In biology, a population is all the organisms of the same group or species, which live in a particular geographical area, have the capability of interbreeding. The area of a sexual population is the area where inter-breeding is possible between any pair within the area, where the probability of interbreeding is greater than the probability of cross-breeding with individuals from other areas. In sociology, population refers to a collection of humans. Demography is a social science. Population in simpler terms is the number of people in a city or town, country or world. In population genetics a sex population is a set of organisms in which any pair of members can breed together; this means that they can exchange gametes to produce normally-fertile offspring, such a breeding group is known therefore as a Gamo deme. This implies that all members belong to the same species. If the Gamo deme is large, all gene alleles are uniformly distributed by the gametes within it, the Gamo deme is said to be panmictic.
Under this state, allele frequencies can be converted to genotype frequencies by expanding an appropriate quadratic equation, as shown by Sir Ronald Fisher in his establishment of quantitative genetics. This occurs in Nature: localization of gamete exchange – through dispersal limitations, preferential mating, cataclysm, or other cause – may lead to small actual Gamo demes which exchange gametes reasonably uniformly within themselves but are separated from their neighboring Gamo demes. However, there may be low frequencies of exchange with these neighbors; this may be viewed as the breaking up of a large sexual population into smaller overlapping sexual populations. This failure of panmixia leads to two important changes in overall population structure: the component Gamo demos vary in their allele frequencies when compared with each other and with the theoretical panmictic original; the overall rise in homozygosity is quantified by the inbreeding coefficient. Note that all homozygotes are increased in frequency – both the deleterious and the desirable.
The mean phenotype of the Gamo demes collection is lower than that of the panmictic original –, known as inbreeding depression. It is most important to note, that some dispersion lines will be superior to the panmictic original, while some will be about the same, some will be inferior; the probabilities of each can be estimated from those binomial equations. In plant and animal breeding, procedures have been developed which deliberately utilize the effects of dispersion, it can be shown that dispersion-assisted selection leads to the greatest genetic advance, is much more powerful than selection acting without attendant dispersion. This is so for both autogamous Gamo demes. In ecology, the population of a certain species in a certain area can be estimated using the Lincoln Index. According to the United States Census Bureau the world's population was about 7.55 billion in 2019 and that the 7 billion number was surpassed on 12 March 2012. According to a separate estimate by the United Nations, Earth’s population exceeded seven billion in October 2011, a milestone that offers unprecedented challenges and opportunities to all of humanity, according to UNFPA, the United Nations Population Fund.
According to papers published by the United States Census Bureau, the world population hit 6.5 billion on 24 February 2006. The United Nations Population Fund designated 12 October 1999 as the approximate day on which world population reached 6 billion; this was about 12 years after world population reached 5 billion in 1987, 6 years after world population reached 5.5 billion in 1993. The population of countries such as Nigeria, is not known to the nearest million, so there is a considerable margin of error in such estimates. Researcher Carl Haub calculated that a total of over 100 billion people have been born in the last 2000 years. Population growth increased as the Industrial Revolution gathered pace from 1700 onwards; the last 50 years have seen a yet more rapid increase in the rate of population growth due to medical advances and substantial increases in agricultural productivity beginning in the 1960s, made by the Green Revolution. In 2017 the United Nations Population Division projected that the world's population will reach about 9.8 billion in 2050 and 11.2 billion in 2100.
