Karnataka is a state in the south western region of India. It was formed on 1 November 1956, with the passage of the States Reorganisation Act. Known as the State of Mysore, it was renamed Karnataka in 1973; the state corresponds to the Carnatic region. The capital and largest city is Bangalore. Karnataka is bordered by the Arabian Sea to the west, Goa to the northwest, Maharashtra to the north, Telangana to the northeast, Andhra Pradesh to the east, Tamil Nadu to the southeast, Kerala to the south; the state covers an area of 191,976 square kilometres, or 5.83 percent of the total geographical area of India. It is the sixth largest Indian state by area. With 61,130,704 inhabitants at the 2011 census, Karnataka is the eighth largest state by population, comprising 30 districts. Kannada, one of the classical languages of India, is the most spoken and official language of the state alongside Konkani, Tulu, Telugu, Malayalam and Beary. Karnataka contains some of the only villages in India where Sanskrit is spoken.
The two main river systems of the state are the Krishna and its tributaries, the Bhima, Vedavathi and Tungabhadra in North Karnataka Sharavathi in Shivamogga and the Kaveri and its tributaries, the Hemavati, Arkavati, Lakshmana Thirtha and Kabini, in the south. Most of these rivers flow out of Karnataka eastward. Though several etymologies have been suggested for the name Karnataka, the accepted one is that Karnataka is derived from the Kannada words karu and nādu, meaning "elevated land". Karu nadu may be read as karu, meaning "black" and nadu, meaning "region", as a reference to the black cotton soil found in the Bayalu Seeme region of the state; the British used the word Carnatic, sometimes Karnatak, to describe both sides of peninsular India, south of the Krishna. With an antiquity that dates to the paleolithic, Karnataka has been home to some of the most powerful empires of ancient and medieval India; the philosophers and musical bards patronised by these empires launched socio-religious and literary movements which have endured to the present day.
Karnataka has contributed to both forms of Indian classical music, the Carnatic and Hindustani traditions. The economy of Karnataka is the third-largest state economy in India with ₹15.88 lakh crore in gross domestic product and a per capita GDP of ₹174,000. Karnataka's pre-history goes back to a paleolithic hand-axe culture evidenced by discoveries of, among other things, hand axes and cleavers in the region. Evidence of neolithic and megalithic cultures have been found in the state. Gold discovered in Harappa was found to be imported from mines in Karnataka, prompting scholars to hypothesise about contacts between ancient Karnataka and the Indus Valley Civilisation ca. 3300 BCE. Prior to the third century BCE, most of Karnataka formed part of the Nanda Empire before coming under the Mauryan empire of Emperor Ashoka. Four centuries of Satavahana rule followed; the decline of Satavahana power led to the rise of the earliest native kingdoms, the Kadambas and the Western Gangas, marking the region's emergence as an independent political entity.
The Kadamba Dynasty, founded by Mayurasharma, had its capital at Banavasi. These were the first kingdoms to use Kannada in administration, as evidenced by the Halmidi inscription and a fifth-century copper coin discovered at Banavasi; these dynasties were followed by imperial Kannada empires such as the Badami Chalukyas, the Rashtrakuta Empire of Manyakheta and the Western Chalukya Empire, which ruled over large parts of the Deccan and had their capitals in what is now Karnataka. The Western Chalukyas patronised a unique style of architecture and Kannada literature which became a precursor to the Hoysala art of the 12th century. Parts of modern-day Southern Karnataka were occupied by the Chola Empire at the turn of the 11th century; the Cholas and the Hoysalas fought over the region in the early 12th century before it came under Hoysala rule. At the turn of the first millennium, the Hoysalas gained power in the region. Literature flourished during this time, which led to the emergence of distinctive Kannada literary metres, the construction of temples and sculptures adhering to the Vesara style of architecture.
