West Virginia is a state located in the Appalachian region in the Southern United States, considered to be a part of the Middle Atlantic States. It is bordered by Pennsylvania to the north, Maryland to the east and northeast, Virginia to the southeast, Kentucky to the southwest, Ohio to the northwest. West Virginia is the 41st largest state by area, is ranked 38th in population; the capital and largest city is Charleston. West Virginia became a state following the Wheeling Conventions of 1861, after the American Civil War had begun. Delegates from some Unionist counties of northwestern Virginia decided to break away from Virginia, although they included many secessionist counties in the new state. West Virginia was admitted to the Union on June 20, 1863, was a key border state during the war. West Virginia was the only state to form by separating from a Confederate state, the first to separate from any state since Maine separated from Massachusetts, was one of two states admitted to the Union during the American Civil War.
While a portion of its residents held slaves, most of the residents were yeomen farmers, the delegates provided for gradual abolition of slavery in the new state Constitution. The Census Bureau and the Association of American Geographers classify West Virginia as part of the Southern United States; however the Bureau of Labor Statistics classifies West Virginia as a part of the Mid-Atlantic. The northern panhandle extends adjacent to Pennsylvania and Ohio, with the West Virginia cities of Wheeling and Weirton just across the border from the Pittsburgh metropolitan area, while Bluefield is less than 70 miles from North Carolina. Huntington in the southwest is close to the states of Ohio and Kentucky, while Martinsburg and Harpers Ferry in the Eastern Panhandle region are considered part of the Washington metropolitan area, in between the states of Maryland and Virginia; the unique position of West Virginia means that it is included in several geographical regions, including the Mid-Atlantic, the Upland South, the Southeastern United States.
It is the only state, within the area served by the Appalachian Regional Commission. The state is noted for its mountains and rolling hills, its significant logging and coal mining industries, its political and labor history, it is known for a wide range of outdoor recreational opportunities, including skiing, whitewater rafting, hiking, mountain biking, rock climbing, hunting. Many ancient man-made earthen mounds from various prehistoric mound builder cultures survive in the areas of present-day Moundsville, South Charleston, Romney; the artifacts uncovered in these give evidence of village societies. They had a tribal trade system culture. In the 1670s during the Beaver Wars, the powerful Iroquois, five allied nations based in present-day New York and Pennsylvania, drove out other American Indian tribes from the region in order to reserve the upper Ohio Valley as a hunting ground. Siouan language tribes, such as the Moneton, had been recorded in the area. A century the area now identified as West Virginia was contested territory among Anglo-Americans as well, with the colonies of Pennsylvania and Virginia claiming territorial rights under their colonial charters to this area before the American Revolutionary War.
Some speculative land companies, such as the Vandalia Company, the Ohio Company and Indiana Company, tried to legitimize their claims to land in parts of West Virginia and present day Kentucky, but failed. This rivalry resulted in some settlers petitioning the Continental Congress to create a new territory called Westsylvania. With the federal settlement of the Pennsylvania and Virginia border dispute, creating Kentucky County, Kentuckians "were satisfied, the inhabitants of a large part of West Virginia were grateful."The Crown considered the area of West Virginia to be part of the British Virginia Colony from 1607 to 1776. The United States considered this area to be the western part of the state of Virginia from 1776 to 1863, before the formation of West Virginia, its residents were discontented for years with their position in Virginia, as the government was dominated by the planter elite of the Tidewater and Piedmont areas. The legislature had electoral malapportionment, based on the counting of slaves toward regional populations, the western white residents were underrepresented in the state legislature.
More subsistence and yeoman farmers lived in the west and they were less supportive of slavery, although many counties were divided on their support. The residents of this area became more divided after the planter elite of eastern Virginia voted to secede from the Union during the Civil War. Residents of the western and northern counties set up a separate government under Francis Pierpont in 1861, which they called the Restored Government. Most voted to separate from Virginia, the new state was admitted to the Union in 1863. In 1864 a state constitutional convention drafted a constitution, ratified by the legislature without putting it to popular vote. West Virginia abolished slavery by a gradual process and temporarily disenfranchised men who had held Confederate office or fought for the Confederacy. West Virginia's history has been profoundly affected by its mountainous terrain and vast river valleys, rich natural resources; these were all factors driving its economy and the lifestyles of its residents, who tended to live in many small isolated communities in the mountain valleys.