In the future, the world's population is expected to peak, after which it will decline due to economic reasons, health concerns, land exhaustion and environmental hazards. According to one report, it is likely that the world's population will stop growing before the end of the 21st century. Further, there is some likelihood that population will decline before 2100. Population has declined in the last decade or two in Eastern Europe, the Baltics and in the Commonwealth of Independent States; the population pattern of less-developed regions of the world in recent years has been marked by increasing birth rates. These followed an earlier sharp reduction in death rates; this transition from high birth and death rates to low birth
Japan National Route 4
National Route 4 is a major national highway in eastern Honshū, Japan. It has the longest main line of any highway in Japan at 743.6 km. With its extensions included it is the second longest highway in Japan 854.9 km after National Route 58, 884.4 km long with its maritime sections included. The highway connects Aomori via Utsunomiya, Kōriyama and Morioka. From Saitama Prefecture to Iwate Prefecture, it parallels the Tōhoku Expressway. At its northern terminus it links with National Route 7. Total length: 743.6 km Origin point: Chūō, Tokyo End point: Aomori Highest elevation: 458 m at Jūsanbongi Pass, Iwate Major cities on its route: Kasukabe, Utsunomiya, Kōriyama, Sendai, Hiraizumi, Ninohe, Towada and Hiranai Tokyo Chūō - Chiyoda - Taito - Arakawa - Adachi Saitama Prefecture Sōka - Koshigaya - Kasukabe - Sugito - Satte - Kuki Ibaraki Prefecture Koga Tochigi Prefecture Nogi - Oyama - Shimotsuke - Kaminokawa, Utsunomiya - Takanezawa - Sakura - Yaita - Otawara - Nasushiobara - Nasu Fukushima Prefecture Nishigo - Shirakawa - Izumizaki - Yabuki - Kagamiishi - Sukagawa - Kōriyama - Motomiya - Ōtama - Nihonmatsu - Fukushima - Date - Koori - Kunimi Miyagi Prefecture Shiroishi - Zaō - Ōgawara - Murata - Shibata - Iwanuma - Natori - Taihaku-ku, Sendai - Wakabayashi-ku, Sendai - Miyagino-ku, Sendai - Izumi-ku, Sendai - Tomiya - Taiwa - Shiroishi - Ōhira - Ōsaki - Kurihara Iwate Prefecture Ichinoseki - Hiraizumi - Ōshū - Kanegasaki - Kitakami - Hanamaki - Shiwa - Yahaba - Morioka - Takizawa - Iwate - Ichinohe - Ninohe Aomori Prefecture Sannohe - Nanbu - Gonohe - Towada - Shichinohe - Tōhoku - Noheji - Hiranai - Aomori National Route 4 was established as the Ōshū Kaidō and Nikkō Kaidō as two of the five routes of the Edo period.
It was established by Tokugawa Ieyasu for government officials traveling through the area to connect Edo with Mutsu Province and the present-day city of Shirakawa, Fukushima Prefecture, Japan. There were many roads that connected to the Ōshū Kaidō that are included in National Route 4. One such sub-route was the Sendaidō. From Sendai, the Matsumaedō connected Sendai with Hakodate, Hokkaidō. Though the Ōshū Kaidō has only 27 post stations, there were over 100 designated post stations when the subroutes are included; some sections and markers of the Ōshū Kaidō in their original state can still be found alongside National Route 4, the Hachinohe Expressway, Tōhoku Expressway. On December 4, 1952 First Class National Highway 4 was established; the route was reclassified as a General National Highway on April 1, 1965. in Tokyo Routes 1, 6, 14, 15, 17 and 20 in Saitama Prefecture National Route 298 at Sōka National Route 463 at Koshigaya National Route 16 at Kasukabe National Route 125 at Kuki in Ibaraki Prefecture Routes 125 and 354 at Koga in Tochigi Prefecture National Route 50 at Oyama National Route 352 at Shimotsuke Routes 119, 121 and 123 at Utsunomiya National Route 408 at Takanezawa National Route 293 at Sakura National Route 461 at Yaita Route 461 at Ōtawara National Route 400 at Nasushiobara in Fukushima Prefecture Routes 289 and 294 at Shirakawa National Route 118 at Sukagawa Routes 49 and 288 at Kōriyama National Route 459 at Nihonmatsu Routes 13, 114 and 115 at Fukushima National Route 399 at Date in Miyagi Prefecture Routes 113 and 457 at Shiroishi National Route 349 at Shibata Route 6 at Iwanuma National Route 286 at Taihaku-ku, Sendai Routes 45 and 48 at Miyagino-ku, Sendai Routes 47, 108 and 347 at Ōsaki National Route 398 at Kurihara in Iwate Prefecture Routes 284, 342 and 457 at Ichinoseki Routes 343 and 397 at Ōshū National Route 107 at Kitakami National Route 283 at Hanamaki Routes 46, 106, 396 and 455 at Morioka National Route 282 at Takizawa National Route 281 at Iwate in Aomori Prefecture National Route 104 at Sannohe Route 104 at Nanbu National Route 454 at Gonohe Routes 45 and 102 at Towada National Route 394 at Shichinohe National Route 279 at Noheji Routes 7 and 103 at the northern terminus in Aomori.