The expansion of the Hoysala Empire brought minor parts of modern Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu under its rule. In the early 14th century and Bukka Raya established the Vijayanagara empire with its capital, Hosapattana, on the banks of the Tungabhadra River in the modern Bellary district; the empire rose as a bulwark against Muslim advances into South India, which it controlled for over two centuries. In 1565, Karnataka and the rest of South India experienced a major geopolitical shift when the Vijayanagara empire fell to a confederation of Islamic sultanates in the Battle of Talikota; the Bijapur Sultanate, which had risen after the demise of the Bahmani Sultanate of Bidar, soon took control of the Deccan. The Bahmani and Bijapur rulers encouraged Urdu and Persian literature and Indo-Saracenic architecture, the Gol Gumbaz being one of the high points of this style. During the sixteenth century, Konkani Hindus migrated to Karnataka from Salcette, while during the seventeenth and eighteenth century, Goan Catholics migrated to North Canara and South Canara from Bardes, Goa, as a result of food shortages and heavy taxation imposed by the Portuguese.
In the period that followed
The Vijayanagara Empire was based in the Deccan Plateau region in South India. It was established in 1336 by his brother Bukka Raya I of Sangama Dynasty; the empire rose to prominence as a culmination of attempts by the southern powers to ward off Islamic invasions by the end of the 13th century. It lasted until 1646, although its power declined after a major military defeat in the Battle of Talikota in 1565 by the combined armies of the Deccan sultanates; the empire is named after its capital city of Vijayanagara, whose ruins surround present day Hampi, now a World Heritage Site in Karnataka, India. The writings of medieval European travelers such as Domingo Paes, Fernão Nunes, Niccolò Da Conti, the literature in local languages provide crucial information about its history. Archaeological excavations at Vijayanagara have revealed the empire's wealth; the empire's legacy includes many monuments spread over South India, the best known of, the group at Hampi. Different temple building traditions in South and Central India came together in the Vijayanagara Architecture style.
This synthesis inspired architectural innovation in Hindu temples' construction. Efficient administration and vigorous overseas trade brought new technologies such as water management systems for irrigation; the empire's patronage enabled fine arts and literature to reach new heights in Kannada, Telugu and Sanskrit, while Carnatic music evolved into its current form. The Vijayanagara Empire created an epoch in South Indian history that transcended regionalism by promoting Hinduism as a unifying factor. Karnata Rajya was another name for the Vijayanagara Empire, used in some inscriptions and literary works of the Vijayanagara times including the Sanskrit work Jambavati Kalyanam by King Krishnadevaraya and Telugu work Vasu Charitamu. Differing theories have been proposed regarding the origins of the Vijayanagara empire. Many historians propose that Harihara I and Bukka I, the founders of the empire, were Kannadigas and commanders in the army of the Hoysala Empire stationed in the Tungabhadra region to ward off Muslim invasions from the Northern India.
Others claim that they were Telugu people, first associated with the Kakatiya Kingdom, who took control of the northern parts of the Hoysala Empire during its decline. Irrespective of their origin, historians agree the founders were supported and inspired by Vidyaranya, a saint at the Sringeri monastery to fight the Muslim invasion of South India. Writings by foreign travelers during the late medieval era combined with recent excavations in the Vijayanagara principality have uncovered much-needed information about the empire's history, scientific developments and architectural innovations. Before the early 14th-century rise of the Vijayanagara Empire, the Hindu states of the Deccan – the Yadava Empire of Devagiri, the Kakatiya dynasty of Warangal, the Pandyan Empire of Madurai had been raided and attacked by Muslims from the north, by 1336 these upper Deccan region had all been defeated by armies of Sultan Alauddin Khalji and Muhammad bin Tughluq of the Delhi Sultanate. Further south in the Deccan region, a Hoysala commander, Singeya Nayaka-III declared independence after the Muslim forces of the Delhi Sultanate defeated and captured the territories of the Seuna Yadavas of Devagiri in 1294 CE.