A 2010 analysis of
West Virginia's 2nd congressional district
West Virginia's 2nd congressional district stretches from the Ohio River border with Ohio to the Potomac River border with Maryland and the border with Virginia. It includes the capital city of Charleston and the growing residential communities of West Virginia's Eastern Panhandle and Potomac Highlands regions connected by a narrow strip of nearly unpopulated counties, it has been described as 20 miles wide and 300 miles long. The district is represented by Alex Mooney, a Republican. West Virginia had four Congressional seats from 1973 to 1993. Much of the western portion of the current 2nd District had been in the 3rd District, based in Charleston; the eastern portion of the district had been in the 2nd District, anchored in Martinsburg and Morgantown for all but a few years since statehood. For all but two years from 1949 to 1993, it was held by the Democratic Staggers family--Harley O. Staggers from 1949 to 1981 and Harley "Buckey" Staggers, Jr. from 1983 to 1993. When West Virginia lost a seat following the 1990 Census, the state legislature divided Staggers's district among the remaining three districts.
Much of Staggers's old territory was merged with the 3rd District, represented by five-term Democrat Bob Wise and renumbered the 2nd. However, Staggers's home in Mineral County wound up in the 1st District, where he was routed in the Democratic primary by Alan Mollohan. Wise represented the new district until 2000, when he won West Virginia's governorship. Following the 2010 Census, Mason County was transferred to the 3rd District, which changed the character of the district only slightly; this change took effect for the 2012 election. The district is expensive to campaign in, because six counties on the district's eastern fringe are in the expensive Washington, D. C. television market. The two main parts and the Eastern Panhandle, have little in common and little interaction; the district is more conservative and prosperous than the rest of the state. It shares West Virginia's tendency to give congressmen long tenures in Washington; the 2000 election that resulted in Capito's victory marked the first open-seat race in the district since 1945.
The old 2nd District had only five congressmen from 1933 until its elimination in 1993. George W. Bush carried the district twice in 2000 with 54% of the vote and in 2004 with 57% of the vote. John McCain won the district in 2008 with 54.63% of the vote while Barack Obama received 43.77%. The district contains much of the territory, represented by longtime Senator Robert Byrd when he served in the House from 1953 to 1959; the Second District as formed in 1863 included Taylor, Monongalia, Tucker, Upshur, Pocahontas, Pendleton, Hampshire and Morgan counties. It was the successor of Virginia's 10th congressional district; the district was unchanged for 1882. In 1902, the district was changed to Monongalia, Tucker, Barbour, Randolph, Grant, Mineral, Morgan and Jefferson counties; the district was unchanged for 1916. Taylor was removed for 1934; the district was again unchanged for 1954. In 1962 Upshur, Webster and Greenbrier counties were added. In 1972, Monroe and Fayette were added. In 1982, Barbour was added.
1992 first saw the district as constituted, consisting of Berkeley, Calhoun, Glimer, Hardy, Jefferson, Lewis, Morgan, Pendleton, Randolph, Roane and Wirt counties. In 2002, Gilmer and Nicholas were removed and for the election cycle beginning in 2012, Mason was removed. West Virginia's congressional districts List of United States congressional districts Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present
The Kanawha River is a tributary of the Ohio River 97 mi long, in the U. S. state of West Virginia. The largest inland waterway in West Virginia, its valley has been a significant industrial region of the state since early in the 19th century, it is formed at the town of Gauley Bridge in northwestern Fayette County 35 mi SE of Charleston, by the confluence of the New and Gauley rivers. It flows northwest, in a winding course on the unglaciated Allegheny Plateau, through Fayette, Kanawha and Mason counties, past the cities of Charleston and St. Albans, numerous smaller communities, it joins the Ohio at Point Pleasant. Paleo-Indians, the earliest indigenous peoples, lived in the valley and the heights by 10,000 BC as evidenced by archaeological artifacts such as Clovis points. A succession of prehistoric cultures developed, with the Adena culture beginning the construction of numerous skilled earthwork mounds and enclosures more than 2000 years ago; some of the villages of the Fort Ancient culture survived into the times of European contact.
The area was a place of competition among historical American Indian nations. Invading from their base in present-day New York, the Iroquois drove out or conquered Fort Ancient culture peoples, as well as such tribes as the Huron and Conoy. By right of conquest, the Iroquois and Shawnee reserved the area as a hunting ground, they resisted European-American settlement during the colonial years. The river valley contains significant deposits of coal and natural gas. In colonial times, the wildly fluctuating level of the river prevented its use for transportation; the removal of boulders and snags on the lower river in the 1840s allowed navigation, extended upriver after the construction of locks and dams starting in 1875. The river is now navigable to Deepwater, an unincorporated community about 20 miles upriver from Charleston. A thriving chemical industry along its banks provides a significant part of the local economy. In addition to the New and Gauley River headwaters, the Kanawha is joined at Charleston by the Elk River, at St. Albans by the Coal River, at Poca by the Pocatalico River.