Edo Five Routes, the five centrally administered routes, or kaidō, that connected the capital of Japan at Edo with the outer provinces during the Edo period. Tōhoku Expressway, an expressway managed by the East Nippon Expressway Company that parallels Route 4 from Tokyo to Aomori. Media related to Route 4 at Wikimedia Commons
A middle school is an educational stage which exists in some countries, providing education between primary school and secondary school. The concept and classification of middle schools, as well as the ages covered, vary between, sometimes within, countries. In Afghanistan, middle school consists of the primary school grades 5,6, 7 and the secondary school grade 8. In Albania, middle school is included in the primary education which lasts 9 years and attendance is mandatory. In Algeria, a middle school includes 4 grades; the ciclo básico of secondary education is equivalent to middle school. Most regions of Australia do not have middle schools, as students go directly from primary school to secondary school; as an alternative to the middle school model, some secondary schools divided their grades into "junior high school" and "senior high school". Some have three levels, "junior", "intermediate", "senior". In 1996 and 1997, a national conference met to develop what became known as the National Middle Schooling Project, which aimed to develop a common Australian view of early adolescent needs guiding principles for educators appropriate strategies to foster positive adolescent learning.
The first middle school established in Australia was The Armidale School, in Armidale. Other schools have since followed this trend; the Northern Territory has introduced a three tier system featuring Middle Schools for years 7–9 and high school year 10–12. Many schools across Queensland have introduced a Middle School tier within their schools; the middle schools cover years 5 to 8. In Bangladesh, middle school is not separated like other countries. Schools are from class 1 to class 10, it means upper primary. From class 6–8 is thought as middle school. Grades 1,2,3,4 and 5 are said to be primary school while all the classes from 6 to 9 are considered high school while 10–12 is called college. There aren't middle schools in Bolivia since 1994. Students aged 11–15 attend the last years of elementary education or the first years of secondary education. In Bosnia and Herzegovina "middle school" refers to educational institutions for ages between 14 and 18, lasts 3–4 years, following elementary school.
Gymnasiums are the most prestigious type of "middle" school. In Brazil, middle school is a mandatory stage that precedes High School called "Ensino Fundamental II" consisting of grades 6 to 9, ages 11 to 14. In Canada, the terms "Middle School" and "Junior High School" are both used, depending on which grades the school caters to. Junior high schools tend to include only grades 7, 8, sometimes 9, whereas middle schools are grades 6–8 or only grades 7–8 or 6–7, varying from area to area and according to population vs. building capacity. Another common model is grades 5–8. Alberta, Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island junior high schools include only grades 7–9, with the first year of high school traditionally being grade 10. In some places students go from elementary school to secondary school, meaning the elementary school covers to the end of Grade 8. In Ontario, the term "Middle School" and "Senior Public School" are used, with the latter being used in the Old Toronto and Scarborough sections of Toronto plus in Mississauga and Kitchener-Waterloo.
In many smaller Ontario cities and in some parts of larger cities, most elementary schools serve junior kindergarten to grade 8 meaning there are no separate Middle Schools buildings, while in some cities specific schools do serve the intermediate grades but are still called "Elementary" or "Public" schools with no recognition of the grades they serve in their name. Quebec uses a grade system, different from those of the other provinces. In Quebec there is no Middle school section; the Secondary level has five grades starting after Elementary Grade 6. These are called Secondary I to Secondary V. There aren't middle schools in Chile. Students aged 11 to 16 attend the last years of educación básica or the first years of educación media. In the People's Republic of China, middle school has junior stage and senior stage; the junior stage education is the last 3 years of 9-year-compulsory education for all young citizens. Some middle schools have both stages; the admissions for most students to enroll in senior middle schools from junior stage are on the basis of the scores that they get in "Senior Middle School Entrance Exam", which are held by local governments.