He created the Kampili kingdom. Kampili existed near Gulbarga and Tungabhadra river in northeastern parts of the present-day Karnataka state, it ended after a defeat by the armies of Delhi Sultanate. The triumphant army led by Malik Zada sent the news of its victory, over Kampili kingdom, to Muhammad bin Tughluq in Delhi by sending a straw-stuffed severed head of the dead Hindu king. Within Kampili, on the day of certain defeat, the populace committed a jauhar in 1327/28 CE. Eight years from the ruins of the Kampili kingdom emerged the Vijayanagara Kingdom in 1336 CE. In the first two decades after the founding of the empire, Harihara I gained control over most of the area south of the Tungabhadra river and earned the title of Purvapaschima Samudradhishavara. By 1374 Bukka Raya I, successor to Harihara I, had defeated the chiefdom of Arcot, the Reddys of Kondavidu, the Sultan of Madurai and had gained control over Goa in the west and the Tungabhadra-Krishna River doab in the north; the original capital was in the principality of Anegondi on the northern banks of the Tungabhadra River in today's Karnataka.
It was moved to nearby Vijayanagara on the river's southern banks during the reign of Bukka Raya I, because it was easier to defend against the Muslim armies persistently attacking it from the northern lands. With the Vijayanagara Kingdom now imperial in stature, Harihara II, the second son of Bukka Raya I, further consolidated the kingdom beyond the Krishna River and brought the whole of South India under the Vijayanagara umbrella; the next ruler, Deva Raya I, emerged successful against the Gajapatis of Odisha and undertook important works of fortification and irrigation. Italian traveler Niccolo de Conti wrote of him as the most powerful ruler of India. Deva Raya II succeeded to the throne in 1424 and was the most capable of the Sangama Dynasty rulers, he quelled rebelling feudal lords as well as the Zamorin of Quilon in the south. He became overlord of the kings of Burma at Pegu and Tanasserim. Firuz Bahmani of Bahmani Sultanate entered into a treaty with Deva Raya I of Vijayanagara in 1407 that required the latter to pay Bahmani an annual trib
Udupi is a district in the Indian state of Karnataka. It is the administrative headquarters of Udupi District, it is one of the fastest growing cities in Karnataka & the city has got a modern touch due to its educational suburb Manipal, a part of the city. Udupi is one of the top tourist attractions in Karnataka, it is notable for the Krishna Temple. It lends its name to the popular Udupi cuisine, it is known as Lord Parashurama Kshetra, is famous for Kanakana Kindi. A centre of pilgrimage, Udupi is known as Rajata Shivalli, it is known as the temple city. Udupi is situated about 55 km north of the educational, commercial & industrial hub Mangalore and about 422 km west of state capital Bangalore by road. Udupi is one of the districts of Karnataka in India. There are 233 villages and 21 towns in Udupi district; as per the Census India 2011, Udupi district has 2,53,078 households, population of 11,77,361 of which 5,62,131 are males and 6,15,230 are females. The population of children between age 0-6 is 1,03,160, 8.76% of the total population.
The sex-ratio of Udupi district is around 1094 compared to 973, average of Karnataka state. The literacy rate of Udupi district is 78.69% out of which 82.85% males are literate and 74.89% females are literate. The total area of Udupi is 3,582 sq.km with a population density of 329 per sq.km. Out of the total population, 71.63% of the population lives in the Urban area and 28.37% lives in Rural area. There are 4.49 % Scheduled Tribe of the total population in Udupi district. Sthanika Brahmins, Shivalli Brahmins, Goud Saraswat Brahmins, Rajapur Saraswat Brahmins, Billavas, Mangalorean Catholics, Beary, Padmashalis, Ramakshatriyas are some prominent communities in Udupi. Udupi, which had a Town Municipal Council now has a City Municipal Council which came into existence in 1995. Areas around Udupi, such as Manipal, Malpe and Santhekatte were merged to form the City Municipal Council. Udupi was carved out as a separate district from the erstwhile Dakshina Kannada district on 25 August 1997. Udupi and Karkala were bifurcated from the Dakshina Kannada District and the Udupi District was formed.
Dinakar Babu and Sheela K Shetty of the Bharatiya Janata Party are the current president and vice-president of the Udupi Zilla Panchayat after the election held at the Zilla Panchayat on 27 April 2016. In February 2018, the district was split to into 3 more taluks, with Byndoor being carved out of Kundapur taluk and the Udupi taluk being split into three parts. Along with the initial Udupi taluk and Brahmavar were created. Tulu and Kannada are the most spoken languages in Udupi. Other spoken languages include Konkani, English and Kundagannada. Muslims in Udupi speak Urdu and Beary. Udupi has an elevation of 27 m above mean sea level; the climate in Udupi is hot in pleasant in winter. During summers the temperature reaches up to 38 °C and in winters it is between 32 °C and 20 °C; the monsoon period is from June to September, with rainfall averaging more than 4000 mm every year and heavy winds. Bhuta Kola, Aati kalenja and Nagaradhane are some cultural traditions of Udupi; the residents celebrate festivals such as Makara Sankranti, Krishna Janmashtami, Deepavali, Eid al-Adha, Eid al-Fitr and Christmas.
Folk arts like Yakshagana are popular. Rathabeedhi Geleyaru and Kalavrinda are local non-profit organisations, founded to encourage creative pursuits those that keep alive the traditions of the region, its primary focus has been historical dramas. The term Udupi is synonymous with vegetarian food now found all over the world; the origin of this cuisine is linked to Krishna Matha. Lord Krishna is offered food of different varieties every day, there are certain restrictions on ingredients during Chaturmasa; these restrictions coupled with the requirement of variety led to innovation in dishes incorporating seasonal and locally available materials. This cuisine was developed by Shivalli Madhwa Brahmins who cooked food for Lord Krishna, at Krishna Matha in Udupi, the food is provided free of cost. Restaurants specialised in Udupi cuisine can be seen in most metropolitan and large cities around the length and breadth of India. Although popular for its vegetarian cuisine, Udupi has its fair share of non-vegetarian dishes that are similar to Tuluva or Mangalorean cuisine.
Some of these include Kori Roti, Kori Pulimunchi, Chicken Sukka, more. Udupi is becoming a major town in Karnataka. Udupi is the birthplace of the Syndicate Bank, Corporation Bank and Harsha Retail, the leading retailer of coastal Karnataka. Udupi's economy consists of agriculture and fishing. Small-scale industries like the cashew industry, other food industries and milk cooperatives are the most prominent. Udupi is making its mark in the real estate industry influenced by its neighboring spearhead Mangalore; the Karnataka government had signed a memorandum of understanding with the Cogentrix Light and Power Industry to set up a thermal power plant in the district at Nandikur. However, because of stiff opposition from citizens and environmentalist groups, the project has been temporarily suspended. An attempt by the Nagarjuna Power Corporation to set up a similar plant at nearby Padubidri met strong opposition. Now, the power plant has been set up, generating 1,200 MW of power under the name of Udupi Power Corporation Limited, a subsidiary of Lanco Infra, an Andhra Pradesh-based infrastruc
Navabrundaavana is located at Anegundi, near Hampi, India. It contains the Brundaavanas of nine Hindu Madhva saints, who belong to the Uttaradi Mutt, Sri Raghavendra mutt, Sri Vyasaraja mutt and the Sri SriPadaraja mutt and Other Various Prominent Madhwa Mutts, it is located on an island in the Tungabhadra River. The nine saints are Shree Padmanabha Tirtha, direct disciple of Jagadguru Shri Madhvacharya Shree Kavindra Teertharu Shree Vageesha Teertharu Shree Raghuvarya Teertharu Shree Vyaasa Teertharu or Vyasaraajaru Shree Sudheendhra Teertharu Shree Srinivaasa Teertharu Shree Raama Teertharu Shree Govinda VodeyaruThere are shrines to Lord Ranganaatha and Lord Hanuman inside the premises; this idol of Hanuman installed here by Sri Vyasaraja is indeed unique. It depicts the three avatars - Hanuma, Madhva in one form; the face is like Hanuman, the arms and shoulders well - rounded and muscular with the Gadhayudha symbolises Bheema, the avatar of Hanuman in the next yuga and the manuscripts in his hand symbolises Madhvacharya.
Nava Brindavana is a small island in the Tungabhadra river near Vijayanagar. Hampi is in Bellary district and it is approachable from Bangalore by rail or road; the nearest airport is Bellary. The nearest train stop is Bellary. There are direct buses from Bangalore and other places in Karnataka to Hospet and Hampi apart from Bellary; this is one of the most holy spots for Madhwas. The Brindavana of Vyasa Theerta is at the centre while the Brindavana of other eight saints are in a rough circle. There is a yellow line drawn around the periphery of the Brindavanas. Do not cross this line. You have to go in Theppa from Hampi to visit Nava Brindavana, it is located east of Anegundi, the earlier capital of the Vijayanagar dynasty before it was shifted to Hampi. You can catch a ferry either from Hampi side. There are shrines dedicated to Hanuman here. Poojas commence around 10-30 a.m. Devotees and visitors are advised not to do pradakshina of the Brindavanas in wet clothes. Try to time your visit in the morning.
It is on this island that Vyasa Raja in his earlier avatar as Prahalada had meditated to get rid of his dosha of getting his father, killed by Lord Narasimha. Some of the saints who have visited Nava Brindavana are Raghavendra Swamy and Raghottama Theertha among others and Purandara Dasa and Kanaka Dasa, he is the first Madhwa saint to enter Brindavana at Nava Brindavana. Padmanabha Theertha was the first disciple of the Madhwacharya, he ascended the Dwaitha throne after Madhwacharya. His original name was Shobana Bhatta, he was a well-known logician of his times and he lost a marathon debate to Madhwacharya after which he converted to Dwaitaism. He was regarded by the fifth head of the Dwaitha Samrajya. Jayatirtha occupies a special place in the history of Dvaita Literature; the lucidity and measured style of his writing coupled with his keen dialectical ability has allowed his works to percolate through time, reinforced by the commentaries of philosophers like Vyasatirtha, Raghavendra Tirtha and Vadiraja Tirtha.
Dasgupta remarks "Jayatirtha and Vyasatirtha present the highest dialectical skill in Indian thought". His masterpiece, Nyaya Sudha or Nectar of Logic, deals with refuting an encyclopedic range of philosophies that were in vogue at the time. Pereira notes "His monumental Nectar of Logic is one of the pinnacles of Indic theological achievement". There have been 22 works accredited to Jayatirtha, 18 of which are commentaries on the works of Madhvacharya. Nyaya Sudha, a commentary on Madhva's Anu Vyakhyana, is considered to be his magnum opus. Running up to 24,000 verses, it discusses and critiques a variety of philosophers and their philosophies, ranging from the orthodox schools of Hinduism like Mimamsa and Nyaya to heterodox schools like Buddhism and Jainism, arguing in favour of Dvaita. Apart from commentaries, he has authored 4 original treatises of which Pramana Paddhati and Vadavali stand apart. Pramana Paddhati is a short monograph on the epistemology of Dvaita dealing with the pramanas in question, theory of truth and error and validity of knowledge while Vadavali deals with the nature of reality and illusion.
Historical evidence and Vadiraja Tirtha's Tirthaprabanda point to Nava Brindavana as the actual location. The second Brindavana here is that of Kavindra Theertha, he is believed to be the brother of the founder of Vyasaraja Matha. He was earlier known as Vasudeva Shastry; the first bifurcation of the Padmanabha Theertha paramapara or Peetha took place when Vidyadhiraja handed over the reins to Kavindra Theertha, Vidhyadhiraja Theertha had appointed Rajendra Theertha as his successor. Vidhyadhiraja fell ill and he could not get in touch with Rajendra Theertha as he was away on Sanchara, he appointed Kavindra Theertha as the successor and passed away. When Rajendra Theertha came back he found what had happened and he travelled further south towards Mysore and founded the Vyasa Raja Matha. Kavindra Theertha is supposed to have entered Brindavana in 1398. Kavindra teertha continued to reign in the Peetha of the established Matha/Peetha by Shri Madhvacharya through Shri Padmanabha Tirtha, known as Shri Uttaradi Matha which comes in the same lineage as that of Shri Madhvacharya, Padmanabha tirtha, Jaya Tirtha, Kaveendra teertha & Vageesha teertha and so on....
His Aradhane Thithi is Chaitra Shudha Navami. He was one of the greatest scholars of his time, he was the third Madhwa saint to enter Brindavana at
Kannada is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Kannada people in India in the state of Karnataka, by significant linguistic minorities in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Telangana and abroad. The language has 43.7 million native speakers, who are called Kannadigas. Kannada is spoken as a second and third language by over 12.9 million non-Kannada speakers living in Karnataka, which adds up to 56.6 million speakers. It is one of the scheduled languages of India and the official and administrative language of the state of Karnataka; the Kannada language is written using the Kannada script, which evolved from the 5th-century Kadamba script. Kannada is attested epigraphically for about one and a half millennia, literary Old Kannada flourished in the 6th-century Ganga dynasty and during the 9th-century Rashtrakuta Dynasty. Kannada has an unbroken literary history of over a thousand years. Kannada literature has been presented with 8 Jnanapith awards, the most for any Dravidian language and the second highest for any Indian language.
Based on the recommendations of the Committee of Linguistic Experts, appointed by the ministry of culture, the government of India designated Kannada a classical language of India. In July 2011, a center for the study of classical Kannada was established as part of the Central Institute of Indian Languages at Mysore to facilitate research related to the language. Kannada is a Southern Dravidian language, according to Dravidian scholar Sanford B. Steever, its history can be conventionally divided into three periods: Old Kannada from 450–1200 CE, Middle Kannada from 1200–1700, Modern Kannada from 1700 to the present. Kannada is influenced to an appreciable extent by Sanskrit. Influences of other languages such as Prakrit and Pali can be found in the Kannada language; the scholar Iravatham Mahadevan indicated that Kannada was a language of rich oral tradition earlier than the 3rd century BCE, based on the native Kannada words found in Prakrit inscriptions of that period, Kannada must have been spoken by a widespread and stable population.
The scholar K. V. Narayana claims that many tribal languages which are now designated as Kannada dialects could be nearer to the earlier form of the language, with lesser influence from other languages; the sources of influence on literary Kannada grammar appear to be three-fold: Pāṇini's grammar, non-Paninian schools of Sanskrit grammar Katantra and Sakatayana schools, Prakrit grammar. Literary Prakrit seems to have prevailed in Karnataka since ancient times; the vernacular Prakrit speaking people may have come into contact with Kannada speakers, thus influencing their language before Kannada was used for administrative or liturgical purposes. Kannada phonetics, vocabulary and syntax show significant influence from these languages; some naturalised words of Prakrit origin in Kannada are: baṇṇa derived from vaṇṇa, hunnime from puṇṇivā. Examples of naturalized Sanskrit words in Kannada are: varṇa, arasu from rajan, paurṇimā, rāya from rāja. Like the other Dravidian languages Kannada has borrowed words such as dina, surya, nimiṣa and anna.
Purava HaleGannada: This Kannada term translated means "Previous form of Old Kannada" was the language of Banavasi in the early Common Era, the Satavahana, Chutu Satakarni and Kadamba periods and thus has a history of over 2500 years. The Ashoka rock edict found at Brahmagiri has been suggested to contain words in identifiable Kannada. According to Jain tradition, the daughter of Rishabhadeva, the first Tirthankara of Jainism, invented 18 alphabets, including Kannada, which points to the antiquity of the language. Supporting this tradition, an inscription of about the 9th century CE, containing specimens of different alphabets Dravidian, was discovered in a Jain temple in the Deogarh fort. In some 3rd–1st century BCE Tamil inscriptions, words of Kannada influence such as'nalliyooraa','kavuDi' and posil' have been introduced; the use of the vowel a' as an adjective is not prevalent in Tamil but its usage is available in Kannada. Kannada words such as'gouDi-gavuDi' transform into Tamil's kavuDi' for lack of the usage of Ghosha svana in Tamil.
Hence the Kannada word'gavuDi' becomes'kavuDi' in Tamil.'Posil' was introduced into Tamil from Kannada and colloquial Tamil uses this word as'Vaayil'. In a 1st-century CE Tamil inscription, there is a personal reference to ayjayya', a word of Kannada origin. In a 3rd-century CE Tamil inscription there is usage of'oppanappa vIran'. Here the honorific'appa' to a person's name is an influence from Kannada. Another word of Kannada origin is found in a 4th-century CE Tamil inscription. S. Settar studied the'sittanvAsal' inscription of first century CE as the inscriptions at'tirupparamkunram','adakala' and'neDanUpatti'; the inscriptions were studied in detail by Iravatham Mahadevan also. Mahadevan argues that the words'erumi','kavuDi','poshil' and'tAyiyar' have their origin in Kannada because Tamil cognates are not available. Settar adds the words'nADu' and'iLayar' to this list. Mahadevan feels that some grammatical categories found in these inscriptions are unique to Kannada rather than Tamil. Both these scholars attribute these influences to the movements and spread of Jainas in these regions.
These inscriptions belong to the period between the first century BCE and fourth century CE. These are some examples that are proof of the early usage of a few Kannada origin words in early Tamil inscriptions before the common era and in the
Purandara Dāsa was a Haridasa, great devotee of Lord Krishna and a saint. He was a disciple of the celebrated Madhwa philosopher-saint Vyasatirtha, a contemporary of yet another great Haridasa, Kanakadasa, his Guru, Vyasatirtha glorified Purandara Dasa in a song thus: Dāsarendare purandara dāsarayya. He was a composer and one of the chief founding-proponents of the South Indian classical Music. In honor of his significant and legendary contributions to Carnatic Music, he is referred to as the Pitamaha of Carnatic Music, he is respected as an avatara of the great sage Narada. Purandara Dasa was a wealthy diamond merchant from Karnataka, who gave away all his material riches to become a Haridasa, a devotional singer who made the difficult Sanskrit tenets of Srimad Bhagavatam available to everyone in simple and melodious songs, is one of the most important music scholars of medieval India, he formulated the basic lessons of teaching Carnatic music by structuring graded exercises known as Svaravalis and Alankaras, at the same time, he introduced the Raga Mayamalavagowla as the first scale to be learnt by beginners in the field – a practice, being followed till date.
He composed Gitas for novice students. Purandara Dasa is noted for composing Dasa Sahithya, as a Bhakti movement vocalist, a music scholar, his practice was emulated by Kanakadasa. Purandara Dasa's Carnatic music compositions are in Kannada, while some are in Sanskrit, he signed his compositions with the ankita "Purandara Vittala". Inscriptional evidence suggests Purandara Dasa was born to a diamond merchant in Deshastha Madhwa Brahmin family in 1484 CE in Kshemapura, near Tirthahalli, Shivamogga district, Karnataka state. According to other opinions, his native town was Purandaraghatta in Karnataka, or Purandaragad near Pune, but the latter is considered a historical mistake – connecting his "pen name" with a location that served as a military encampment in the 15th and 16th century; the only son of Varadappa Nayaka, a wealthy merchant, Leelavati, he was named Srinivasa Nayaka, after the Lord of the Seven Hills. He received a good education in accordance with the family traditions and acquired proficiency in Kannada and sacred music.
At the age of 16 was he was married to one Saraswati Bai, held by tradition to have been a pious young girl. He lost his parents at age 20, pawning, he became known as Navakoti Narayana. Popular legend narrates a miraculous incident in Srinivasa Nayaka's life, owing to which, he was led to devote himself to the practice and inculcation of Bhakti towards Lord Krishna through musical compositions; as a natural, inescapable consequence of such a transforming event, ubiquitous in the lives of several saints throughout the ages, he is believed to have relinquished his former greedy and miserly self of a wealthy, having realized the worthlessness of attachment towards worldly possessions: The Lord, in a bid to cure Srinivasa of his tenacious materialistic delusion and attachment, thereby claim his devotion to Himself, approached Srinivasa in the guise of a poor man, with a piteous plea for money. Having been summarily rejected and turned out, the'poor man' surreptitiously repeated his plea before Srinivasa's wife.
The shrewd Srinavasa, privy to his wife's openhandedness identified the nose ring as his wife's and hurried home. Realizing that Srinivasa had grown wise to her secret donation, the wife decided to end her life with poison. Having completed her prayers to the Lord before her attempt, she was shocked to see a nose ring inside the poison cup – identical to the one she had just given away. Incredulous and rapturous, she recounted the entire episode to her husband, bewildered and lost. Meanwhile, a search for the'poor man' was of no avail. At that propitious moment, Srinivasa's old self – convinced of the inscrutable ways of the Lord, having witnessed the unfailing Grace that saved his pious wife, bewildered at the Power that could, in a moment, produce a gold ornament by mere Will – shook off that beginningless, persistent veil in the form of'I' and'mine', which masks the men's vision of the Divine. At 30 years of age, he gave away all his wealth in charity, together with his family, abandoned his house to lead the life of a mendicant – living on alms and singing the glories of the Lord.
In his first song composition, he laments his wasted life of indulgence. It begins with the words'Ana lae kara' in the Shuddha Saveri raga, set to Triputa tala. In the course of his wandering he met the holy sage Vyasatirtha, one of the chief exponents of Madhwa philosophy and the rajaguru of Krishnadevaraya, the emperor of Vijayanagara kingdom. According to Prof. Sambamoorthy, Srinivasa had his formal initiation at the hands of Vyasatirtha in 1525 when he was about 40 years old, with the name Purandara Dasa bestowed on him. Pura
Vijaya Dasa was a prominent saint from the Haridasa tradition of Karnataka, India in the 18th century, a scholar of the Dvaita philosophical tradition. Along with contemporary haridasa saints such as Gopala Dasa, Helevankatte Giriamma, Jagannatha Dasa and Prasanna Venkata Dasa, he propagated the virtues of the philosophy of Madhwacharya across South India through devotional songs called devaranama written in the Kannada language. An integral part of Kannada Vaishnava devotional literature, these compositions in praise of the Hindu god Vishnu are called dasara padagalu; these compositions can be more categorized as keertanas, suladis,ugabhogas, padas. They were easy to sing to the accompaniment of a musical instrument and dealt with bhakti and the virtues of a pious life. Vijaya Dasa was born in a poor Brahmin family in Cheekalaparvi in Manvi taluk of Raichur district, Karnataka state, his parents were Kusamma. He studied Sanskrit in Varanasi for four years; when his marriage was troubled by poverty, he went back to Varanasi where he became a scholar.
One night, he had a dream in which the 16th century Carnatic composer and wandering saint Purandara Dasa initiated him into the Haridasa tradition and gave him the nom de plume Vijaya Vittala. From that day he was called Vijaya DasaRu, dedicated his life to spreading Dvaita teachings, his 25,000 extant compositions earned him the title Dasa Shrestha. His compositions which use many Sanskrit words come under the category of Kalasha and Urasu creations and are considered an important component of Kannada literature, his purported miracles include calming the Ganges, entering it without getting wet, preventing a woman from committing suicide, resurrecting his son, making an uneducated man speak difficult Sanskrit proficiently. He is among the group credited with starting the practice of singing devotional songs while walking up the Tirumala hills in modern Andhra Pradesh; these hills are the location of the Tirumala Venkateswara Temple, an important pilgrim locations for Vaishnava Hindus. Sri Vijayadasara Seva Trust.
"Sri Vijaya Dasara Seva Trust". Official Chippagiri Sri Vijayadasara Seva Trust. Retrieved 2014-04-14. Rao, Madhusudana. "Sri Vijaya Dasaru". Haridasas of Karnataka. Retrieved 2007-06-14. R. Narasimhacharya, History of Kannada Literature, 1988, Asian Educational Services, New Delhi, Madras,1988 ISBN 81-206-0303-6. Hrishikesh. "Sri Vijaya Dasaru". Vijaya Dasaru Life. Retrieved 2011-03-07