"Kanawha" derives from the region's Iroquoian dialects meaning "water way" or "canoe way" implying the metaphor, "transport way", in the local language. The Glottal consonant of the "ih" dropped out as homesteaders arrive; the river has had historical alternate names, alternate spellings and misspellings including Wood's River for Colonel Abraham Wood, an English explorer from Virginia, the first person known to have explored the river in the mid 17th century. Archaeological artifacts, such as Clovis points and projectiles, indicate prehistoric indigenous peoples living in the area from the 12,500 BC era. Peoples of cultures continued to live along the valley and heights; those of the Adena culture built at least 50 earthwork mounds and 10 enclosures in the area between Charleston and Dunbar, as identified by an 1882 to 1884 survey by the Bureau of Ethnology. Three of their mounds survive in the valley, including Criel Mound at present-day South Charleston, West Virginia. Evidence has been found of the Fort Ancient culture peoples, who had villages that survived to the time of European contact, such as Buffalo and Marmet.
They were driven out by Iroquois from present-day New York. According to French missionary reports, by the late 16th century, several thousand Huron of the Great Lakes region, lived in central West Virginia, they were exterminated and their remnant driven out in the 17th century by the Iroquois' invading from western present-day New York. Other accounts note that the tribe known as Conois, Canawesee, or Kanawha were conquered or driven out by the large Seneca tribe, one of the Iroquois Confederacy, as the Seneca boasted to Virginia colonial officials in 1744; the Iroquois and other tribes, such as the Shawnee and Delaware, maintained central West Virginia as a hunting ground. It was unpopulated when the English and Europeans began to move into the area; the first white person to travel through Virginia all the way to the Ohio River was Matthew Arbuckle, Sr. who traversed the length of the Kanawha River valley arriving at Point Pleasant around 1764. In April 1774, Captain Hanson was one of an expedition: "18th.
We surveyed 2,000 acres of Land for Col. Washington, bordered by Coal River & the Canawagh..." This area is the lower area of West Virginia. After the Treaty of Fort Stanwix, "The Kanawhas had gone from the upper tributaries of the river which bears their name, to join their kinsmen, the Iroquois in New York. Quoting Virgil A. Lewis, corresponding member of the Virginia Historical Society; the river's name changes to the Kanawha River at the Kanawha Falls. The Treaty of Big Tree between the Seneca nation and the United States established ten reservations; this formal treaty was signed on September 15, 1797. Lewis was granted a large tract of land near the mouth of the Great Kanawha River in the late 18th century; the Little Kanawha and the Great Kanawha rivers, the two largest in the state, were named for the American Indian tribe that lived in the area prior to European settlement in the 18th century. Under pressure from the Iroquois, most of the Conoy/Kanawha had migrated to present-day Virginia by 1634, where they had se
Roane County, West Virginia
Roane County is a county located in the U. S. state of West Virginia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 14,926, its county seat is Spencer. The county is named for Spencer Roane. Roane County was created by an act of the Virginia General Assembly on March 11, 1856, it was named for the jurist Spencer Roane of Virginia, born in Essex County April 4, 1762. The county's seat Spencer was named for judge Roane. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 484 square miles, of which 484 square miles is land and 0.2 square miles is water. Interstate 79 U. S. Highway 33 U. S. Highway 119 West Virginia Route 14 West Virginia Route 36 Wirt County Calhoun County Clay County Kanawha County Jackson County As of the census of 2000, there were 15,446 people, 6,161 households, 4,479 families residing in the county; the population density was 32 people per square mile. There were 7,360 housing units at an average density of 15 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 98.56% White, 0.22% Black or African American, 0.21% Native American, 0.23% Asian, 0.19% from other races, 0.60% from two or more races.
0.67% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 6,161 households out of which 30.70% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.10% were married couples living together, 9.30% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.30% were non-families. 23.50% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.90% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.49 and the average family size was 2.91. In the county, the population was spread out with 23.40% under the age of 18, 8.70% from 18 to 24, 26.60% from 25 to 44, 26.50% from 45 to 64, 14.80% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females there were 98.00 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.00 males. The median income for a household in the county was $24,511, the median income for a family was $29,280. Males had a median income of $28,738 versus $17,207 for females; the per capita income for the county was $13,195.
About 17.80% of families and 22.60% of the population were below the poverty line, including 32.10% of those under age 18 and 15.50% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 14,926 people, 6,195 households, 4,193 families residing in the county; the population density was 30.9 inhabitants per square mile. There were 7,351 housing units at an average density of 15.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 98.4% white, 0.3% Asian, 0.2% American Indian, 0.1% black or African American, 0.2% from other races, 0.9% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 0.7% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 20.7% were American, 17.9% were Irish, 15.3% were German, 9.1% were English. Of the 6,195 households, 28.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.2% were married couples living together, 9.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.3% were non-families, 27.2% of all households were made up of individuals.