Other students may bypass the exam, based on their distinctive talents, like athletics, or excellent daily performance in junior stage. Secondary education is divided into basic secondary and
Ichikai is a town located in Tochigi Prefecture, Japan. As of May 2015, the town had an estimated population of 11,664, a population density of 182 persons per km², its total area is 64.25 km². Ichikai is located in eastern Tochigi Prefecture. Tochigi Prefecture Mooka Nasukarasuyama Moshiko Motegi Haga Takanezawa Ichihane and Kokai villages were created within Haga District on April 1, 1889 with the creation of the municipalities system; the two villages merged to form Ichikai village on May 3, 1954. Ichikai was elevated to town status on January 1, 1972; the economy of Ichikai is dependent on agriculture. It is a bedroom community for nearby Utsunomiya and Haga. Ichikai has one middle school. Moka Railway – Mooka Line Tatara - Ichihana - Sasaharada Japan National Route 123 Media related to Ichikai, Tochigi at Wikimedia Commons Official Website
Sano is a city located in Tochigi Prefecture, Japan. As of May 2015, the city had an estimated population of 117,970, a population density of 331 persons per km2, its total area is 356.04 km2. The city is known for its Outlet Mall, Sano Yakuyoke Daishi Temple, its local variety of ramen. More Sano has gained international recognition for being the home of cricket in Japan. Sano is located in southwestern Tochigi Prefecture, bordered by Gunma Prefecture to the west. Tochigi Prefecture Ashikaga Kanuma Tochigi Gunma Prefecture Tatebayashi Midori Kiryū Itakura During the Edo period, Sano was a castle town and the seat of the daimyō of Sano Domain. Following the Meiji Restoration, the town of Sano was created within Aso District, Tochigi with the establishment of the municipalities system on April 1, 1889. Sano was elevated to city status on April 1, 1943 when it merged with the neighboring towns of Inubushi and Horigome and the villages of Sakai and Hatagawa; the city annexed the village of Inazuma on January 1, 1955, followed by the town of Akami on April 1, 1955.
On February 28, 2005, Sano absorbed the towns of Tanuma. Agriculture and light manufacturing are mainstays of the local economy, with production of Kanpyō, turmeric and spinach being prominent local crops; the city is a bedroom community for neighboring Utsunomiya. Sano College Sano has 28 primary schools, 11 middle schools and eight high schools. Sano has become the headquarter of the Japan Cricket Association and has hosted a number of cricket matches between international teams. On 22 March 2016, it was announced that Sano would be home to the Sano International Cricket Ground, which will become Japan's first dedicated cricketing venue built for purpose which no longer has to compete with other sports for usage. JR East – Ryōmō Line Sano Tobu Railway – Tōbu Sano Line Tajima - Sanoshi - Sano - Horigome - Yoshimizu - Tanuma - Tada - Kuzū Tōhoku Expressway – Sano-Fujioka IC, Sano PZ Kita-Kantō Expressway – Izuruhara PA, Sano-Tanuma IC Japan National Route 50 Japan National Route 293 house of Shōzō Tanaka site of Sano Castle Lancaster, United States Quzhou, friendship city since 1997 Shōzō Tanaka – politician, social activist Takuro Ishii – professional baseball player Tatsuya Ozeki – professional baseball player Shunsuke Ishikawa – professional baseball player Kyogo Kawaguchi – singer-songwriter Media related to Sano, Tochigi at Wikimedia Commons Official Website
Sakura is a city located in Tochigi Prefecture, Japan. As of May 2015, the city had an estimated population of 44,848, a population density of 357 persons per km², its total area is 125.63 km². Sakura is located in central-east Tochigi Prefecture, at the far-northern portion of the Kantō plains. Tochigi Prefecture Utsunomiya Yaita Ōtawara Nasukarasuyama Nakagawa Shioya Takanezawa The modern city of Sakura was established on March 28, 2005 with the merger of the towns of Kitsuregawa and Ujiie. Agriculture rice cultivation, is a mainstay of the local economy; the city is a bedroom community for nearby Utsunomiya. Sakura has six primary schools, two middle schools and one high school. JR East – Tōhoku Main Line Ujiie - Kamasusaka Japan National Route 4 Japan National Route 293 Kitsuregawa Castle and the Sakura City Museum of Art are located in Sakura. Media related to Sakura, Tochigi at Wikimedia Commons Official Website