Allied air forces. Axell and Kase see these suicides as "individual, impromptu decisions by men who were mentally prepared to die". In most cases, little evidence exists that such hits represented more than accidental collisions of the kind that sometimes happen in intense sea or air battles. One example of this occurred on 7 December 1941 during the attack on Pearl Harbor. First Lieutenant Fusata Iida's plane had taken a hit and had started leaking fuel when he used it to make a suicide attack on Naval Air Station Kaneohe. Before taking off, he had told his men that if his plane were to become badly damaged he would crash it into a "worthy enemy target"; the carrier battles in 1942 Midway, inflicted irreparable damage on the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service, such that they could no longer put together a large number of fleet carriers with well-trained aircrews.

Japanese planners had assumed a quick war and lacked comprehensive programmes to replace the losses of ships and sailors. The following Solomon Islands campaign and the New Guinea campaign, notably the Battles of Eastern Solomons and Santa Cruz, further decimated the IJNAS veteran aircrews, replacing their combat experience proved impossible. During 1943–1944, U. S. forces advanced toward Japan. Newer U. S.-made planes the Grumman F6F Hellcat and Vought F4U Corsair and soon outnumbered Japan's fighter planes. Tropical diseases, as well as shortages of spare parts and fuel, made operations more and more difficult for the IJNAS. By the Battle of the Philippine Sea, the Japanese had to make do with obsolete aircraft and inexperienced avia

Brás (São Paulo Metro)

Brás is a station on the Line 3-Red of São Paulo Metro and Lines 10-Turquoise, 11-Coral, 12-Sapphire of CPTM. The station is served by specific Line 13-Jade trains during peak hours, Line 7-Ruby in business days; the first station at this location was opened on February 16, 1867, under the name'Brás' by the São Paulo Railway. On November 6, 1875, the Northern Railway opened a terminal station, called the'Estação do Norte' for their northern rail lines; the name of this station was changed to "Roosevelt" on September 15, 1945, by presidential decree in homage to the American President Franklin Roosevelt, who died that year. During the 1950s the government took control of the lines operated by the SPR, creating the National Rail Company RFFSA. During the 1980s, with the construction of the East-West Line the train station was integrated with the newly inaugurated metro station, forming the integrated Brás station. In 1994, the CPTM remodeled the station. After the remodeling, the name'Roosevelt' was dropped, the station began being called Brás, as was called the original SPR station.

The following SPTrans bus lines can be accessed. Passengers may use a Bilhete Único card for transfer

Adamovićevo Naselje

Adamovićevo Naselje is an urban neighborhood of the city of Novi Sad, Serbia. The northern border of Adamovićevo Naselje is Futoška ulica, the eastern borders are Ulica Vojvode Knićanina and Ulica Kola srpskih sestara, the southern border is Bulevar cara Lazara, the western border is Bulevar Evrope. In other words, Adamovićevo Naselje is located between Liman 4 in the south, Grbavica in the east, Telep in the west, Sajmište with Provincial hospital in the north. There are two schools in Adamovićevo Naselje: Vasa Stajić elementary school, April 7 secondary school of medicine; this part of the city is composed of private houses, but in recent time, more tier buildings have been built on major artery, Cara Dušana Street. The Institute for public health of Vojvodina and University of Novi Sad Institute for poplar research are situated within the neighborhood. Adamovićevo Naselje is home to some of the city's wealthiest families, it houses business headquarters and/or private homes of the owners of "Swisslion", "Matijević" (meat industry, "Aleksandar", "Rodić MB".

In year 2006, "Subotički bulevar" was built. It is located in the place where railway tracks used to run through, on the western border of Adamovićevo Naselje. Since completion of the new boulevard, many tier buildings were built in this area, with many more being under construction, its old name was Daranjijevo Naselje. In 1927, it was named Adamovićevo Naselje after a famous Adamović family; until 1944, name Adamovićevo Naselje was used for both, present-day Adamovićevo Naselje and present-day Telep, but since 1944, Telep is considered a separate neighborhood. Seat of the local municipality "7. Juli" is located in Adamovićevo Naselje, in Miše Dimitrijevića street. There are several religious buildings in the neighborhood: Protestant theological college Christian Baptist Church and Evangelic Church Religious building of Protestant Christian Community Jehovah's Witnesses prayer hall Masjid of Islamic Religious Community Franciscan monastery of Saint Ivan Kapistran Uniate monastery Lines 2, 6, 7, 9, 11, 12, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56 and 70 of municipal transportation company JGSP Novi Sad are going through or pass by Adamovićevo naselje.

Neighborhoods of Novi Sad Jovan Mirosavljević, Brevijar ulica Novog Sada 1745-2001, Novi Sad, 2002. Zoran Rapajić, Novi Sad bez tajni, Beograd, 2002. 30 godina mesne zajednice "7. Juli" u Novom Sadu 1974-2004, Novi Sad, 2004