The average household size was 2.39 and the average family size was 2.89. The median age was 43.5 years. The median income for a household in the county was $27,428 and the median income for a family was $35,289. Males had a median income of $32,106 versus $22,914 for females; the per capita income for the county was $15,103. About 21.5% of families and 27.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 41.5% of those under age 18 and 15.5% of those age 65 or over. Spencer Reedy National Register of Historic Places listings in Roane County, West Virginia
West Virginia Route 61
West Virginia Route 61 is a north–south state highway in central and southern West Virginia. The southern terminus of the route is at West Virginia Route 41 in Piney View; the northern terminus is at U. S. Route 60 in Charleston
Fayette County, West Virginia
Fayette County is a county in the U. S. state of West Virginia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 46,039, its county seat is Fayetteville. It is part of WV Metropolitan Statistical Area in Southern West Virginia. Fayette County—originally Fayette County, Virginia—was created by the Virginia General Assembly in February 1831, from parts of Greenbrier, Kanawha and Logan counties, it was named in honor of the Marquis de la Fayette, who had played a key role assisting the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War. The second Virginia county so named, it was among the 50 counties which Virginia lost when West Virginia was admitted to the Union as the 35th state in 1863, during the American Civil War; the earlier Fayette County, Virginia existed from 1780 to 1792, was lost when Kentucky was admitted to the Union. Accordingly, in the government records of Virginia, there will be listings for Fayette County from 1780–1792 and Fayette County from 1831–1863. A substantial portion was subdivided from Fayette County to form Raleigh County in 1850.
In 1871, an Act of the West Virginia Legislature severed a small portion to form part of Summers County. Fayette County was home to a disastrous mine explosion at Red Ash in March 1900, in which 46 miners were killed. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 668 square miles, of which 662 square miles is land and 6.8 square miles is water. Plum Orchard Lake, a reservoir southwest of Oak Hill, is the second largest lake in West Virginia. Nicholas County Greenbrier County Summers County Raleigh County Kanawha County Gauley River National Recreation Area New River Gorge National River As of the census of 2000, there were 47,579 people, 18,945 households, 13,128 families residing in the county; the population density was 72 people per square mile. There were 21,616 housing units at an average density of 33 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 92.74% White, 5.57% Black or African American, 0.27% Native American, 0.30% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.15% from other races, 0.93% from two or more races.
0.68% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 18,945 households out of which 29.00% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.10% were married couples living together, 13.20% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.70% were non-families. 26.90% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.40% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.41 and the average family size was 2.89. In the county, the population was spread out with 21.70% under the age of 18, 9.60% from 18 to 24, 27.10% from 25 to 44, 25.10% from 45 to 64, 16.40% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females there were 98.20 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.70 males. The median income for a household in the county was $24,788, the median income for a family was $30,243. Males had a median income of $28,554 versus $18,317 for females; the per capita income for the county was $13,809.
About 18.20% of families and 21.70% of the population were below the poverty line, including 31.90% of those under age 18 and 13.70% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 46,039 people, 18,813 households, 12,459 families residing in the county; the population density was 69.6 inhabitants per square mile. There were 21,618 housing units at an average density of 32.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 93.5% white, 4.6% black or African American, 0.2% Asian, 0.2% American Indian, 0.2% from other races, 1.3% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 0.9% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 16.9% were German, 15.5% were Irish, 10.8% were English, 9.5% were American. Of the 18,813 households, 28.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.7% were married couples living together, 12.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.8% were non-families, 29.1% of all households were made up of individuals.
The average household size was 2.35 and the average family size was 2.87. The median age was 43.0 years. The median income for a household in the county was $31,912 and the median income for a family was $42,077. Males had a median income of $39,301 versus $24,874 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,082. About 16.4% of families and 21.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 30.9% of those under age 18 and 12.5% of those age 65 or over. Fayette County’s political history is typical of West Virginia as a whole; the county leaned Democratic during the Third Party System before the power of industrial and mining political systems turned it towards the Republican Party between 1880 and 1932. Unionization of its predominant coal mining workforce during the New Deal made the county powerfully Democratic between 1932 and 2008: no Republican in this period except Richard Nixon against the leftist George McGovern won forty percent of the county’s vote, Lyndon Johnson in 1964 exceeded eighty percent against the conservative Barry Goldwater.
However, the decline of mining unions and the out-migration of historical black mining families, has produced a rapid swing to the Republican Party – so that over the past three presidential elections swings to the Republican Party have averaged thirty percentage points and Democratic vote percentages plummeted to levels more typical of Unionist, traditionally Republican counties like Morgan or Upshur. The county has a tradition of coal mining, which still serves as a primary source of employment i
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol